Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Pratap Sriram Sundar

25 An Analysis of Uncoupled Designs in Chicken Egg

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Chandan Chowdhury, Sagar Kamarthi

Abstract:

Nature has perfected her designs over 3.5 billion years of evolution. Research fields such as biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, bio-inspired computing, and nature-inspired designs have explored nature-made artifacts and systems to understand nature’s mechanisms and intelligence. Learning from nature, the researchers have generated sustainable designs and innovation in a variety of fields such as energy, architecture, agriculture, transportation, communication, and medicine. Axiomatic design offers a method to judge if a design is good. This paper analyzes design aspects of one of the nature’s amazing object: chicken egg. The functional requirements (FRs) of components of the object are tabulated and mapped on to nature-chosen design parameters (DPs). The ‘independence axiom’ of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if eggs’ design is good (i.e., uncoupled design) or bad (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that eggs design is a good design, i.e., uncoupled design. This approach can be applied to any nature’s artifacts to judge whether their design is a good or a bad. This methodology is valuable for biomimicry studies. This approach can also be a very useful teaching design consideration of biology and bio-inspired innovation.

Keywords: Uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design, design evaluation.

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24 Electrical Characterization and Reliability Analysis of HfO2-TiO2-Al MOSCAPs

Authors: Shibesh Dutta, Sivaramakrishnan R., Sundar Gopalan, Balakrishnan Shankar

Abstract:

MOSCAPs of various combinations of Hafnium oxide and Titanium oxide of varying thickness with Aluminum as gate electrode have been fabricated and electrically characterized. The effects of voltage stress on the I-V characteristics for prolonged time durations have been studied and compared. Results showed hard breakdown and negligible degradation of reliability under stress.

Keywords: breakdown, MOSCAP, voltage stress.

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23 Prediction of Computer and Video Game Playing Population: An Age Structured Model

Authors: T. K. Sriram, Joydip Dhar

Abstract:

Models based on stage structure have found varied applications in population models. This paper proposes a stage structured model to study the trends in the computer and video game playing population of US. The game paying population is divided into three compartments based on their age group. After simulating the mathematical model, a forecast of the number of game players in each stage as well as an approximation of the average age of game players in future has been made.

Keywords: Age structure, Forecasting, Mathematical modeling, Stage structure.

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22 Security Architecture for Cloud Networking: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

In the cloud computing hierarchy IaaS is the lowest layer, all other layers are built over it. Thus it is the most important layer of cloud and requisite more importance. Along with advantages IaaS faces some serious security related issue. Mainly Security focuses on Integrity, confidentiality and availability. Cloud computing facilitate to share the resources inside as well as outside of the cloud. On the other hand, cloud still not in the state to provide surety to 100% data security. Cloud provider must ensure that end user/client get a Quality of Service. In this report we describe possible aspects of cloud related security.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Cloud Networking, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, Cloud Security.

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21 Fourth Order Accurate Free Convective Heat Transfer Solutions from a Circular Cylinder

Authors: T. V. S. Sekhar, B. Hema Sundar Raju

Abstract:

Laminar natural-convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes and energy equations using higher order compact scheme in cylindrical polar coordinates. Results are obtained for Rayleigh numbers of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The local Nusselt number and mean Nusselt number are calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Streamlines, vorticity - lines and isotherms are plotted.

Keywords: Higher order compact scheme, Navier-Stokes equations, Energy equation, Natural convection, Boussinesq's approximation and Mean Nusselt number.

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20 Trust Enhanced Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Adhoc Networks

Authors: N. Bhalaji, A. R. Sivaramkrishnan, Sinchan Banerjee, V. Sundar, A. Shanmugam

Abstract:

Nodes in mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) do not rely on a central infrastructure but relay packets originated by other nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks can work properly only if the participating nodes collaborate in routing and forwarding. For individual nodes it might be advantageous not to collaborate, though. In this conceptual paper we propose a new approach based on relationship among the nodes which makes them to cooperate in an Adhoc environment. The trust unit is used to calculate the trust values of each node in the network. The calculated trust values are being used by the relationship estimator to determine the relationship status of nodes. The proposed enhanced protocol was compared with the standard DSR protocol and the results are analyzed using the network simulator-2.

Keywords: Reliable Routing, DSR, Grudger, Adhoc network.

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19 Estimation of Component Reusability through Reusability Metrics

Authors: Aditya Pratap Singh, Pradeep Tomar

Abstract:

Software reusability is an essential characteristic of Component-Based Software (CBS). The component reusability is an important assess for the effective reuse of components in CBS. The attributes of reusability proposed by various researchers are studied and four of them are identified as potential factors affecting reusability. This paper proposes metric for reusability estimation of black-box software component along with metrics for Interface Complexity, Understandability, Customizability and Reliability. An experiment is performed for estimation of reusability through a case study on a sample web application using a real world component.

Keywords: Component-based software, component reusability, customizability, interface complexity, reliability, understandability.

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18 A Compact Pi Network for Reducing Bit Error Rate in Dispersive FIR Channel Noise Model

Authors: Kavita Burse, R.N. Yadav, S.C. Shrivastava, Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

During signal transmission, the combined effect of the transmitter filter, the transmission medium, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are included in the channel which distort and add noise to the signal. This causes the well defined signal constellation to spread causing errors in bit detection. A compact pi neural network with minimum number of nodes is proposed. The replacement of summation at each node by multiplication results in more powerful mapping. The resultant pi network is tested on six different channels.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise, digitalcommunication system, multiplicative neuron, Pi neural network.

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17 A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Wireless Network Attacks, Wireless Network Security.

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16 Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.

Keywords: CCDF, Clipping, OFDM, PAPR, SLM.

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15 Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Ballistic Missile Tracking

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Dharmbir Prasad, Rudra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

In the current work, adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is presented for solution of ground radar based ballistic missile (BM) tracking problem in re-entry phase with unknown ballistic coefficient. The estimation of trajectory of any BM in re-entry phase is extremely difficult, because of highly non-linear motion of BM. The estimation accuracy of AEKF has been tested for a typical test target tracking problem adopted from literature. Further, the approach of AEKF is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). The simulation result indicates the superiority of the AEKF in solving joint parameter and state estimation problems.

Keywords: Adaptive, AEKF, ballistic missile, EKF, re-entry phase, target tracking.

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14 Memristor: The Missing Circuit Element and its Application

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Memristor is also known as the fourth fundamental passive circuit element. When current flows in one direction through the device, the electrical resistance increases and when current flows in the opposite direction, the resistance decreases. When the current is stopped, the component retains the last resistance that it had, and when the flow of charge starts again, the resistance of the circuit will be what it was when it was last active. It behaves as a nonlinear resistor with memory. Recently memristors have generated wide research interest and have found many applications. In this paper we survey the various applications of memristors which include non volatile memory, nanoelectronic memories, computer logic, neuromorphic computer architectures low power remote sensing applications, crossbar latches as transistor replacements, analog computations and switches.

Keywords: Memristor, non-volatile memory, arithmatic operation, programmable resistor.

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13 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.

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12 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram

Abstract:

Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.

Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater.

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11 Energy Map Construction using Adaptive Alpha Grey Prediction Model in WSNs

Authors: Surender Kumar Soni, Dhirendra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks can be used to monitor the physical phenomenon in such areas where human approach is nearly impossible. Hence the limited power supply is the major constraint of the WSNs due to the use of non-rechargeable batteries in sensor nodes. A lot of researches are going on to reduce the energy consumption of sensor nodes. Energy map can be used with clustering, data dissemination and routing techniques to reduce the power consumption of WSNs. Energy map can also be used to know which part of the network is going to fail in near future. In this paper, Energy map is constructed using the prediction based approach. Adaptive alpha GM(1,1) model is used as the prediction model. GM(1,1) is being used worldwide in many applications for predicting future values of time series using some past values due to its high computational efficiency and accuracy.

Keywords: Adaptive Alpha GM(1, 1) Model, Energy Map, Prediction Based Data Reduction, Wireless Sensor Networks

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10 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Law of Motion, Law of Gravity, Observability, Phasor Measurement Unit.

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9 ANN Models for Microstrip Line Synthesis and Analysis

Authors: Dr.K.Sri Rama Krishna, J.Lakshmi Narayana, Dr.L.Pratap Reddy

Abstract:

Microstrip lines, widely used for good reason, are broadband in frequency and provide circuits that are compact and light in weight. They are generally economical to produce since they are readily adaptable to hybrid and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technologies at RF and microwave frequencies. Although, the existing EM simulation models used for the synthesis and analysis of microstrip lines are reasonably accurate, they are computationally intensive and time consuming. Neural networks recently gained attention as fast and flexible vehicles to microwave modeling, simulation and optimization. After learning and abstracting from microwave data, through a process called training, neural network models are used during microwave design to provide instant answers to the task learned.This paper presents simple and accurate ANN models for the synthesis and analysis of Microstrip lines to more accurately compute the characteristic parameters and the physical dimensions respectively for the required design specifications.

Keywords: Neural Models, Algorithms, Microstrip Lines, Analysis, Synthesis

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8 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Backpropagation, Local Minima, Fast Convergence Rate.

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7 Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio (CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced computational complexity.

Keywords: CCDF, OFDM, PAPR, PTS.

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6 Automatic Thresholding for Data Gap Detection for a Set of Sensors in Instrumented Buildings

Authors: Houda Najeh, St├ęphane Ploix, Mahendra Pratap Singh, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building systems are highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and failures. In fact, various faults, failures and human behaviors could affect the building performance. This paper tackles the detection of unreliable sensors in buildings. Different literature surveys on diagnosis techniques for sensor grids in buildings have been published but all of them treat only bias and outliers. Occurences of data gaps have also not been given an adequate span of attention in the academia. The proposed methodology comprises the automatic thresholding for data gap detection for a set of heterogeneous sensors in instrumented buildings. Sensor measurements are considered to be regular time series. However, in reality, sensor values are not uniformly sampled. So, the issue to solve is from which delay each sensor become faulty? The use of time series is required for detection of abnormalities on the delays. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements obtained from a real power plant: an office at Grenoble Institute of technology equipped by 30 sensors.

Keywords: Building system, time series, diagnosis, outliers, delay, data gap.

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5 Geospatial Network Analysis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Varun Singh, Mainak Bandyopadhyay, Maharana Pratap Singh

Abstract:

The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.

Keywords: GIS, Outliers, PSO, Traffic Data.

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4 A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect

Authors: L. Siva Rama Krishna, Sriram Venkatesh, M. Sastish Kumar, M. Uma Maheswara Chary

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyze the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Keywords: Rapid Prototyping, Selective Laser Sintering, Cranial defect, Dimensional Error.

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3 Behavioral Studies on Multi-Directionally Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations

Authors: Sriram Venkatesh, V. Murali Mohan, T. V. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

The main advantage of multidirectionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fiber types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However, a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D performs fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.

Keywords: Multidirectionally Reinforced Composites, 4-D Orthogonal Preform, Course weave, Fine weave.

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2 A CFD Study of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in Circular Pipeflow

Authors: Perumal Kumar, Rajamohan Ganesan

Abstract:

Addition of milli or micro sized particles to the heat transfer fluid is one of the many techniques employed for improving heat transfer rate. Though this looks simple, this method has practical problems such as high pressure loss, clogging and erosion of the material of construction. These problems can be overcome by using nanofluids, which is a dispersion of nanosized particles in a base fluid. Nanoparticles increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluid manifold which in turn increases the heat transfer rate. Nanoparticles also increase the viscosity of the basefluid resulting in higher pressure drop for the nanofluid compared to the base fluid. So it is imperative that the Reynolds number (Re) and the volume fraction have to be optimum for better thermal hydraulic effectiveness. In this work, the heat transfer enhancement using aluminium oxide nanofluid using low and high volume fraction nanofluids in turbulent pipe flow with constant wall temperature has been studied by computational fluid dynamic modeling of the nanofluid flow adopting the single phase approach. Nanofluid, up till a volume fraction of 1% is found to be an effective heat transfer enhancement technique. The Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor predictions for the low volume fractions (i.e. 0.02%, 0.1 and 0.5%) agree very well with the experimental values of Sundar and Sharma (2010). While, predictions for the high volume fraction nanofluids (i.e. 1%, 4% and 6%) are found to have reasonable agreement with both experimental and numerical results available in the literature. So the computationally inexpensive single phase approach can be used for heat transfer and pressure drop prediction of new nanofluids.

Keywords: Heat transfer intensification, nanofluid, CFD, friction factor

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1 Performing Diagnosis in Building with Partially Valid Heterogeneous Tests

Authors: Houda Najeh, Mahendra Pratap Singh, St├ęphane Ploix, Antoine Caucheteux, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building system is highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and human misbehaviors. Energy efficiency and user comfort are directly targeted due to abnormalities in building operation. The available fault diagnosis tools and methodologies particularly rely on rules or pure model-based approaches. It is assumed that model or rule-based test could be applied to any situation without taking into account actual testing contexts. Contextual tests with validity domain could reduce a lot of the design of detection tests. The main objective of this paper is to consider fault validity when validate the test model considering the non-modeled events such as occupancy, weather conditions, door and window openings and the integration of the knowledge of the expert on the state of the system. The concept of heterogeneous tests is combined with test validity to generate fault diagnoses. A combination of rules, range and model-based tests known as heterogeneous tests are proposed to reduce the modeling complexity. Calculation of logical diagnoses coming from artificial intelligence provides a global explanation consistent with the test result. An application example shows the efficiency of the proposed technique: an office setting at Grenoble Institute of Technology.

Keywords: Heterogeneous tests, validity, building system, sensor grids, sensor fault, diagnosis, fault detection and isolation.

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