Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2568

Search results for: Service Interface Layer

2568 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: Phase formation, Binary systems, Interfacial Reaction, Diffusion, Compound layers, Growth kinetics.

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2567 The Effect of Multi-Layer Bandage on the Interface Pressure Applied by Compression Bandages

Authors: Jawad Al Khaburi, Abbas A. Dehghani-Sanij, E. Andrea Nelson, Jerry Hutchinson

Abstract:

Medical compression bandages are widely used in the treatment of chronic venous disorder. In order to design effective compression bandages, researchers have attempted to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages using mathematical models. This paper reports on the work carried out to compare and validate the mathematical models used to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages. Both analytical and experimental results showed that using simple multiplication of a number of bandage layers with the pressure applied by one layer of bandage or ignoring the increase in the limb radius due to former layers of bandage will result in overestimating the pressure. Experimental results showed that the mathematical models, which take into consideration the increase in the limb radius due to former bandage layers, are more accurate than the one which does not.

Keywords: Compression bandages, FlexiForce, interface pressure, venous ulcer

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2566 Task Modeling for User Interface Design: A Layered Approach

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models that are capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog representations. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring the mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on application-specific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will distinguish between three layers in the task decomposition: a functional layer, a planning layer, and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model

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2565 IT Perspective of Service-Oriented eGovernment Enterprise

Authors: Anu Paul, Varghese Paul

Abstract:

The focal aspire of e-Government (eGovt) is to offer citizen-centered service delivery. Accordingly, the citizenry consumes services from multiple government agencies through national portal. Thus, eGovt is an enterprise with the primary business motive of transparent, efficient and effective public services to its citizenry and its logical structure is the eGovernment Enterprise Architecture (eGEA). Since eGovt is IT oriented multifaceted service-centric system, EA doesn’t do much on an automated enterprise other than the business artifacts. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) manifestation led some governments to pertain this in their eGovts, but it limits the source of business artifacts. The concurrent use of EA and SOA in eGovt executes interoperability and integration and leads to Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise (SOeGE). Consequently, agile eGovt system becomes a reality. As an IT perspective eGovt comprises of centralized public service artifacts with the existing application logics belong to various departments at central, state and local level. The eGovt is renovating to SOeGE by apply the Service-Orientation (SO) principles in the entire system. This paper explores IT perspective of SOeGE in India which encompasses the public service models and illustrated with a case study the Passport service of India.

Keywords: Enterprise Architecture, Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise, Service Interface Layer, Service Model.

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2564 Design of Integration Security System using XML Security

Authors: Juhan Kim, Soohyung Kim, Kiyoung Moon

Abstract:

In this paper, we design an integration security system that provides authentication service, authorization service, and management service of security data and a unified interface for the management service. The interface is originated from XKMS protocol and is used to manage security data such as XACML policies, SAML assertions and other authentication security data including public keys. The system includes security services such as authentication, authorization and delegation of authentication by employing SAML and XACML based on security data such as authentication data, attributes information, assertions and polices managed with the interface in the system. It also has SAML producer that issues assertions related on the result of the authentication and the authorization services.

Keywords: XML, XML Security, XACML.

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2563 Implementation of SSL Using Information Security Component Interface

Authors: Jong-Whoi Shin, Chong-Sun Hwang

Abstract:

Various security APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are being used in a variety of application areas requiring the information security function. However, these standards are not compatible, and the developer must use those APIs selectively depending on the application environment or the programming language. To resolve this problem, we propose the standard draft of the information security component, while SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) using the confidentiality and integrity component interface has been implemented to verify validity of the standard proposal. The implemented SSL uses the lower-level SSL component when establishing the RMI (Remote Method Invocation) communication between components, as if the security algorithm had been implemented by adding one more layer on the TCP/IP.

Keywords: Component Based Design, Application Programming Interface, Secure Socket Layer, Remote Method Invocation.

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2562 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by differential speed rolling (DSR) process were studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100oC with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400oC for 30 to 120min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction.

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2561 An Approach to Task Modeling for User Interface Design

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog structures. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on applicationspecific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will address two layers in task decomposition: a functional (planning) layer and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model.

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2560 Service Identification Approach to SOA Development

Authors: Nafise Fareghzadeh

Abstract:

Service identification is one of the main activities in the modeling of a service-oriented solution, and therefore errors made during identification can flow down through detailed design and implementation activities that may necessitate multiple iterations, especially in building composite applications. Different strategies exist for how to identify candidate services that each of them has its own benefits and trade offs. The approach presented in this paper proposes a selective identification of services approach, based on in depth business process analysis coupled with use cases and existing assets analysis and goal service modeling. This article clearly emphasizes the key activities need for the analysis and service identification to build a optimized service oriented architecture. In contrast to other approaches this article mentions some best practices and steps, wherever appropriate, to point out the vagueness involved in service identification.

Keywords: SOA, service identification, service taxonomy, service layer.

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2559 Service Architecture for 3rd Party Operator's Participation

Authors: F. Sarabchi, A. H. Darvishan, H. Yeganeh, H. Ahmadian

Abstract:

Next generation networks with the idea of convergence of service and control layer in existing networks (fixed, mobile and data) and with the intention of providing services in an integrated network, has opened new horizon for telecom operators. On the other hand, economic problems have caused operators to look for new source of income including consider new services, subscription of more users and their promotion in using morenetwork resources and easy participation of service providers or 3rd party operators in utilizing networks. With this requirement, an architecture based on next generation objectives for service layer is necessary. In this paper, a new architecture based on IMS model explains participation of 3rd party operators in creation and implementation of services on an integrated telecom network.

Keywords: Service model, IMS, API, Scripting language, JAIN, Parlay.

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2558 A New Scheme for Improving the Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wireless Network for Data Stream Sending

Authors: Ebadollah Zohrevandi, Rasoul Roustaei, Omid Moradtalab

Abstract:

In this paper, we first consider the quality of service problems in heterogeneous wireless networks for sending the video data, which their problem of being real-time is pronounced. At last, we present a method for ensuring the end-to-end quality of service at application layer level for adaptable sending of the video data at heterogeneous wireless networks. To do this, mechanism in different layers has been used. We have used the stop mechanism, the adaptation mechanism and the graceful degrade at the application layer, the multi-level congestion feedback mechanism in the network layer and connection cutting off decision mechanism in the link layer. At the end, the presented method and the achieved improvement is simulated and presented in the NS-2 software.

Keywords: Congestion, Handoff, Heterogeneous wireless networks, Adaptation mechanism, Stop mechanism, Graceful degrade.

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2557 The Role of Ga(Gallium)-flux and AlN(Aluminum Nitride) as the Interface Materials, between (Ga-face)GaN and (Siface)4H-SiC, through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Srikanta Bose, Sudip K. Mazumder

Abstract:

We report here, the results of molecular dynamics simulation of p-doped (Ga-face)GaN over n-doped (Siface)( 0001)4H-SiC hetero-epitaxial material system with one-layer each of Ga-flux and (Al-face)AlN, as the interface materials, in the form of, the total Density of States (DOS). It is found that the total DOS at the Fermi-level for the heavily p-doped (Ga-face)GaN and ndoped (Si-face)4H-SiC hetero-epitaxial system, with one layer of (Al-face)AlN as the interface material, is comparatively higher than that of the various cases studied, indicating that there could be good vertical conduction across the (Ga-face)GaN over (Si-face)(0001)4HSiC hetero-epitaxial material system.

Keywords: Molecular dynamics, GaN, 4H-SiC, hetero-epitaxy.

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2556 Impact of Interface Soil Layer on Groundwater Aquifer Behaviour

Authors: Hayder H. Kareem, Shunqi Pan

Abstract:

The geological environment where the groundwater is collected represents the most important element that affects the behaviour of groundwater aquifer. As groundwater is a worldwide vital resource, it requires knowing the parameters that affect this source accurately so that the conceptualized mathematical models would be acceptable to the broadest ranges. Therefore, groundwater models have recently become an effective and efficient tool to investigate groundwater aquifer behaviours. Groundwater aquifer may contain aquitards, aquicludes, or interfaces within its geological formations. Aquitards and aquicludes have geological formations that forced the modellers to include those formations within the conceptualized groundwater models, while interfaces are commonly neglected from the conceptualization process because the modellers believe that the interface has no effect on aquifer behaviour. The current research highlights the impact of an interface existing in a real unconfined groundwater aquifer called Dibdibba, located in Al-Najaf City, Iraq where it has a river called the Euphrates River that passes through the eastern part of this city. Dibdibba groundwater aquifer consists of two types of soil layers separated by an interface soil layer. A groundwater model is built for Al-Najaf City to explore the impact of this interface. Calibration process is done using PEST 'Parameter ESTimation' approach and the best Dibdibba groundwater model is obtained. When the soil interface is conceptualized, results show that the groundwater tables are significantly affected by that interface through appearing dry areas of 56.24 km² and 6.16 km² in the upper and lower layers of the aquifer, respectively. The Euphrates River will also leak water into the groundwater aquifer of 7359 m³/day. While these results are changed when the soil interface is neglected where the dry area became 0.16 km², the Euphrates River leakage became 6334 m³/day. In addition, the conceptualized models (with and without interface) reveal different responses for the change in the recharge rates applied on the aquifer through the uncertainty analysis test. The aquifer of Dibdibba in Al-Najaf City shows a slight deficit in the amount of water supplied by the current pumping scheme and also notices that the Euphrates River suffers from stresses applied to the aquifer. Ultimately, this study shows a crucial need to represent the interface soil layer in model conceptualization to be the intended and future predicted behaviours more reliable for consideration purposes.

Keywords: Al-Najaf City, groundwater aquifer behaviour, groundwater modelling, interface soil layer, Visual MODFLOW.

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2555 A Web Services based Architecture for NGN Services Delivery

Authors: K. Rezabeigi, A. Vafaei, N. Movahhedinia

Abstract:

The notion of Next Generation Network (NGN) is based on the Network Convergence concept which refers to integration of services (such as IT and communication services) over IP layer. As the most popular implementation of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services technology is known to be the base for service integration. In this paper, we present a platform to deliver communication services as web services. We also implement a sample service to show the simplicity of making composite web and communication services using this platform. A Service Logic Execution Environment (SLEE) is used to implement the communication services. The proposed architecture is in agreement with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and also can be integrated to an Enterprise Service Bus to make a base for NGN Service Delivery Platform (SDP).

Keywords: Communication Services, SOA, Web Services, NGN, SLEE.

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2554 System and Method for Providing Web-Based Remote Application Service

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Yu-Ching Lin, Hsi-Ya Chang

Abstract:

With the development of virtualization technologies, a new type of service named cloud computing service is produced. Cloud users usually encounter the problem of how to use the virtualized platform easily over the web without requiring the plug-in or installation of special software. The object of this paper is to develop a system and a method enabling process interfacing within an automation scenario for accessing remote application by using the web browser. To meet this challenge, we have devised a web-based interface that system has allowed to shift the GUI application from the traditional local environment to the cloud platform, which is stored on the remote virtual machine. We designed the sketch of web interface following the cloud virtualization concept that sought to enable communication and collaboration among users. We describe the design requirements of remote application technology and present implementation details of the web application and its associated components. We conclude that this effort has the potential to provide an elastic and resilience environment for several application services. Users no longer have to burden the system maintenances and reduce the overall cost of software licenses and hardware. Moreover, this remote application service represents the next step to the mobile workplace, and it lets user to use the remote application virtually from anywhere.

Keywords: Virtualization technology, virtualized platform, web interface, remote application.

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2553 A Frequency Dependence of the Phase Field Model in Laminar Boundary Layer with Periodic Perturbations

Authors: Yasuo Obikane

Abstract:

The frequency dependence of the phase field model(PFM) is studied. A simple PFM is proposed, and is tested in a laminar boundary layer. The Blasius-s laminar boundary layer solution on a flat plate is used for the flow pattern, and several frequencies are imposed on the PFM, and the decay times of the interfaces are obtained. The computations were conducted for three cases: 1) no-flow, and 2) a half ball on the laminar boundary layer, 3) a line of mass sources in the laminar boundary layer. The computations show the decay time becomes shorter as the frequency goes larger, and also show that it is sensitive to both background disturbances and surface tension parameters. It is concluded that the proposed simple PFM can describe the properties of decay process, and could give the fundamentals for the decay of the interface in turbulent flows.

Keywords: Phase field model, two phase flows, Laminarboundary Layer

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2552 The Study on Service-oriented Encapsulating Methods of Legacy Systems

Authors: Chao Qi, Xiaoyan Su, Zhan Mao, Xuan Qi

Abstract:

At present, web Service is the first choice to reuse the legacy system for the implementation of SOA. According to the status of the implementation of SOA and the status of the legacy systems, we propose four encapsulating strategies. Base on the strategies, we proposal the service-oriented encapsulating framework, the legacy system can be encapsulated by the service-oriented encapsulating layer in three aspects, communication protocols, data and program. The reuse rate of the legacy systems can be increased by using this framework

Keywords: Legacy system, service-oriented encapsulating, SOA.

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2551 Two Lessons Learnt in Defining Intersections and Interfaces in Numerical Modeling with Plaxis

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Somaye Sadeghian, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

This paper is going to discuss two issues encountered in using PLAXIS. Both issues were monitored during application of PLAXIS to estimate the excavation-induced displacement. Column Soil Mixing (CSM) was applied to stabilise the excavation. It was understood that the estimated excavation induced deformation at the top of the CSM blocks highly depends on the material type defining pavement material adjacent to the CSM blocks. Cohesive material for pavement will result in the unrealistic connection between pavement and CSM even by defining an interface element. To find the most realistic approach, the interface defined in three different manners (1) no interface elements were applied (2) a non-cohesive soil layer was defined between pavement and CSM block to represent the friction between these materials (3) built-in interface elements in PLAXIS was used to define the boundary between the pavement and the CSM block. The result showed that the option 2 would result in more realistic results. The second issue was in the modelling of the contact line between the CSM block and an inclined layer underneath. The analysis result showed that the excavation-induced deformation highly depends on how the PLAXIS user defines the contact area. It was understood that if the contact area had defined as a point in which CSM block had intersected the layer underneath the estimated lateral displacement of CSM block would be unrealistically lower than the model in which the contact area was defined as a line.

Keywords: PLAXIS, FEM, CSM, excavation-induced deformation.

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2550 Predicting Application Layer DDoS Attacks Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: S. Umarani, D. Sharmila

Abstract:

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a major threat to cyber security. It originates from the network layer or the application layer of compromised/attacker systems which are connected to the network. The impact of this attack ranges from the simple inconvenience to use a particular service to causing major failures at the targeted server. When there is heavy traffic flow to a target server, it is necessary to classify the legitimate access and attacks. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect DDoS attacks from the traces of traffic flow. An access matrix is created from the traces. As the access matrix is multi dimensional, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the attributes used for detection. Two classifiers Naive Bayes and K-Nearest neighborhood are used to classify the traffic as normal or abnormal. The performance of the classifier with PCA selected attributes and actual attributes of access matrix is compared by the detection rate and False Positive Rate (FPR).

Keywords: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, Application layer DDoS, DDoS Detection, K- Nearest neighborhood classifier, Naive Bayes Classifier, Principle Component Analysis.

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2549 Analysis of Drying Kinetics of a Slurry Droplet in the Falling Rate Period of Spray Drying

Authors: Boris Golman, Wittaya Julklang

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer was investigated during the falling rate period of spray drying of a slurry droplet. The effect of the porosity of crust layer formed from primary particles during liquid evaporation was studied numerically using the developed mathematical model which takes into account the heat and mass transfer in the core and crust regions, the movement of the evaporation interface, and the external heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the droplet surface. It was confirmed that the heat transfer through the crust layer was more intense in the case of the dense droplet than the loose one due to the enhanced thermal conduction resulting in the higher average droplet temperature. The mass transfer was facilitated in the crust layer of loose droplet owing to the large pore space available for diffusion of water vapor from the evaporation interface to the outer droplet surface. The longer drying time is required for the droplet of high porosity to reach the final moisture content than that for the dense one due to the larger amount of water to be evaporated during the falling rate.

Keywords: Spray Drying, Slurry Droplet, Heat and Mass Transfer, Crust Layer Porosity, Mathematical Modeling.

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2548 Effect of Utilization of Geosynthetic on Reducing the Required Thickness of Subbase Layer of a Two Layered Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Nazari

Abstract:

This paper tries to study the effect of geosynthetic inclusion on the improvement of the load-settlement characters of two layered soil. In addition, the effect of geogrid and geotextile in reduction of the required thickness of subbase layer in unpaved roads is studied. Considering the vast application of bearing ratio tests in road construction projects, this test is used in present investigation. Bearing ratio tests were performed on two layered soil including a granular soil layer at the top (as the subbase layer) and a weak clayey soil placed at the bottom (as the subgrade layer). These tests were performed for different conditions including unreinforced and reinforced by geogrid and geotextile and three thicknesses for top layer soil (subbase layer). In the reinforced condition the reinforcing element was placed on the interface of the top granular layer and the beneath clayey layer to study the separation effect of geosynthetics. In all tests the soils (both granular and clayey soil layers) were compacted according to optimum water content. At the end, the diagrams were plotted and were compared with each other. Furthermore, a comparison between geogrids and geotextiles behaviors on two layer soil is done in this paper. The results show an increase in compression strength of reinforced specimen in comparison with unreinforced soil sample. The effect of geosynthetic inclusion reduces by increasing the subbase thickness. In addition it was found that geogrids have more desirable behavior rather than geotextiles due to interlocking with the subbase layer aggregates.

Keywords: Bearing ratio, Subgrade, Subbase, Sand layer thickness, Geosynthetic.

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2547 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: Characteristic equation, interface waves, dispersion curves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structures.

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2546 Customer Value Creation by CRM System in Electronic Device Companies

Authors: Hideki.Kobayashi, Hiroshi.Osada

Abstract:

The service industry accounts for about 70% of GDP of Japan, and the importance of the service innovation is pointed out. The importance of the system use and the support service increases in the information system that is one of the service industries. However, because the system is not used enough, the purpose for which it was originally intended cannot often be achieved in the CRM system. To promote the use of the system, the effective service method is needed. It is thought that the service model's making and the clarification of the success factors are necessary to improve the operation service of the CRM system. In this research the model of the operation service in the CRM system is made.

Keywords: Information system, Operation service, Serviceinnovation, Solution

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2545 Adoption of Lean Thinking and Service Improvement for Care Home Service

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

Ageing population is a global trend; therefore the need of care service has been increasing dramatically. There are three basic forms of service delivered to the elderly: institution, community, and home. Particularly, the institutional service can be seen as an extension of medical service. The nursing home or so-called care home which is equipped with professional staff and facilities can provide a variety of service including rehabilitation service, short-term care, and long term care. Similar to hospital and other health care service, care home service do need to provide quality and cost-effective service to satisfy the dwellers. The main purpose of this paper is to show how lean thinking and service innovation can be applied to care home operation. The issues and key factors of implementing lean practice are discussed.

Keywords: Lean, Service improvement, SERVQUAL, Care home service.

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2544 A Study on Evaluation of E-Government Service Quality

Authors: Nguyen Manh Hien

Abstract:

Service quality is the highest requirement by users,  especially for the service in electronic government. During the past  decades, it has become a major area of academic investigation.  Considering this issue, there are a lot of researches that evaluated the  dimensions and e-service contexts. This study also identified the  dimensions of service quality, but focuses on a new concept and  provides a new methodology in developing measurement scales of  e-service quality such as information quality, service quality and  organization quality. Finally, this study will suggest a key factor to  evaluate e-government service quality better.

 

Keywords: E-government, e-service, e-service quality, dimensionality.

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2543 Design of Cloud Service Brokerage System Intermediating Integrated Services in Multiple Cloud Environment

Authors: Dongjae Kang, Sokho Son, Jinmee Kim

Abstract:

Cloud service brokering is a new service paradigm that provides interoperability and portability of application across multiple Cloud providers. In this paper, we designed Cloud service brokerage system, anyBroker, supporting integrated service provisioning and SLA based service lifecycle management. For the system design, we introduce the system concept and whole architecture, details of main components and use cases of primary operations in the system. These features ease the Cloud service provider and customer’s concern and support new Cloud service open market to increase Cloud service profit and prompt Cloud service echo system in Cloud computing related area.

Keywords: Cloud service brokerage, multiple Clouds, Integrated service provisioning, SLA, network service.

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2542 Dissolution of Solid Particles in Liquids: A Shrinking Core Model

Authors: Wei-Lun Hsu, Mon-Jyh Lin, Jyh-Ping Hsu

Abstract:

The dissolution of spherical particles in liquids is analyzed dynamically. Here, we consider the case the dissolution of solute yields a solute-free solid phase in the outer portion of a particle. As dissolution proceeds, the interface between the undissolved solid phase and the solute-free solid phase moves towards the center of the particle. We assume that there exist two resistances for the diffusion of solute molecules: the resistance due to the solute-free portion of the particle and that due to a surface layer near solid-liquid interface. In general, the equation governing the dynamic behavior of dissolution needs to be solved numerically. However, analytical expressions for the temporal variation of the size of the undissoved portion of a particle and the variation of dissolution time can be obtained in some special cases. The present analysis takes the effect of variable bulk solute concentration on dissolution into account.

Keywords: dissolution of particles, surface layer, shrinking core model, dissolution time.

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2541 A Finite Element/Finite Volume Method for Dam-Break Flows over Deformable Beds

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Ashraf Osman, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

A coupled two-layer finite volume/finite element method was proposed for solving dam-break flow problem over deformable beds. The governing equations consist of the well-balanced two-layer shallow water equations for the water flow and a linear elastic model for the bed deformations. Deformations in the topography can be caused by a brutal localized force or simply by a class of sliding displacements on the bathymetry. This deformation in the bed is a source of perturbations, on the water surface generating water waves which propagate with different amplitudes and frequencies. Coupling conditions at the interface are also investigated in the current study and two mesh procedure is proposed for the transfer of information through the interface. In the present work a new procedure is implemented at the soil-water interface using the finite element and two-layer finite volume meshes with a conservative distribution of the forces at their intersections. The finite element method employs quadratic elements in an unstructured triangular mesh and the finite volume method uses the Rusanove to reconstruct the numerical fluxes. The numerical coupled method is highly efficient, accurate, well balanced, and it can handle complex geometries as well as rapidly varying flows. Numerical results are presented for several test examples of dam-break flows over deformable beds. Mesh convergence study is performed for both methods, the overall model provides new insight into the problems at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: Dam-break flows, deformable beds, finite element method, finite volume method, linear elasticity, Shallow water equations.

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2540 A New IT-Convergence Service Design Framework

Authors: Hwa-Jong Kim

Abstract:

In many countries, digital city or ubiquitous city (u-City) projects have been initiated to provide digitalized economic environments to cities. Recently in Korea, Kangwon Province has started the u-Kangwon project to boost local economy with digitalized tourism services. We analyze the limitations of the ubiquitous IT approach through the u-Kangwon case. We have found that travelers are more interested in quality over speed in access of information. For improved service quality, we are looking to develop an IT-convergence service design framework (ISDF). The ISDF is based on the service engineering technique and composed of three parts: Service Design, Service Simulation, and the Service Platform.

Keywords: Service design, service simulation, service platform, service design framework.

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2539 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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