Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Aerobic conditions

14 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH4 emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH4 emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH4 emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Emissions, methane, Solid Waste, landfills

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13 Investigating the Process Kinetics and Nitrogen Gas Production in Anammox Hybrid Reactor with Special Emphasis on the Role of Filter Media

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Anammox is a novel and promising technology that has changed the traditional concept of biological nitrogen removal. The process facilitates direct oxidation of ammonical nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without addition of external carbon sources. The present study investigated the feasibility of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) combining the dual advantages of suspended and attached growth media for biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. Experimental unit consisted of 4 nos. of 5L capacity AHR inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge (1:1). The process was established by feeding the reactors with synthetic wastewater containing NH4-H and NO2-N in the ratio 1:1 at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to higher ammonium concentration till it attained pseudo steady state removal at a total nitrogen concentration of 1200 mg/l. During this period, the performance of the AHR was monitored at twelve different HRTs varying from 0.25-3.0 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. AHR demonstrated significantly higher nitrogen removal (95.1%) at optimal HRT of 1 day. Filter media in AHR contributed an additional 27.2% ammonium removal in addition to 72% reduction in the sludge washout rate. This may be attributed to the functional mechanism of filter media which acts as a mechanical sieve and reduces the sludge washout rate many folds. This enhances the biomass retention capacity of the reactor by 25%, which is the key parameter for successful operation of high rate bioreactors. The effluent nitrate concentration, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process was also minimised significantly (42.3-52.3 mg/L). Process kinetics was evaluated using first order and Grau-second order models. The first-order substrate removal rate constant was found as 13.0 d-1. Model validation revealed that Grau second order model was more precise and predicted effluent nitrogen concentration with least error (1.84±10%). A new mathematical model based on mass balance was developed to predict N2 gas in AHR. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen dictated significantly higher correlation (R2=0.986) and predicted N2 gas with least error of precision (0.12±8.49%). SEM study of biomass indicated the presence of heterogeneous population of cocci and rod shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2-1.5 mm. Owing to enhanced NRE coupled with meagre production of effluent nitrate and its ability to retain high biomass, AHR proved to be the most competitive reactor configuration for dealing with nitrogen laden wastewater.

Keywords: Kinetics, filter media, nitrogen removal, anammox

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12 Qualitative Characteristics of Meat from Lambs Fed Hydrolyzed Sugarcane

Authors: V. Endo, A. G. Silva Sobrinho, F. A. Almeida, N. L. L. Lima, G. M. Manzi, L. G. A. Cirne, N. M. B. L. Zeola

Abstract:

We used 24 Ile de France lambs, weighing between 15 and 32 kg (BW). Treatments were supplemented with concentrate: “in nature” sugarcane (IN), sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO) under aerobic condition (AER), and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA), constituting a completely randomized design with eight repetitions per treatment. Lambs were housed in individual stalls and fed into the through, allowing 10% of leftovers. Lambs were slaughtered when body weight reached 32 kg. The following parameters were determined on Longissimu lumborum muscle of hot and cold carcasses: pH and color, 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughtering. Qualitative analysis of the meat were performed in the loins, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF). We used a completely randomized design with three treatments and eight repetitions. Means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. A higher value for redness (a*) 45 minutes after slaughter (10.48) were found for lambs fed hydrolyzed under anaerobic conditions sugarcane. The other qualitative characteristics of meat were not affected by treatments (P >0.05). The comparison of meat quality resulting from the treatments shows that it is possible to feed in nature sugarcane to lambs, thus waiving hydrolyses process and the spending with alkalizing agent.

Keywords: Meat Quality, Hydrolysis, calcium oxide

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11 Enzyme Involvement in the Biosynthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles by Geobacillus wiegelii Strain GWE1 Isolated from a Drying Oven

Authors: Daniela N. Correa-Llantén, Sebastián A. Muñoz-Ibacache, Mathilde Maire, Jenny M. Blamey

Abstract:

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms, on the contrary to chemical synthesis, is an environmentally-friendly process which has low energy requirements. In this investigation, we used the microorganism Geobacillus wiegelii, strain GWE1, an aerobic thermophile belonging to genus Geobacillus, isolated from a drying oven. This microorganism has the ability to reduce selenite evidenced by the change of color from colorless to red in the culture. Elemental analysis and composition of the particles were verified using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The nanoparticles have a defined spherical shape and a selenium elemental state. Previous experiments showed that the presence of the whole microorganism for the reduction of selenite was not necessary. The results strongly suggested that an intracellular NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase mediates selenium nanoparticles synthesis under aerobic conditions. The enzyme was purified and identified by mass spectroscopy MALDI-TOF TOF technique. The enzyme is a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. Histograms of nanoparticles sizes were obtained. Size distribution ranged from 40-160 nm, where 70% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. Spectroscopic analysis showed that the nanoparticles are composed of elemental selenium. To analyse the effect of pH in size and morphology of nanoparticles, the synthesis of them was carried out at different pHs (4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0). For thermostability studies samples were incubated at different temperatures (60, 80 and 100 ºC) for 1 h and 3 h. The size of all nanoparticles was less than 100 nm at pH 4.0; over 50% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm at pH 5.0; at pH 6.0 and 8.0 over 90% of nanoparticles have less than 100 nm in size. At neutral pH (7.0) nanoparticles reach a size around 120 nm and only 20% of them were less than 100 nm. When looking at temperature effect, nanoparticles did not show a significant difference in size when they were incubated between 0 and 3 h at 60 ºC. Meanwhile at 80 °C the nanoparticles suspension lost its homogeneity. A change in size was observed from 0 h of incubation at 80ºC, observing a size range between 40-160 nm, with 20% of them over 100 nm. Meanwhile after 3 h of incubation at size range changed to 60-180 nm with 50% of them over 100 nm. At 100 °C the nanoparticles aggregate forming nanorod structures. In conclusion, these results indicate that is possible to modulate size and shape of biologically synthesized nanoparticles by modulating pH and temperature.

Keywords: genus Geobacillus, selenium nanoparticles, NADPH/NADH-dependent reductase

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10 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal. 

Keywords: batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite, At. ferrooxidans

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9 Application of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in Desulfurization of US Coal: 10 L Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, S. Singh, H. Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

The desulfurization of coal using biological methods is an emerging technology. The biodesulfurization process uses the catalytic activity of chemolithotrophic acidpohiles in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 10 L batch stirred tank reactor having 10% pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. After 35 days of experiment, about 64% of pyrite and 21% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The findings of the present study indicate that the biodesulfurization process does have potential in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of about 5% showing its feasibility for large scale application.

Keywords: batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite, At.ferrroxidans

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8 A Green Chemical Technique for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetotactic Bacteria

Authors: Parisa Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi, Ahmad Nozad-Golikand, Majid Sadeghizadeh

Abstract:

Bacterial magnetic nanoparticles have great useful potential in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this study, a liquid growth medium was modified for cultivation a fastidious magnetotactic bacterium that has been isolated from Anzali lagoon, Iran in our previous research. These modifications include change in vitamin, mineral, carbon sources and etcetera. In our experience, the serum bottles and designed air-tight laboratory bottles were used to create microaerobic conditions in order to development of a method for scale-up experiment. This information may serve as a guide to green chemistry based biological protocols for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with control over the chemical composition, morphology and size.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Nano-Biotechnology

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7 Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation

Authors: H. Jusoh, N. Sapari, R.Z. Raja Azie

Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

Keywords: Iron, Hydrogen Sulfide, Chemical Kinetics, anaerobic, rate constant

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6 Mycoflora of Activated Sludge with MBRs in Berlin, Germany

Authors: Mohamed F. Awad, M. Kraume

Abstract:

Thirty six samples from each (aerobic and anoxic) activated sludge were collected from two wastewater treatment plants with MBRs in Berlin, Germany. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungal isolates; these isolates were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Sixty tow species belonging to 28 genera were isolated from activated sludge samples under aerobic conditions (28 genera and 58 species) and anoxic conditions (26 genera and 52 species). The obtained data show that, Aspergillus was found at 94.4% followed by Penicillium 61.1 %, Fusarium (61.1 %), Trichoderma (44.4 %) and Geotrichum candidum (41.6 %) species were the most prevalent in all activated sludge samples. The study confirmed that fungi can thrive in activated sludge and sporulation, but isolated in different numbers depending on the effect of aeration system. Some fungal species in our study are saprophytic, and other a pathogenic to plants and animals.

Keywords: Fungi, Membrane Bioreactors, aerobic, activated sludge, Anoxic conditions

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5 Micro-aerobic, Anaerobic and Two-stage Condition for Ethanol Production by enterobacter aerogenes from Biodiesel-derived Crude Glycerol

Authors: Kanokrat Saisaard, Irini Angelidaki, Poonsuk Prasertsan

Abstract:

The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel¬derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol production (20.7 g/L) as well as the ethanol yield (0.47 g/g glycerol) than anaerobic conditions (1.2 g/L DCW, 6.3 g/L ethanol and 0.72 g/g glycerol, respectively). Crude glycerol (100 g/L) was consumed completely with the rate of 1.80 g/L/h. Two-stage fermentation (combination of micro-aerobic and anaerobic condition) exhibited higher ethanol production (24.5 g/L) than using one-stage fermentation (either micro-aerobic or anaerobic condition. The two- stage configuration, exhibited slightly higher crude glycerol consumption rate (1.81 g/L/h), as well as ethanol yield (0.56 g/g) than the one-stage configuration. Therefore, two-stage process was selected for ethanol production from E. aerogenes TISTR1468 in scale-up studies.

Keywords: Ethanol, crude glycerol, Enterobacter aerogenes, micro-aerobic, two-stage

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4 The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs

Authors: Mohamed F. Awad, M. Kraume

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.

Keywords: Fungi, membrane bioreactor, Aerobic conditions, Anoxic conditions, Activated sludge

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3 Effect of Process Parameters on Aerobic Decolourization of Reactive Azo Dye using Mixed Culture

Authors: Kapil Kumar, M. G. Dastidar, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the potential of aerobic mixed culture for decolourization of Remazol Black B dye in batch reactors. The effect of pH, temperature, inoculum, initial concentration of dye and initial concentration of glucose was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolourization and degradation. The culture exhibited maximum decolourization ability at pH between 7-8 and at 30°C. A 10% (v/v) inoculum and 1% (w/v) glucose concentration were found to be the optimum for decolourization. A maximum of 98% decolourization was observed at 25 ppm initial concentration of dye after 18 hours of incubation period. At higher dye concentration of 300 ppm, the removal in colour was found to be 75% in 48 hours of incubation period. The results show that the enriched mixed culture from activated sludge has good potential in removal of Remazol Black B dye from wastewater under aerobic conditions.

Keywords: Mixed Culture, decolourization, Aerobic conditions, Remazol Black B

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2 Pentachlorophenol Removal via Adsorption and Biodegradation

Authors: Rakmi Abd.-Rahman, Nurina Anuar

Abstract:

Removal of PCP by a system combining biodegradation by biofilm and adsorption was investigated here. Three studies were conducted employing batch tests, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and continuous biofilm activated carbon column reactor (BACCOR). The combination of biofilm-GAC batch process removed about 30% more PCP than GAC adsorption alone. For the SBR processes, both the suspended and attached biomass could remove more than 90% of the PCP after acclimatisation. BACCOR was able to remove more than 98% of PCP-Na at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, at empty bed contact time (EBCT) ranging from 0.75 to 4 hours. Pure and mixed cultures from BACCOR were tested for use of PCP as sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. The isolates were able to degrade up to 42% of PCP under aerobic conditions in pure cultures. However, mixed cultures were found able to degrade more than 99% PCP indicating interdependence of species.

Keywords: Identification, biodegradation, Adsorption, pentachlorophenol, isolated bacteria

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1 Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

Authors: S. W. Hong, Y. S. Choi, T. H. Chung, J. H. Song, H. S. Kim

Abstract:

Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter (SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM. The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e., humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits: non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.

Keywords: Remediation, Sediment, microbial fuel cell, Anaerobic oxidation

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