Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Cleopatra F. Cuciumita

3 Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines

Authors: Jeni A. Popescu, Ionut Porumbel, Valeriu A. Vilag, Cleopatra F. Cuciumita

Abstract:

The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for three turboshaft engines. The first cycle is a Brayton cycle, describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the Klimov TV2 engine. The other four cycles aim at approaching an Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi- Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions. Also, the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In two of the considered quasi-Ericsson cycles, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine, as well as the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine are maintained the same as for the reference case, while for the other two cases, the efficiencies are increased in order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. For the two cases respecting the first condition, both the shaft power and the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while for the other two, the power and efficiency are maintained, as a result of assuming new, more efficient gas generator turbines.

Keywords: Combustion, Ericsson, thermodynamic analysis, turbine.

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2 Evaluation of Some Chemical Parameters as Potential Determinants of Fresh Water Snails with Special Reference to Medically Important Snails in Egypt

Authors: H.M. El-Khayat, N.M. Ismail, K.M. Mahmoud, F.M. Ragb, K.M. El-Said, B. B. Mostafa, F. A. El- Deeb, A.A. Tantawy

Abstract:

Seasonal survey of freshwater snails in different water courses in Egypt during two successive years included 13 snail species. They represented by Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis, Planorbis pantries, Cleopatra bulimoides, Lanistes carinatus, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus niloticus, Succinia cleopatra and Valvata nilotica. B. alexandrina was most abundant during autumn and spring represented by 26and14 snails/site, respectively. B. truncatus was most abundant during winter (7.7and3.6snails/site) of the two years, respectively. L. natalensis was represented by 7snails/site in summer. The tolerance of different snail species to the chemical elements was determined seasonally and correlated to their abundance. In spring, autumn and winter, B. alexandrina was significantly found to live under the highest level of Pb, Cd,Cu, Na, K and Ca concentrations than the other species (p<0.01). Most snail species could be lived at approximately the same concentrations of Na, K and Ca during all seasons.

Keywords: chemical parameters, freshwater, snails, tolerance

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1 Cercarial Diversity in Freshwater Snails from Selected Freshwater Bodies and Its Implication for Veterinary and Public Health in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Abdulkadir, D. B. Maikaje, Y. A. Umar

Abstract:

A study conducted to determine cercariae diversity and prevalence of trematode infection in freshwater snails from six freshwater bodies selected by systematic random sampling in Kaduna State was carried from January 2013 to December 2013. Freshwater snails and cercariae harvested from the study sites were morphologically identified. A total of 23,823 freshwater snails were collected from the six freshwater bodies: Bagoma dam, Gimbawa dam, Kangimi dam, Kubacha dam, Manchok water intake and Saminaka water intake. The observed freshwater snail species were: Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus globosus, Lymnaea natalensis, Physa sp., Cleopatra bulimoides, Bellamya unicolor and Lanistes varicus. The freshwater snails were exposed to artificial bright light from a 100 Watt electric bulb in the laboratory to induce cercarial shedding. Of the total freshwater snails collected, 10.55% released one or more types of cercariae. Seven morphological types of cercariae were shed by six freshwater snail species namely: Brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome, Amphistome, Gymnocephalus, Longifurcate-pharyngeate monostome, Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome, Echinostome and Xiphidio cercariae. Infection was monotype in most of the freshwater snails collected; however, Physa species presented a mixed infection with Gymnocephalus and Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome cercariae. B. globosus and B. pfeifferi were the most preferred intermediate hosts with the prevalence of 13.48% and 13.46%, respectively. The diversity and prevalence of cercariae varied among the six freshwater bodies with Manchok water intake having the highest infestation (14.3%) and the least recorded in Kangimi dam (3.9%). There was a correlation trend between the number of freshwater snails and trematode infection with Manchok exhibiting the highest and Bagoma none. The highest cercarial diversity was observed in B. pfeifferi and B. globosus with four morphotypes each, and the lowest was in M. tuberculata with one morphotype. The general distribution of freshwater snails and the trematode cercariae they shed suggests the risk of human and animals to trematodiasis in Manchok community. Public health education to raise awareness on individual and communal action that may control snail breeding sites, prevent transmission and provide access to treatment should be intensified.

Keywords: Cercariae, diversity, freshwater snails, prevalence, trematodiasis.

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