Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

Search results for: mathematics instruction

256 Integrating Computer Games with Mathematics Instruction in Elementary School- An Analysis of Motivation, Achievement, and Pupil-Teacher Interactions

Authors: Kuo Hung Huang, Chong-Ji Ke

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the impacts of computer games on the mathematics instruction. First, the research designed and implemented the web-based games according to the content of existing textbook. And the researcher collected and analyzed the information related to the mathematics instruction integrating the computer games. In this study, the researcher focused on the learning motivation of mathematics, mathematics achievement, and pupil-teacher interactions in classroom. The results showed that students under instruction integrating computer games significantly improved in motivation and achievement. The teacher tended to use less direct teaching and provide more time for student-s active learning.

Keywords: computer games, mathematics instruction, pupil-teacher interaction, technology-enhanced learning

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255 Instruction Resource Recommendation Services for Elementary Schools in Taiwan

Authors: Hong-Ren Chen, Fang-Yu Yeh

Abstract:

In the past, there were more researches of recommendation system in applied electronic commerce. However, because all circles promote information technology integrative instruction actively, the quantity of instruction resources website is more and more increasing on the Internet. But there are less website including recommendation service, especially for teachers. This study established an instruction resource recommendation website that analyzed teaching style of teachers, then provided appropriate instruction resources for teachers immediately. We used the questionnaire survey to realize teacher-s suggestions and satisfactions with the instruction resource contents and recommendation results. The study shows: (1)The website used “Transactional Ability Inventory" that realized teacher-s style and provided appropriate instruction resources for teachers in a short time, it reduced the step of data filter. (2)According to the content satisfaction of questionnaire survey, four styles teachers were almost satisfied with the contents of the instruction resources that the website recommended, thus, the conception of developing instruction resources with different teaching style is accepted. (3) According to the recommendation satisfaction of questionnaire survey, four styles teachers were almost satisfied with the recommendation service of the website, thus, the recommendation strategy that provide different results for teachers in different teaching styles is accepted.

Keywords: Instruction resource, recommendation service, teaching style.

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254 Using Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Comprehension by EFL Students

Authors: Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Metacognitive strategies consistently play important roles in reading comprehension. The metacognitive strategies involve the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of the cognitive processes in relation to the cognitive objects or data on which they bear. In this paper, the effect of instruction in using metacognitive strategies on reading academic materials, type of metacognitive strategies were mostly used by college university students before and after the instruction and the level they use those strategies before and after the instruction were studied. For these aims, 50 female college students were chosen. Then, they were divided randomly into two groups, experimental and control groups. At first session, students in both groups took the standard TOFEL exam. After the pre-test had been administered, the instruction began. After treatment, a post-test was taken. It is useful to state that after pre-test and post-test the same questionnaire was handed to the students of experimental group. The results of this research show that the instruction of metacognitive strategies has positive effect on the students' scores in reading comprehension tests. Furthermore, it showed that before and after the instruction, the students' usage of metacognitive strategies changed. Also, it demonstrated that the instruction affected the students' level of metacognitive strategies' usage.

Keywords: EFL students, English reading comprehension, instruction, metacognitive strategies.

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253 The Computer Multimedia Instruction Package for Welding and Brazing

Authors: C. Mongkol

Abstract:

The objective of this project is to produce computer assisted instruction(CAI) for welding and brazing in order to determine the efficiency of the instruction package and the study accomplishment of learner by studying through computer assisted instruction for welding and brazing it was examined through the target group surveyed from the 30 students studying in the two year of 5-year-academic program, department of production technology education, faculty of industrial education and technology, king mongkut-s university of technology thonburi. The result of the research indicated that the media evaluated by experts and subject matter quality evaluation of computer assisted instruction for welding and brazing was in line for the good criterion. The mean of score evaluated before the study, during the study and after the study was 34.58, 83.33 and 83.43, respectively. The efficiency of the lesson was 83.33/83.43 which was higher than the expected value, 80/80. The study accomplishment of the learner, who utilizes computer assisted instruction for welding and brazing as a media, was higher and equal to the significance statistical level of 95%. The value was 1.669 which was equal to 35.36>1.669. It could be summarized that computer assisted instruction for welding and brazing was the efficient media to use for studying and teaching.

Keywords: Computer Assisted Instruction, Achievement, Efficiency of the lesson, Evaluation

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252 The Influence of Interest, Beliefs, and Identity with Mathematics on Achievement

Authors: Asma Alzahrani, Elizabeth Stojanovski

Abstract:

This study investigated factors that influence mathematics achievement based on a sample of ninth-grade students (N  =  21,444) from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS09). Key aspects studied included efficacy in mathematics, interest and enjoyment of mathematics, identity with mathematics and future utility beliefs and how these influence mathematics achievement. The predictability of mathematics achievement based on these factors was assessed using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Spearman rank correlations and multiple regression analyses indicated positive and statistically significant relationships between the explanatory variables: mathematics efficacy, identity with mathematics, interest in and future utility beliefs with the response variable, achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: Mathematics achievement, math efficacy, mathematics interest, identity.

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251 Classifications of Neuroscientific-Radiological Findings on “Practicing” in Mathematics Learning

Authors: Felicitas Pielsticker, Christoph Pielsticker, Ingo Witzke

Abstract:

Many people know ‘Mathematics needs practice!’ statement or similar ones from their mathematics lessons. It seems important to practice when learning mathematics. At the same time, it also seems important to practice how to learn mathematics. This paper places neuroscientific-radiological findings on “practicing” while learning mathematics in a context of mathematics education. To accomplish this, we use a literature-based discussion of our case study on practice. We want to describe neuroscientific-radiological findings in the context of mathematics education and point out stimulating connections between both perspectives. From a connective perspective we expect incentives that lead discussions in future research in the field of mathematics education.

Keywords: fMRI, education, mathematics learning, practicing.

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250 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, effect size, pragmatics, computer-assisted language learnin, face-to-face instruction, comprehensive meta-analysis software.

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249 UML Modeling for Instruction Pipeline Design

Authors: Vipin Saxena, Deepa Raj

Abstract:

Unified Modeling language (UML) is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of the research problem. In the present paper, UML model is designed for the Instruction pipeline which is used for the evaluation of the instructions of software programs. The class and sequence diagrams are designed & performance is evaluated for instructions of a sample program through a case study.

Keywords: UML, Instruction Pipeline, Class Diagram &Sequence Diagram.

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248 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Flash Animations in Mathematics Lessons

Authors: Esra Bukova-Güzel, Berna Cantürk-Günhan

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to determine secondary prospective mathematics teachers- views related to using flash animations in mathematics lessons and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a case study involving three secondary prospective mathematics teachers from a state university in Turkey. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. Findings revealed that these animations help understand mathematics meaningfully, relate mathematics and real world, visualization, and comprehend the importance of mathematics. The analysis of the data indicated that the sample presentations enhanced participants- views about using flash animations in mathematics lessons.

Keywords: Instructional technology, animations, prospective mathematics teachers.

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247 A Development of Creative Instruction Model through Digital Media

Authors: Kathaleeya Chanda, Panupong Chanplin, Suppara Charoenpoom

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This purposes of the development of creative instruction model through digital media are to: 1) enable learners to learn from instruction media application; 2) help learners implementing instruction media correctly and appropriately; and 3) facilitate learners to apply technology for searching information and practicing skills to implement technology creatively. The sample group consists of 130 cases of secondary students studying in Bo Kluea School, Bo Kluea Nuea Sub-district, Bo Kluea District, Nan Province. The probability sampling was selected through the simple random sampling and the statistics used in this research are percentage, mean, standard deviation and one group pretest – posttest design. The findings are summarized as follows: The congruence index of instruction media for occupation and technology subjects is appropriate. By comparing between learning achievements before implementing the instruction media and learning achievements after implementing the instruction media, it is found that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. For the learning achievements from instruction media implementation, pretest mean is 16.24 while posttest mean is 26.28. Besides, pretest and posttest results are compared and differences of mean are tested, the test results show that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. This can be interpreted that the learners achieve better learning progress.

Keywords: Teaching learning model, digital media, creative instruction model, facilitate learners.

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246 Gender Differences of Elementary Prospective Teachers in Mathematical Beliefs and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

Authors: Ersen Yazıcı, Erhan Ertekin

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In this study, any possible differences between mathematics beliefs and anxiety of prospective elementary mathematics teachers have been investigated according to their gender. In this purpose, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students from a Government University in Turkey were selected as a sample. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MATAS) and Beliefs About Mathematics Survey (BAMS) has been used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it has been observed that prospective male teachers have more instrumentalist approach in learning mathematics than females according to their mathematical beliefs. On the other hand, females have more mathematics teaching anxiety than males especially, for subject knowledge in mathematics and selfconfidence.

Keywords: Mathematical beliefs, mathematics teaching anxiety, gender, prospective elementary mathematics teachers.

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245 Does Training in the Use of a Magnifier Improve Efficiency?

Authors: Norliza Mohamad Fadzil, Kerry Fitzmaurice, Linda Malesic

Abstract:

Provision of optical devices without proper instruction and training may cause frustration resulting in rejection or incorrect use of the magnifiers. However training in the use of magnifiers increases the cost of providing these devices. This study compared the efficacy of providing instruction alone and instruction plus training in the use of magnifiers. 24 participants randomly assigned to two groups. 15 received instruction and training and 9 received instruction only. Repeated measures of print size and reading speed were performed at pre, post training and follow up. Print size decreased in both groups between pre and post training maintained at follow up. Reading speed increased in both groups over time with the training group demonstrating more rapid improvement. Whilst overall outcomes were similar, training decreased the time required to increase reading speed supporting the use of training for increased efficiency. A cost effective form of training is suggested.

Keywords: Low vision, magnification, training, reading.

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244 Students’ Views on Mathematics Learning: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Katsina State of Nigeria

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study students’ view on mathematics learning in Katsina State Senior Secondary Schools of Nigeria, such as their conceptions of mathematics, attitudes toward mathematics learning, etc. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 1,225 senior secondary two (SS II) students of Katsina State in Nigeria. The data collected showed a clear picture of the hurdles that affect the teaching and learning of mathematics in our schools. Problems such as logistics and operational which include shortage of mathematics teachers, non–availability of a mathematics laboratory, etc. were identified. It also depicted the substantial trends of changing views and attitudes toward mathematics across secondary schools. Students’ responses to the conception of mathematics were consistent and they demonstrated some specific characteristics of their views in learning mathematics. This survey has provided useful information regarding students’ needs and aspirations in mathematics learning for curriculum planners and frontline teachers for future curriculum reform and implementation.

Keywords: Attitude, education, mathematics, students.

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243 The Wheel Garden: Project-Based Learning for Cross Curriculum Education

Authors: Sherry S. Herron, Douglas Magomo, Paula Gossard

Abstract:

In this article, we discuss project-based learning in the context of a wheel garden as an instructional tool in science and mathematics education. A wheel garden provides multiple opportunities to teach across the curriculum, to integrate disciplines, and to promote community involvement. Grounded in the theoretical framework of constructivism, the wheel garden provides a multidisciplined educational tool that provides a hands-on, non-traditional arena for learning. We will examine some of the cultural, art, science, and mathematics connections made with this project.

Keywords: Art education, cross-curriculum instruction, multicultural education, project-based learning, school gardens, task based learning.

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242 Instruction and Learning Design Consideration for the Development of Mobile Learning Application

Authors: M. Sarrab, M. Elbasir

Abstract:

The use of information technology in education have changed not only the learners learning style but also the way they taught, where nowadays learners are connected with diversity of information sources with means of knowledge available everywhere. The advantage of network wireless technologies and mobility technologies used in the education and learning processes lead to mobile learning as a new model of learning technology. Currently, most of mobile learning applications are developed for the formal education and learning environment. Despite the long history and large amount of research on mobile learning and instruction design model still there is a need of well-defined process in designing mobile learning applications. Based on this situation, this paper emphasizes on identifying instruction design phase’s considerations and influencing factors in developing mobile learning application. This set of instruction design steps includes analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and continuous has been built from a literature study, with focus on standards for learning, mobile application software quality and guidelines. The effort is part of an Omani-funded research project investigating the development, adoption and dissemination of mobile learning in Oman.

Keywords: Instruction design, mobile learning, mobile application.

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241 A Novel Implementation of Application Specific Instruction-set Processor (ASIP) using Verilog

Authors: Kamaraju.M, Lal Kishore.K, Tilak.A.V.N

Abstract:

The general purpose processors that are used in embedded systems must support constraints like execution time, power consumption, code size and so on. On the other hand an Application Specific Instruction-set Processor (ASIP) has advantages in terms of power consumption, performance and flexibility. In this paper, a 16-bit Application Specific Instruction-set processor for the sensor data transfer is proposed. The designed processor architecture consists of on-chip transmitter and receiver modules along with the processing and controlling units to enable the data transmission and reception on a single die. The data transfer is accomplished with less number of instructions as compared with the general purpose processor. The ASIP core operates at a maximum clock frequency of 1.132GHz with a delay of 0.883ns and consumes 569.63mW power at an operating voltage of 1.2V. The ASIP is implemented in Verilog HDL using the Xilinx platform on Virtex4.

Keywords: ASIP, Data transfer, Instruction set, Processor

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240 Sfard’s Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics

Authors: Dong-Joong Kim, Sangho Choi, Woong Lim

Abstract:

This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are therefore “critical,” as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.

Keywords: Commognitive framework, discourse analysis, mathematical discourse, mathematics education.

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239 Struggles for Integration of the Technologies into Learning Environment in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Karal, Yasemin Aydin, Ömer Faruk Ursavas

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Primary studies are being carried out in Turkey for expanding information and communication technologies (ICT) aided instruction activities. Subject of the present study is to identify whether those studies achieved their goals in the application. Information technologies (IT) formative teachers in the primary schools, and academicians in the faculties of education were interviewed to investigate the process and results of implementing computer-aided instruction methods whose basis is strengthened in theory. Analysis of the results gained from two separate surveys demonstrated that capability of the teachers in elementary education institutions for carrying into effect computer-aided instruction and technical infrastructure has not been established for computer-aided instruction practices yet. Prospective teachers must be well-equipped in ICT to duly fulfill requirements of modern education and also must be self-confident. Finally, scope and intensity of the courses given in connection with teaching of the ICT in faculties of education needs to be revised.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Teacher, Education

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238 Implementation of Interactive Computer Aided Instruction in Learning of Javanese Traditional Classic Dance

Authors: Petrus Sutyasadi, Theresia Suharti

Abstract:

Traditional Javanese classic dance is a valuable inheritance in Java Indonesia. Nowadays, this treasure of culture is no longer belonging to Javanese people only. Many art departments from universities around the world already put this as a subject in their curriculum. Nonetheless, dance is a practical skill. It needs to be practices so often while accompanied by an instructor to get the right technique. An interactive Computer Aided Instruction (iCAI) that can interactively assist the student to practice is developed. By using this software students can conduct a self practice in studio and get some feedbacks from the software. This CAI is not intended to replace the instructor, but to assist them in increasing the student fly-time in practice.

Keywords: Computer Aided Instruction, Javanese classic dance, Accelerometer.

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237 Measuring Teachers- Beliefs about Mathematics: A Fuzzy Set Approach

Authors: M.A. Lazim, M.T.Abu Osman

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This paper deals with the application of a fuzzy set in measuring teachers- beliefs about mathematics. The vagueness of beliefs was transformed into standard mathematical values using a fuzzy preferences model. The study employed a fuzzy approach questionnaire which consists of six attributes for measuring mathematics teachers- beliefs about mathematics. The fuzzy conjoint analysis approach based on fuzzy set theory was used to analyze the data from twenty three mathematics teachers from four secondary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia. Teachers- beliefs were recorded in form of degrees of similarity and its levels of agreement. The attribute 'Drills and practice is one of the best ways of learning mathematics' scored the highest degree of similarity at 0. 79860 with level of 'strongly agree'. The results showed that the teachers- beliefs about mathematics were varied. This is shown by different levels of agreement and degrees of similarity of the measured attributes.

Keywords: belief, membership function, degree of similarity, conjoint analysis

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236 Learning Undergraduate Mathematics in a Discovery-Enriched Approach

Authors: Kam-moon Liu, Kwok-chi Chim, Kwok-wai Chung, Daniel Wing-cheong Ho

Abstract:

Students often adopt routine practicing as learning strategy for mathematics. The reason is they are often bound and trained to solving conventional-typed questions in Mathematics in high school. This will be problematic if students further consolidate this practice in university. Therefore, the Department of Mathematics emphasized and integrated the Discovery-enriched approach in the undergraduate curriculum. This paper presents the details of implementing the Discovery-enriched Curriculum by providing adequate platform for project-learning, expertise for guidance and internship opportunities for students majoring in Mathematics. The Department also provided project-learning opportunities to mathematics courses targeted for students majoring in other science or engineering disciplines. The outcome is promising: the research ability and problem solving skills of students are enhanced.

Keywords: Discovery-enriched curriculum, higher education, mathematics education, project learning.

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235 Measuring Cognitive Load - A Solution to Ease Learning of Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Learning programming is difficult for many learners. Some researches have found that the main difficulty relates to cognitive load. Cognitive overload happens in programming due to the nature of the subject which is intrinisicly over-bearing on the working memory. It happens due to the complexity of the subject itself. The problem is made worse by the poor instructional design methodology used in the teaching and learning process. Various efforts have been proposed to reduce the cognitive load, e.g. visualization softwares, part-program method etc. Use of many computer based systems have also been tried to tackle the problem. However, little success has been made to alleviate the problem. More has to be done to overcome this hurdle. This research attempts at understanding how cognitive load can be managed so as to reduce the problem of overloading. We propose a mechanism to measure the cognitive load during pre instruction, post instruction and in instructional stages of learning. This mechanism is used to help the instruction. As the load changes the instruction is made to adapt itself to ensure cognitive viability. This mechanism could be incorporated as a sub domain in the student model of various computer based instructional systems to facilitate the learning of programming.

Keywords: Cognitive load, Working memory, Cognitive Loadmeasurement.

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234 Development of Researcher Knowledge in Mathematics Education: Towards a Confluence Framework

Authors: I. Kontorovich, R. Zazkis

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We present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher decision making. The components of the framework originated from a confluence between constructs and theories in Mathematics Education, Higher Education and Sociology. Drawing on a self-reflective interview with a leading researcher in mathematics education, Professor Michèle Artigue, we illustrate how the framework can be utilized in data analysis. Criteria for framework evaluation are discussed.

Keywords: Community of practice, knowledge development, mathematics education research, researcher knowledge.

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233 The Cooperative Learning Management in the Course of Principles of Mathematics for Graduate Level

Authors: Komon Paisal

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to create collaborative learning activities in the course of Principles of Mathematics for graduate level by investigating the students’ ability in proving the mathematics principles as well as their attitudes towards the activities. The samples composed of 2 main group; lecturers and students. The lecturers consisted of 3 teachers who taught the course of Principles of Mathematics at Rajabhat Suan Sunandha Unicersity in the academic year 2012. The students consisted of 32 students joining the cooperative learning activities in the subject of Principles of Mathematics in the academic year 2012. The research tools included activity plan for cooperative learning, testing on mathematics with the reliability of 0.8067 and the attitude questionnaires reported by the students. The results showed that: 1) the efficiency of the developed cooperative learning activities was 69.76/ 68.57 which was lower than the set criteria at 70/70. 2) The students joining the cooperative learning activities were able to prove the principles of mathematics at the average of 70%. 3) The students joining the cooperative learning activities reported moderate attitude towards the activities.

Keywords: Instructional Design, Pedagogical, Teaching/ Learning Strategies.

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232 Supplementary JAVA Programming Course for e-Learning with Small-Group Instruction

Authors: Eiko Takaoka, Yuji Osawa

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We have designed and implemented e-Learning materials for a JAVA programming course since 2004 and have found that “normal” students, meaning motivated and capable students, can successfully learn the course material taught in a fully online manner. However, for “weaker” students, meaning those lacking motivation, experience, and/or aptitude, the results have been unsatisfactory, and such students thus fall into the supplementary category. From 2007 to 2008, we offered a face-to-face class with small-group instruction for the weaker students, while we provided the fully online course for the normal students. Consequently, we succeeded in helping the weaker students to overcome their programming phobia and develop the ability to create basic programs.

Keywords: e-learning, JAVA Programming Course, Small-Group Instruction, Supplementary.

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231 The Construction of Interactive Computer Multimedia Instruction on “Basic Japanese Vocabulary“

Authors: Kongrit Jittangthammagul, Sakesun Yampinij, Thapanee Endoo, Nattapong Kramwong

Abstract:

The study entitled “The Construction of Interactive Computer Multimedia Instruction on Basic Japanese Vocabulary" was aimed: 1) To construct the interactive computer multimedia instruction on Basic Japanese Vocabulary, 2) To find out multimedia-s quality, 3) To examine the student-s satisfaction and 4) To study the learning achievement in Basic Japanese vocabulary. The sampling group used in this study was composed of 40 1st year student in Educational Communications and Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi, in the academic year 2553 B.E. (2010). According to research results, we found that 1). The quality assessment by 3 mass media experts was at 4.72 on average or at high level. 2) In terms of contents, the evaluation by 3 experts was at 4.81 on average or at high level. 3) In terms of achievement, there was a statistical significance between before and after the treatment at the .05 level. 4) The satisfaction of students towards the interactive computer multimedia Instruction on “Basic Japanese Vocabulary" was 4.35 on average, or at high level.

Keywords: Interactive Computer Multimedia on Basic Japanese Vocabulary, Learning Achievement, Quality

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230 The Views of Elementary Mathematics Education Preservice Teachers on Proving

Authors: Belma Turker, Cigdem Alkas, Ebru Aylar, Ramazan Gurel, Oylum Akkus Ispir

Abstract:

This study has been prepared with the purpose to get the views of senior class Elementary Education Mathematics preservice teachers on proving. Data have been obtained via surveys and interviews carried out with 104 preservice teachers. According to the findings, although preservice teachers have positive views about using proving in mathematics teaching, it is seen that their experiences related to proving is limited to courses and they think proving is a work done only for the exams. Furthermore, they have expressed in the interviews that proving is difficult for them, and because of this reason they prefer memorizing instead of learning.

Keywords: Belief on Proving, Mathematics Education, Proof.

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229 Leveraging Reasoning through Discourse: A Case Study in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms

Authors: Cory A. Bennett

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Teaching and learning through the use of discourse support students’ conceptual understanding by attending to key concepts and relationships. One discourse structure used in primary classrooms is number talks wherein students mentally calculate, discuss, and reason about the appropriateness and efficiency of their strategies. In the secondary mathematics classroom, the mathematics understudy does not often lend itself to mental calculations yet learning to reason, and articulate reasoning, is central to learning mathematics. This qualitative case study discusses how one secondary school in the Middle East adapted the number talk protocol for secondary mathematics classrooms. Several challenges in implementing ‘reasoning talks’ became apparent including shifting current discourse protocols and practices to a more student-centric model, accurately recording and probing student thinking, and specifically attending to reasoning rather than computations.

Keywords: Discourse, reasoning, secondary mathematics, teacher development.

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228 Application-Specific Instruction Sets Processor with Implicit Registers to Improve Register Bandwidth

Authors: Ginhsuan Li, Chiuyun Hung, Desheng Chen, Yiwen Wang

Abstract:

Application-Specific Instruction (ASI ) set Processors (ASIP) have become an important design choice for embedded systems due to runtime flexibility, which cannot be provided by custom ASIC solutions. One major bottleneck in maximizing ASIP performance is the limitation on the data bandwidth between the General Purpose Register File (GPRF) and ASIs. This paper presents the Implicit Registers (IRs) to provide the desirable data bandwidth. An ASI Input/Output model is proposed to formulate the overheads of the additional data transfer between the GPRF and IRs, therefore, an IRs allocation algorithm is used to achieve the better performance by minimizing the number of extra data transfer instructions. The experiment results show an up to 3.33x speedup compared to the results without using IRs.

Keywords: Application-Specific Instruction-set Processors, data bandwidth, configurable processor, implicit register.

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227 Enhancing Teaching of Engineering Mathematics

Authors: Tajinder Pal Singh

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Teaching of mathematics to engineering students is an open ended problem in education. The main goal of mathematics learning for engineering students is the ability of applying a wide range of mathematical techniques and skills in their engineering classes and later in their professional work. Most of the undergraduate engineering students and faculties feels that no efforts and attempts are made to demonstrate the applicability of various topics of mathematics that are taught thus making mathematics unavoidable for some engineering faculty and their students. The lack of understanding of concepts in engineering mathematics may hinder the understanding of other concepts or even subjects. However, for most undergraduate engineering students, mathematics is one of the most difficult courses in their field of study. Most of the engineering students never understood mathematics or they never liked it because it was too abstract for them and they could never relate to it. A right balance of application and concept based teaching can only fulfill the objectives of teaching mathematics to engineering students. It will surely improve and enhance their problem solving and creative thinking skills. In this paper, some practical (informal) ways of making mathematics-teaching application based for the engineering students is discussed. An attempt is made to understand the present state of teaching mathematics in engineering colleges. The weaknesses and strengths of the current teaching approach are elaborated. Some of the causes of unpopularity of mathematics subject are analyzed and a few pragmatic suggestions have been made. Faculty in mathematics courses should spend more time discussing the applications as well as the conceptual underpinnings rather than focus solely on strategies and techniques to solve problems. They should also introduce more ‘word’ problems as these problems are commonly encountered in engineering courses. Overspecialization in engineering education should not occur at the expense of (or by diluting) mathematics and basic sciences. The role of engineering education is to provide the fundamental (basic) knowledge and to teach the students simple methodology of self-learning and self-development. All these issues would be better addressed if mathematics and engineering faculty join hands together to plan and design the learning experiences for the students who take their classes. When faculties stop competing against each other and start competing against the situation, they will perform better. Without creating any administrative hassles these suggestions can be used by any young inexperienced faculty of mathematics to inspire engineering students to learn engineering mathematics effectively.

Keywords: Application based learning, conceptual learning, engineering mathematics, word problem.

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