Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Bambusa vulgaris

26 Gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris for Development of Laminated Panels

Authors: Daisy Biswas, Samar Kanti Bose, M. Mozaffar Hossain

Abstract:

The development of value added composite products from bamboo with the application of gluing technology can play a vital role in economic development and also in forest resource conservation of any country. In this study, the gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris, two locally grown bamboo species of Bangladesh was assessed. As the culm wall thickness of bamboos decreases from bottom to top, a culm portion of up to 5.4 m and 3.6 m were used from the base of B. balcooa and B. vulgaris, respectively, to get rectangular strips of uniform thickness. The color of the B. vulgaris strips was yellowish brown and that of B. balcooa was reddish brown. The strips were treated in borax-boric, bleaching and carbonization for extending the service life of the laminates. The preservative treatments changed the color of the strips. Borax–boric acid treated strips were reddish brown. When bleached with hydrogen peroxide, the color of the strips turned into whitish yellow. Carbonization produced dark brownish strips having coffee flavor. Chemical constituents for untreated and treated strips were determined. B. vulgaris was more acidic than B. balcooa. Then the treated strips were used to develop three-layered bamboo laminated panel. Urea formaldehyde (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) were used as binder. The shear strength and abrasive resistance of the panel were evaluated. It was found that the shear strength of the UF-panel was higher than the PVA-panel for all treatments. Between the species, gluability of B. vulgaris was better and in some cases better than hardwood species. The abrasive resistance of B. balcooa is slightly higher than B. vulgaris; however, the latter was preferred as it showed well gluability. The panels could be used as structural panel, floor tiles, flat pack furniture component, and wall panel etc. However, further research on durability and creep behavior of the product in service condition is warranted.

Keywords: Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa vulgaris, polyvinyl acetate, urea formaldehyde.

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25 Extraction Condition of Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Jutarat Manatwiyangkool, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Theoptimal extraction condition of dried Phaseolus vulgaris powderwas studied. The three independent variables are raw material concentration, shaking and centrifugaltime. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and alphaamylase enzyme inhibition activity. The experimental design was based on box-behnkendesign. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at concentration of 1, 0,1, concentration of 0.15 M ,extraction time for 2hour, and separationtime for60 min. Moreover, the crude extract with highest alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition activityoccurred by extraction condition at concentration of 0.10 M, extraction time for 2 min, and separation time for 45 min

Keywords: Extraction time, Optimal condition, Alpha-amylase enzymeinhibition activity

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24 Some Biological and Molecular Characterization of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus Isolated from Soybean in Tehran Province, Iran

Authors: F. S. Abtahi, M. Koohi Hbibi, M. Khodaei Motlagh

Abstract:

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus causes serious economic losses in Iran in many leguminoses. During 20008, samples were collected from soybeans fields in Tehran Province. Four isolates (S1, S2 and S3) were inoculated on 15 species of Cucurbitaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Solanacae and Leguminosae. Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. Did not developed any symptoms.all isolates caused mosaic symptoms on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney and P. vulgaris cv. Bountiful. The molecular weights of coat protein using SDS-PAGE and western blotting were estimated at 33 kDa. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by L. XU et al. An approximately 920 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

Keywords: ELISA, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, BCMNV.

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23 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Synergistic impact, optimization, CO2 biofixation, airlift reactor.

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22 Biplot Analysis for Evaluation of Tolerance in Some Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)

Authors: S. Ghasemi, M. M. Kamelmanesh, A. Namayandeh, R. Biabanikhankahdani

Abstract:

The common bean is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world and BCMV is one of the world's most serious bean diseases that can reduce yield and quality of harvested product. To determine the best tolerance index to BCMV and recognize tolerant genotypes, 2 experiments were conducted in field conditions. Twenty five common bean genotypes were sown in 2 separate RCB design with 3 replications under contamination and non-contamination conditions. On the basis of the results of indices correlations GMP, MP and HARM were determined as the most suitable tolerance indices. The results of principle components analysis indicated 2 first components totally explained 98.52% of variations among data. The first and second components were named potential yield and stress susceptible respectively. Based on the results of BCMV tolerance indices assessment and biplot analysis WA8563-4, WA8563-2 and Cardinal were the genotypes that exhibited potential seed yield under contamination and noncontamination conditions.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, BCMV, principle components analysis, bi-plot analysis, tolerance.

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21 Inheritance of Primary Yield Component Traits of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Number of Seeds per Pod and 1000 Seed Weight in an 8X8 Diallel Cross Population

Authors: Atnaf Tiruneh Mulugeta, Mohammed Ali Hussein, Zelleke Habtamu

Abstract:

Thirty six genotypes (8 parents and 28 F1 diallel crosses) were grown in randomized complete block design during 2006 at Mandura, North western Ethiopia. The experiment was executed to study the inheritance of two primary yield component traits: number of seeds per pod and 1000 seed weight. Statistical significant difference was observed between genotypes, parents, and crosses for these traits. The mean square due to GCA was significant for the two traits. However, SCA mean square was significant only for number of seeds per pod. Thus both additive and non-additive types of gene actions were important in the inheritance of number of seeds per pod. Significant b1 component was obtained for this trait. The b2 and b3 components, however, were not significant, suggesting the absence of gene asymmetry. From Wr/Vr graph, inheritance of seeds per pod was governed by partial dominance with additive gene action.

Keywords: Diallel crosses, General combining ability, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Specific combining ability

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20 Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Resistant Starch Content, and Pasting Properties of Different Colored Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Authors: S. Sasanam, T. Paseephol, A. Moongngarm

Abstract:

Four different colors of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (black, white, red and black/white speckled) and red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used to evaluate proximate compositions, starch content, and pasting properties. There were no significant differences of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and carbohydrate contents of all bean types. The kidney bean had significantly lower amounts of total starch and solubilized starch compared to those of other cowpeas (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the red cowpea and red kidney bean had highest content of resistant starch (9-10%). Decortication indicated no significant effect on the proximate compositions of all samples, but it significantly decreased the resistant starch content in cowpeas and increased the solubilized starch and total starch content in all types of cowpeas. The highest values of pasting properties, generally observed in flours obtained from black and black/white speckled cowpea.

Keywords: Cowpea, Decortication, Red kidney bean, Resistantstarch

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19 Antibacterial Capacity of Plumeria alba Petals

Authors: M. H. Syakira, L. Brenda

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of Plumeria alba (Frangipani) petals methanolic extracts were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens by using disk diffusion method. Concentration extracts (80 %) showed the highest inhibition zone towards Escherichia coli (14.3 mm). Frangipani extract also showed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus vulgaris and Serratia marcescens, but not more than the zones of the positive control used. Comparison between two broad specrum antibiotics to frangipani extracts showed that the 80 % concentration extracts produce the same zone of inhibition as Streptomycin. Frangipani extracts showed no bacterial activity towards Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. There are differences in the sensitivity of different bacteria to frangipani extracts, suggesting that frangipani-s potency varies between these bacteria. The present results indicate that frangipani showed significant antibacterial activity especially to Escherichia coli.

Keywords: Frangipani, Plumeria alba, anti microbial, Escherichia coli

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18 Microbial Oil Production by Mixed Culture of Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and Yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Rattanaporn Baojungharn, Thidarat Papone

Abstract:

Compared to oil production from microorganisms, little work has been performed for mixed culture of microalgae and yeast. In this article it is aimed to show high oil accumulation potential of mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and oleaginous yeast Torulaspora maleeae Y30 using sugarcane molasses as substrate. The monoculture of T. maleeae Y30 grew faster than that of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. In monoculture of yeast, a biomass of 6.4g/L with specific growth rate (m) of 0.265 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.466g/L were obtained, while 2.53g/L of biomass with m of 0.133 (1/d) and lipid yield of 0.132g/L were obtained for monoculture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. The biomass concentration in the mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 increased faster and was higher compared with that in the monoculture and mixed culture of microalgae. In mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and C. vulgaris TISTR8580, a biomass of 3.47g/L and lipid yield of 0.123 g/L were obtained. In mixed culture of T. maleeae Y30 with Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, a maximum biomass of 7.33 g/L and lipid yield of 0.808g/L were obtained. Maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, 0.229g/L), specific yield of lipid (YP/X, 0.11g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.115 g/L/d) were obtained in mixed culture of yeast and microalgae. Clearly, T. maleeae Y30 and Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 use sugarcane molasses as organic nutrients efficiently in mixed culture under mixotrophic growth. The biomass productivity and lipid yield are notably enhanced in comparison with monoculture.

Keywords: Microbial oil, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, Chlorella vulgaris, Torulaspora maleeae Y30, mixed culture, biodiesel.

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17 Optimization of a Bioremediation Strategy for an Urban Stream of Matanza-Riachuelo Basin

Authors: María D. Groppa, Andrea Trentini, Myriam Zawoznik, Roxana Bigi, Carlos Nadra, Patricia L. Marconi

Abstract:

In the present work, a remediation bioprocess based on the use of a local isolate of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads is proposed. This process was shown to be effective for the reduction of several chemical and microbial contaminants present in Cildáñez stream, a water course that is part of the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The bioprocess, involving the culture of the microalga in autotrophic conditions in a stirred-tank bioreactor supplied with a marine propeller for 6 days, allowed a significant reduction of Escherichia coli and total coliform numbers (over 95%), as well as of ammoniacal nitrogen (96%), nitrates (86%), nitrites (98%), and total phosphorus (53%) contents. Pb content was also significantly diminished after the bioprocess (95%). Standardized cytotoxicity tests using Allium cepa seeds and Cildáñez water pre- and post-remediation were also performed. Germination rate and mitotic index of onion seeds imbibed in Cildáñez water subjected to the bioprocess was similar to that observed in seeds imbibed in distilled water and significantly superior to that registered when untreated Cildáñez water was used for imbibition. Our results demonstrate the potential of this simple and cost-effective technology to remove urban-water contaminants, offering as an additional advantage the possibility of an easy biomass recovery, which may become a source of alternative energy.

Keywords: Bioreactor, bioremediation, Chlorella vulgaris, Matanza-Riachuelo basin, microalgae.

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16 Experimental Studies on the Mechanical Property of Laminated Bamboo in Thailand

Authors: S. Talabgaew, V. Laemlaksakul

Abstract:

A new generation product made from bamboo strips, known as laminated bamboo, has gained importance. The objective of this research was to experiment the effect of three factors on the mechanical property of laminated bamboo. The interested factors for experimental design were (A) four bamboo species, namely Bambusa blumeana Schultes (Pai See Suk), Dendrocalamus asper Backer (Pai Tong), Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees (Pai Hok) and Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro (Pai Sang Mon), (B) two types of glue adhesive, polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVAC) fortified with urea-formaldehyde (UF) and urea-formaldehyde (UF) to make parallel-oriented bamboo strips laminates and (C) glue weight per strip area, 150 g/m2 and 190 g/m2. Experimental results showed that Dendrocalamus asper Backer (Pai Tong) and Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro (Pai Sang Mon) were best used for manufacturing due to their highest MOR and MOE. The amount of glue weight 150 g/m2 yielded higher MOR and MOE than the amount of glue weight 190 g/m2. At the conclusion, the laminated bamboo manufacturers can benefit from this research in order to select right materials according to strength, cost and accessibility.

Keywords: Laminated Bamboo, Mechanical Property, 3-WayANOVA.

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15 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan

Abstract:

Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: Antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation.

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14 Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

Authors: Ilze Gramatina, Jelena Zagorska, Evita Straumite, Svetlana Sarvi

Abstract:

In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total weight of meat were added in sausages. The whole ingredients were mixed, filled into casing, compressed, cooked and cooled. After storage the samples were sensory evaluated. The sensory evaluation was carried out using the nine point hedonic scale and line scale. Sausages without legumes flour was used as control sample. The main conclusion of the current research the legumes flour can be successfully used for cooked sausages production.

Keywords: Legumes, cooked sausages.

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13 Study the Biological Activities of Tribulus Terrestris Extracts

Authors: Ahmed A. Hussain, Abbas A. Mohammed, Heba. H. Ibrahim, Amir H. Abbas

Abstract:

In this study the extracts of the Iraqi herb Tribulus terrestris (Al-Hassage or Al-Kutub) was done by using of polar and non polar solvents, then the biological activity of these extractants was studied in three fields, First, the antibacterial activity (in vitro) on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerugiuosa, and Klebsiella), all extracts showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Second, the effect of extracts on free serum testosterone level in male mice (in vivo), the alcoholic, and acetonitrilic extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in free serum testosterone level, and we found that the extracts contained compounds with less genotoxic effects in mice germ cells. 3rd, was to study the effect of methanolic extract of T. terrestris in diabetes management.

Keywords: Genotoxic, germ cells, tribulus terrestris, testosterone.

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12 Threats and Preventive Methods to Avoid Bird Strikes at the Deblin Military Airfield, Poland

Authors: J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the project conducted in Poland devoted to study on bird strikes at military airfields. The main aim of this project was to develop methods of aircraft protection against threats from birds. The studies were carried out using two methods. One by transect and the other one by selected sector scanning. During the research, it was recorded, that 104 species of birds in the number about of 36000 were observed. The most frequent ones were starling Sturnus vulgaris (31.0%), jackdaw Corvus monedula (18.3%), rook Corvus frugilegus (15.9 %), lapwing Vanellus vanellus (6.2%). Moreover, it was found, that starlings constituted the most serious threat. It resulted from their relatively high attendance at the runway (about 300 individuals). Possible repellent techniques concerning of the Deblin military airfield were discussed. The analysis of the birds’ concentration depending on the altitude, part of the day, year, part of the airfield constituted a base to work out critical flight phase and appropriate procedures to prevent bird strikes.

Keywords: Airport, bird strikes, flight safety, preventive methods.

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11 Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Barberry Fruits Extracts Using Maceration and Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE)

Authors: M. Mohamadi, A. M. Maskooki., S. A. Mortazavi

Abstract:

The quality and shelf life of foods of containing lipids (fats and oils) significantly reduces due to rancidity.Applications of natural antioxidants are one of the most effective manners to prevent the oxidation of oils and lipids. The antioxidant properties of juice extracted from barberry fruit (Berberris vulgaris.L) using maceration and SWE (10 bars and 120 - 180°C) methods were investigated and compared with conventional method. The amount of phenolic compound and reduction power of all samples were determined and the data were statistically analyzed using multifactor design. The results showed that the total amount of phenolic compound increased with increasing of pressure and temprature from 1861.9 to 2439.1 (mg Gallic acid /100gr Dry matter). The ability of reduction power of SWE obtained antioxidant extract compared with BHA (synthetic antioxidant) and ascorbic acid (natural antioxidant). There were significant differences among reduction power of extracts and there were remarkable difference with BHA and Ascorbic acid (P<0.01).

Keywords: Subcritical water, Antioxidant, Barberry, Phenolic compound, Reduction power

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10 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

Abstract:

Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ecosystems, ecotoxicology, nanomaterials, nanoparticles.

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9 In vitro Study of Antibacterial Activity of Cymbopogon citratus

Authors: C.K. Hindumathy

Abstract:

Alcohol and water extracts of Cymbopogon citratus was investigated for anti-bacterial properties and phytochemical constituents. The extract was screened against four gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two grampositive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The antibacterial examination was by disc diffusion techniques, while the photochemical constituents were investigated using standard chemical methods. Results showed that the extracts inhibited the growth of standard and local strains of the organisms used. The treatments were significantly different (P = 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts against the tested microorganisms ranged between 150mg/ml and 50mg/ml. The alcohol extracts were found to be generally more effective than the water extract. The photochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids and phenol but absence of cardiac and cyanogenic glycosides. The presence of alkaloid and phenols were inferred as being responsible for the anti-bacterial properties of the extracts.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus; gram negative and grampositive

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8 Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rapacea Koch.) Cultivars under the Konya Region Conditions

Authors: A. Özköse

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determination of yield and yield components of some fodder beet types (Amarilla Barres, Feldherr, Kyros, Magnum ve Rota) under the Konya region conditions. Fodder beet was obtained from the Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, at 2006-2007 season and the experiment was established in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Differences among the averages of the fodder beet cultivars are statistically important in terms of all the characteristics investigated. Leaf attitude value was 1.2 – 2.2 (1=erect; 5= prostrate), root shape scale value was (1=spheroidal – 9=cylindrical), root diameter 11.0 – 12.2cm, remaining part of root on the ground was 6.3 – 13.7cm, root length was 21.4 – 29.6cm, leaf yield 1592 – 1917 kg/da, root yield was 10083 – 12258 kg/da, root dry matter content was %8.2 – 18.6 and root dry matter yield was 889 – 1887 kg/da. As a result of the study, it was determined that fodder beet cultivars are different conditions in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, determination of appropriate cultivars for each region affect crop yield importantly.

Keywords: Fodder beet, root yield, yield components.

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7 Effect of Phosphate and Zinc Biofertilizers on Seed Yield and Molar Ratio of Phytic Acid to Zinc in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: M. Mohammadi

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the effect of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers on the yield, phytic acid (PA), Zn concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio in bean, a field experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments included two cultivars of bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0, P1: 100 kg ha-1 triple super phosphate (TSP), P2: 50 kg ha-1 TSP + phosphate bio-fertilizer, P3: phosphate bio-fertilizer), three levels of Zn (Zn0, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn2: Zn bio-fertilizer). Phosphate bio-fertilizer consisted of inoculum of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter and Zn bio-fertilizer consisted of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that there was significant difference between yield and Zn concentration between years. The effect of cultivar was significant on studied parameters. The lowest content of PA and PA/Zn were obtained from Talash. P treatment caused to significant difference on parameters in which P2 caused to increase yield, P and Zn concentration, and decrease PA and PA/Zn by 21.8%, 38.2%, 33.4%, 17.4% and 38.6% respectively. Zn treatment caused to significant difference on studied parameters. The maximum number of parameters were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2. The higher Zn concentration led to lower content of PA and PA/Zn. Using of P and Zn bio–fertilizers were caused to increasing nutrient uptake, improving growth condition and reducing PA and PA/Zn molar ratio.

Keywords: Mycorrhizae, phosphorus, pseudomonas, zinc.

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6 Adaptability of ‘Monti Dauni’ Bean Ecotypes in Plain Areas

Authors: Disciglio G., Nardella E., Gatta G., Giuliani M.M., Tarantino A.

Abstract:

The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the best known of the legumes, and it has a long cultivation tradition in Italy. The territory of “Subappennino Dauno” (southern Italy) is at around 700 m a.s.l. and is predominantly grown with cereals, olive trees and grapevines. Ecotypes of white beans to eat dry (such as cannellini beans) are also grown, which are sought for their palatability, high digestibility, and ease of cooking. However, these are not easy to find on the market due to their low production in relatively small areas and on small family farms that use seeds handed down from generation to generation. The introduction of these ecotypes in plain areas of the Puglia region would provide an opportunity to promote the diffusion of this type of bean. To investigate the adaptability of these ecotypes in plain environments (Cerignola, in southern Italy) a comparative trial was carried out between three ‘Monti Dauni’ ecotypes (E1, E2, E3) that are native to mountain areas and the similar commercial variety, ‘Cannellini’. The data provide useful information about the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of these ecotypes when grown in lowland environments. Ecotype E3 provided the greatest bean production (2.34 t ha-1) compared to ‘Cannellini’ (1.28 t ha-1) and the other ecotypes (0.55 and 0.40 t ha-1, for E1 and E2, respectively), due to its greater plant growth and the larger size of the seed (and thickness, in particular). Finally, ecotype E2 provided the greatest protein content (31.2%), although not significantly different from the commercial cultivar ‘Cannellini’ (32.1%).

Keywords: 'Monti Dauni' bean, ecotypes, adaptability in plain areas, quali-quantitive.

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5 Design, Manufacture and Test of a Solar Powered Audible Bird Scarer

Authors: Turhan Koyuncu, Fuat Lule

Abstract:

The most common domestic birds live in Turkey are: crows (Corvus corone), pigeons (Columba livia), sparrows (Passer domesticus), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and blackbirds (Turdus merula). These birds give damage to the agricultural areas and make dirty the human life areas. In order to send away these birds, some different materials and methods such as chemicals, treatments, colored lights, flash and audible scarers are used. It is possible to see many studies about chemical methods in the literatures. However there is not enough works regarding audible bird scarers are reported in the literature. Therefore, a solar powered bird scarer was designed, manufactured and tested in this experimental investigation. Firstly, to understand the sensitive level of these domestic birds against to the audible scarer, many series preliminary studies were conducted. These studies showed that crows are the most resistant against to the audible bird scarer when compared with pigeons, sparrows, starlings and blackbirds. Therefore the solar powered audible bird scarer was tested on crows. The scarer was tested about one month during April- May, 2007. 18 different common known predators- sounds (voices or calls) of domestic birds from Falcon (Falco eleonorae), Falcon (Buteo lagopus), Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Montagu-s harrier (Circus pygargus) and Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) were selected for test of the scarer. It was seen from the results that the reaction of the birds was changed depending on the predators- sound type, camouflage of the scarer, sound quality and volume, loudspeaker play and pause periods in one application. In addition, it was also seen that the sound from Falcon (Buteo lagopus) was most effective on crows and the scarer was enough efficient.

Keywords: Bird damage, Audible scarer, Solar powered scarer, Predator sound

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4 Seed Dressing and Foliar Spray of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with Essential Oils and Disinfectants for Suppressing Root Rot and Wilt Incidence under Field Conditions

Authors: N. S. El-Mougy, M. M. Abdel-Kader, H. M. Abouelnasr

Abstract:

The efficacy of two essential oils applied as a bean seed dressing followed by seedlings foliar spray with four commercial disinfectants against root rot and wilt incidence was evaluated under field conditions. The essential oils, grape seed and peppermint oils and the disinfectants, Gold, Revarest, Klenva, Malva were applied. Chitosan and the fungicide Topsin-M were used as comparison treatment. Essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants were applied as a bean seed dressing. Furthermore, emerged bean plants were sprayed with the same treatments. Under laboratory conditions, growth inhibition effect was observed for the isolated, tested fungi R. solani and F. oxysporum when exposed to essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants. A high inhibitor effect was recorded for peppermint followed by grape seed oils. Concentrations of 1% and 2% of chitosan as well as Topsin M at 400 ppm showed complete reduction (100%) in the two fungal growths. Under field conditions, the obtained results showed that the applied treatments of chitosan had a superior effect on root rot and wilt disease incidence compared with other tested treatments. It was found that seed coating treatment provides good protection of emerged green bean seeds against the root pathogens attack compared with the fungicide and control treatments. Also, the application of seed dressing with essential oils accompanied by seedling spray demonstrated similar results. It was observed that essential oils had an enhancing effect against disease incidence when combined with disinfectants compared with their application. The obvious yield increase was significantly higher in all applied treatments than in fungicide and control.

Keywords: Bean, disinfectants, essential oils, root rot, wilt.

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3 Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria

Authors: Nassima Elyebdri, Asma Boumediou, Soumia Addoun

Abstract:

Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. The toxic plants contain diverse natural substances which supplied a lot of medicine in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 ± 16 years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. 80 medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. 11% of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. Among toxics plants, the most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethno-pharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, phytotherapy, Tlemcen, toxic plants.

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2 Analysis of Plasmids and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals- AL Jouf Region- KSA

Authors: Samy A. Selim, Nashwa I. Hagag

Abstract:

Abstract–The objectives of the current study are to determine the prevalence, etiological agents, drug susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI) at Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1890 patients had developed infection during hospital admission and were included in the study. Among those who developed nosocomial infections, 15(9.4), 10(2.7) and 118 (12.7) had respiratory tract infection (RTI), blood stream infections (BSI) and urinary tract (UTI) respectively. A total of 268 bacterial isolates were isolated from nosocomial infection. S. aureus was reported in 23.5% for of the total isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), E. coli (17.2%), P. aeruginosa (11.9%), coagulase negative staphylococcus (9%), A. baumannii (7.1%), Enterobacter spp. (3.4%), Citrobacter freundii (3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.6%), and Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcous faecalis (0.7%). Isolated organisms are multi-drug resistant, predominantly Gram-positive pathogens with a high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, extended spectrum beta lactamase and vancomycin resistant enterococci organisms. The RFLP (Fragment Length Polymorphisms) patterns of plasmid preparations from isolated A. baumannii isolates had altered RFLP patterns, possibly due to the presence of plasmid(s). Five A. baumannii isolates harbored plasmids all of which were not less than 2.71kbp in molecular weight. Hence, it showed that the gene coding for the isolates were located on the plasmid DNA while the remaining isolates which have no plasmid might showed gene coding for antibiotic resistance being located on chromosomal DNA. Nosocomial infections represent a current problem in Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Problems associated with SSI include infection with multidrug resistant pathogens which are difficult to treat and are associated with increased mortality.

Keywords: Hospital-Acquired Infections, Acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, plasmid profile, RFLP patterns, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia

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1 Influence of Hydrocarbons on Plant Cell Ultrastructure and Main Metabolic Enzymes

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, E. Kvesitadze, M. Betsiashvili, N. Kuprava, G. Zaalishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

Influence of octane and benzene on plant cell ultrastructure and enzymes of basic metabolism, such as nitrogen assimilation and energy generation have been studied. Different plants: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa); crops- maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); shrubs – privet (Ligustrum sempervirens) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate); trees - poplar (Populus deltoides) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.) were exposed to hydrocarbons of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM). Destructive changes in bean and maize leaves cells ultrastructure under the influence of benzene vapour were revealed at the level of photosynthetic and energy generation subcellular organells. Different deviations at the level of subcellular organelles structure and distribution were observed in alfalfa and ryegrass root cells under the influence of benzene and octane, absorbed through roots. The level of destructive changes is concentration dependent. Benzene at low 1 and 10 mM concentration caused the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in maize roots and leaves and in poplar and mulberry shoots, though to higher extent in case of lower, 1mM concentration. The induction was more intensive in plant roots. The highest tested 100mM concentration of benzene was inhibitory to the enzyme in all plants. Octane caused induction of GDH in all grassy plants at all tested concentrations; however the rate of induction decreased parallel to increase of the hydrocarbon concentration. Octane at concentration 1 mM caused induction of GDH in privet, trifoliate and white mulberry shoots. The highest, 100mM octane was characterized by inhibitory effect to GDH activity in all plants. Octane had inductive effect on malate dehydrogenase in almost all plants and tested concentrations, indicating the intensification of Trycarboxylic Acid Cycle. The data could be suggested for elaboration of criteria for plant selection for phytoremediation of oil hydrocarbons contaminated soils.

Keywords: Higher plants, hydrocarbons, cell ultrastructure, glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

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