Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Ground granulated blast furnace slag

10 The Development of a Low Carbon Cementitious Material Produced from Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and High Calcium Fly Ash

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hassnen M. Jafer, Anmar Dulaimi, William Atherton, Ali Al-Rifaie

Abstract:

This research represents experimental work for investigation of the influence of utilising Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and High Calcium Fly Ash (HCFA) as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and produce a low carbon cementitious material with comparable compressive strength to OPC. Firstly, GGBS was used as a partial replacement to OPC to produce a binary blended cementitious material (BBCM); the replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of OPC. The optimum BBCM was mixed with HCFA to produce a ternary blended cementitious material (TBCM). The replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of BBCM. The compressive strength at ages of 7 and 28 days was utilised for assessing the performance of the test specimens in comparison to the reference mixture using 100% OPC as a binder. The results showed that the optimum BBCM was the mix produced from 25% GGBS and 75% OPC with compressive strength of 32.2 MPa at the age of 28 days. In addition, the results of the TBCM have shown that the addition of 10, 15, 20 and 25% of HCFA to the optimum BBCM improved the compressive strength by 22.7, 11.3, 5.2 and 2.1% respectively at 28 days. However, the replacement of optimum BBCM with more than 25% HCFA have showed a gradual drop in the compressive strength in comparison to the control mix. TBCM with 25% HCFA was considered to be the optimum as it showed better compressive strength than the control mix and at the same time reduced the amount of cement to 56%. Reducing the cement content to 56% will contribute to decrease the cost of construction materials, provide better compressive strength and also reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Keywords: Cementitious material, compressive strength, GGBS, HCFA, OPC.

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9 Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete

Authors: Abdulkarim Mohammed Iliyasu, Mahmud Abba Tahir

Abstract:

Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.

Keywords: Concrete, conductance, deterioration, freezing and thawing, ordinary Portland cement.

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8 Effect of Alkaline Activator, Water, Superplasticiser and Slag Contents on the Compressive Strength and Workability of Slag-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar Cured under Ambient Temperature

Authors: M. Al-Majidi, A. Lampropoulos, A. Cundy

Abstract:

Geopolymer (cement-free) concrete is the most promising green alternative to ordinary Portland cement concrete and other cementitious materials. While a range of different geopolymer concretes have been produced, a common feature of these concretes is heat curing treatment which is essential in order to provide sufficient mechanical properties in the early age. However, there are several practical issues with the application of heat curing in large-scale structures. The purpose of this study is to develop cement-free concrete without heat curing treatment. Experimental investigations were carried out in two phases. In the first phase (Phase A), the optimum content of water, polycarboxylate based superplasticizer contents and potassium silicate activator in the mix was determined. In the second stage (Phase B), the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) incorporation on the compressive strength of fly ash (FA) and Slag based geopolymer mixtures was evaluated. Setting time and workability were also conducted alongside with compressive tests. The results showed that as the slag content was increased the setting time was reduced while the compressive strength was improved. The obtained compressive strength was in the range of 40-50 MPa for 50% slag replacement mixtures. Furthermore, the results indicated that increment of water and superplasticizer content resulted to retarding of the setting time and slight reduction of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the examined mixes was considerably increased as potassium silicate content was increased.

Keywords: Fly ash, geopolymer, potassium silicate, room temperature treatment, slag.

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7 Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi

Abstract:

Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix.  In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.

Keywords: Fibre reinforced polymer materials, ground granulated blast furnace slag, high-alumina cement, hybrid fibres.

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6 Early-Age Structural and Thermal Performance of GGBS Concrete

Authors: Kangkang Tang

Abstract:

A large amount of blast furnace slag is generated in China. Most ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) however ends up in low-grade applications. Blast furnace slag, ground to an appropriate fineness, can be used as a partial replacement of cementitious material in concrete. The potential for using GGBS in structural concrete, e.g. concrete beams and columns is investigated at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU). With 50% of CEM I cement replaced with GGBS, peak hydration temperatures determined in a suspended concrete slab reduced by 20%. This beneficiary effect has not been further improved with 70% of CEM I replaced with GGBS. Partial replacement of CEM I with GGBS has a retardation effect on the early-age strength of concrete. More GGBS concrete mixes will be conducted to identify an ‘optimum’ replacement level which will lead to a reduced thermal loading, without significantly compromising the early-age strength of concrete.

Keywords: GGBS, thermal effect, sustainable construction, CEM I.

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5 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies

Abstract:

In this study, the Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

Keywords: Pulverised Fuel Ash, Rice Husk Ash, heating and cooling, concrete.

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4 SELF-Cured Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Mixes- An Experimental Study

Authors: Mithun B. M., Mattur C. Narasimhan

Abstract:

Alkali Activated Slag Concrete (AASC) mixes are manufactured by activating ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions. The aim of the present experimental research was to investigate the effect of increasing the dosages of sodium oxide (Na2O, in the range of 4 to 8%) and the activator modulus (Ms) (i.e. the SiO2/Na2O ratio, in the range of 0.5 to 1.5) of the alkaline solutions, on the workability and strength characteristics of self-cured (air-cured) alkali activated Indian slag concrete mixes. Further the split tensile and flexure strengths for optimal mixes were studied for each dosage of Na2O.It is observed that increase in Na2O concentration increases the compressive, split-tensile and flexural strengths, both at the early and later-ages, while increase in Ms, decreases the workability of the mixes. An optimal Ms of 1.25 is found at various Na2O dosages. No significant differences in the strength performances were observed between AASCs manufactured with alkali solutions prepared using either of potable and de-ionized water.

Keywords: Alkali activated slag, self-curing, strength characteristics.

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3 A Prospective Study on Alkali Activated Bottom Ash-GGBS Blend in Paver Blocks

Authors: V. Revathi, J. Thaarrini, M. Venkob Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on use of alkali activated bottom ash (BA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) blend in paver blocks. A preliminary effort on alkali-activated bottom ash, blast furnace slag based geopolymer (BA-GGBS-GP) mortar with river sand was carried out to identify the suitable mix for paver block. Several mixes were proposed based on the combination of BA-GGBS. The percentage ratio of BA: GGBS was selected as 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 for the source material. Sodium based alkaline activators were used for activation. The molarity of NaOH was considered as 8M. The molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O was varied from 1 to 4. Two curing mode such as ambient and steam curing 60°C for 24 hours were selected. The properties of paver block such as compressive strength split tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption were evaluated as per IS15658:2006. Based on the preliminary study on BA-GGBS-GP mortar, the combinations of 25% BA with 75% GGBS mix for M30 and 75% BA with 25% GGBS mix for M35 grade were identified for paver block. Test results shows that the combination of BA-GGBS geopolymer paver blocks attained remarkable compressive strength under steam curing as well as in ambient mode at 3 days. It is noteworthy to know BA-GGBS-GP has promising future in the construction industry.

Keywords: Bottom ash, GGBS, alkali activation, paver block.

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2 Durability of Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

Authors: T. Ayub, N. Shafiq, S. U. Khan, M. F. Nuruddin

Abstract:

Several review papers exist in literature related to the concrete containing mineral admixtures; however this paper reviews the durability characteristics of the concrete containing fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK) and rice husk ash (RHA). Durability related properties reviewed include permeability, resistance to sulfate attack, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), carbonation, chloride ion penetration, freezing and thawing, abrasion, fire, acid and efflorescence. From review of existing literature, it is found that permeability of concrete depends upon the content of alumina in mineral admixtures, i.e. higher the alumina content, lesser the permeability which results higher resistance to sulfate and chloride ion penetration. Highly reactive mineral admixtures prevent more ASR and reduce efflorescence. The carbonation increases with the mineral admixtures because higher water binder ratio and lesser content of portlandite in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction. Mineral admixtures require air entrainment except MK and RHA for better resistance to freezing and thawing.

Keywords: Alkali silica reaction, carbonation, durability, mineral admixture, permeability.

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1 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

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