Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7858

Search results for: Analysis

7708 Interactive Effects in Blended Learning Mode: Exploring Hybrid Data Sources and Iterative Linkages

Authors: Hock Chuan, Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for identifying interactive effects using Network Science (NS) supported by Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques. Based on general observations that learning processes and behaviors are shaped by the social relationships and influenced by learning environment, the central idea was to understand both the human and non-human interactive effects for a blended learning mode of delivery of computer science modules. Important findings include (a) the importance of non-human nodes to influence the centrality and transfer; (b) the degree of non-human and human connectivity impacts learning. This project reveals that the NS pattern and connectivity as measured by node relationships offer alternative approach for hypothesis generation and design of qualitative data collection. An iterative process further reinforces the analysis, whereas the experimental simulation option itself is an interesting alternative option, a hybrid combination of both experimental simulation and qualitative data collection presents itself as a promising and viable means to study complex scenario such as blended learning delivery mode. The primary value of this paper lies in the design of the approach for studying interactive effects of human (social nodes) and non-human (learning/study environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructures nodes) components. In conclusion, this project adds to the understanding and the use of SNA to model and study interactive effects in blended social learning.

Keywords: Blended Learning, Social Network Analysis, Social Learning, Network Science, study environment

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7707 Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Gemici

Abstract:

The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.

Keywords: Landscape, Landscape design, Japanese park, open and green areas

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7706 Association of Smoking with Chest Radiographic and Lung Function Findings in Retired Bauxite Mining Workers

Authors: L. R. Ferreira, C. M. Galhardi, L. H. Oliveira, R. C. G. Bianchi, L. C.R. Ferreira, E. P. Baciuk

Abstract:

Inhalation hazards are associated with potentially injurious exposure and increased risk for lung diseases, within the bauxite mining industry, especially for the smelter workers. Smoking is related to decreased lung function and leads to chronic lung diseases. This study had the objective to evaluate whether smoking is related to functional and radiographic respiratory changes in retired bauxite mining workers. Methods: This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study involving the analysis of database information of 140 retired bauxite mining workers from Poços de Caldas-MG evaluated at Worker’s Health Reference Center and at the Social Security Brazilian National Institute, from July 1st, 2015 until June 30th, 2016. The workers were divided into three groups: non-smokers (n = 47), ex-smokers (n = 46), and smokers (n = 47). The data included: age, gender, spirometry results, and the presence or not of pulmonary pleural and/or parenchymal changes in chest radiographs. Chi-Squared test was used (p < 0,05). Results: In the smokers’ group, 83% of spirometry tests and 64% of chest x-rays were altered. In the non-smokers’ group, 19% of spirometry tests and 13% of chest x-rays were altered. In the ex-smokers’ group, 35% of spirometry tests and 30% of chest x-rays were altered. Most of the results were statistically significant. Results demonstrated a significant difference between smokers’ and non-smokers’ groups in regard to spirometric and radiographic pulmonary alterations. Ex-smokers’ and non-smokers’ group demonstrated better results when compared to the smokers’ group in relation to altered spirometry and radiograph findings. These data may contribute to planning strategies to enhance smoking cessation programs within the bauxite mining industry.

Keywords: Smoking, spirometry, chest radiography, Bauxite mining

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7705 Evaluation of the Role of Advocacy and the Quality of Care in Reducing Health Inequalities for People with Autism, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Sahu, Jill Aylott

Abstract:

Individuals with Autism, Intellectual and Developmental disabilities (AIDD) are one of the most vulnerable groups in society, hampered not only by their own limitations to understand and interact with the wider society, but also societal limitations in perception and understanding. Communication to express their needs and wishes is fundamental to enable such individuals to live and prosper in society. This research project was designed as an organisational case study, in a large secondary health care hospital within the National Health Service (NHS), to assess the quality of care provided to people with AIDD and to review the role of advocacy to reduce health inequalities in these individuals. Methods: The research methodology adopted was as an “insider researcher”. Data collection included both quantitative and qualitative data i.e. a mixed method approach. A semi-structured interview schedule was designed and used to obtain qualitative and quantitative primary data from a wide range of interdisciplinary frontline health care workers to assess their understanding and awareness of systems, processes and evidence based practice to offer a quality service to people with AIDD. Secondary data were obtained from sources within the organisation, in keeping with “Case Study” as a primary method, and organisational performance data were then compared against national benchmarking standards. Further data sources were accessed to help evaluate the effectiveness of different types of advocacy that were present in the organisation. This was gauged by measures of user and carer experience in the form of retrospective survey analysis, incidents and complaints. Results: Secondary data demonstrate near compliance of the Organisation with the current national benchmarking standard (Monitor Compliance Framework). However, primary data demonstrate poor knowledge of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, poor knowledge of organisational systems, processes and evidence based practice applied for people with AIDD. In addition there was poor knowledge and awareness of frontline health care workers of advocacy and advocacy schemes for this group. Conclusions: A significant amount of work needs to be undertaken to improve the quality of care delivered to individuals with AIDD. An operational strategy promoting the widespread dissemination of information may not be the best approach to deliver quality care and optimal patient experience and patient advocacy. In addition, a more robust set of standards, with appropriate metrics, needs to be developed to assess organisational performance which will stand the test of professional and public scrutiny.

Keywords: Advocacy, autism, Health Inequalities, Quality Of Care, intellectual developmental disabilities

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7704 How Children Synchronize with Their Teacher: Evidence from a Real-World Elementary School Classroom

Authors: Reiko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This paper reports on how synchrony occurs between children and their teacher, and what prevents or facilitates synchrony. The aim of the experiment conducted in this study was to precisely analyze their movements and synchrony and reveal the process of synchrony in a real-world classroom. Specifically, the experiment was conducted for around 20 minutes during an English as a foreign language (EFL) lesson. The participants were 11 fourth-grade school children and their classroom teacher in a public elementary school in Japan. Previous researchers assert that synchrony causes the state of flow in a class. For checking the level of flow, Short Flow State Scale (SFSS) was adopted. The experimental procedure had four steps: 1) The teacher read aloud the first half of an English storybook to the children. Both the teacher and the children were at their own desks. 2) The children were subjected to an SFSS check. 3) The teacher read aloud the remaining half of the storybook to the children. She made the children remove their desks before reading. 4) The children were again subjected to an SFSS check. The movements of all participants were recorded with a video camera. From the movement analysis, it was found that the children synchronized better with the teacher in Step 3 than in Step 1, and that the teacher’s movement became free and outstanding without a desk. This implies that the desk acted as a barrier between the children and the teacher. Removal of this barrier resulted in the children’s reactions becoming synchronized with those of the teacher. The SFSS results proved that the children experienced more flow without a barrier than with a barrier. Apparently, synchrony is what caused flow or social emotions in the classroom. The main conclusion is that synchrony leads to cognitive outcomes such as children’s academic performance in EFL learning.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Movement synchrony, teacher–child relationships, EFL learning

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7703 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: Biomarker, Child, cytokine, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, saliva

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7702 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Natasha Dejdumrong, Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, Newton interpolation, linear complexity

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7701 Spatial Disparity in Education and Medical Facilities: A Case Study of Barddhaman District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The economic scenario of any region does not show the real picture for the measurement of overall development. Therefore, economic development must be accompanied by social development to be able to make an assessment to measure the level of development. The spatial variation with respect to social development has been discussed taking into account the quality of functioning of a social system in a specific area. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of social infrastructural facilities and analyze the magnitude of regional disparities at inter- block level in Barddhman district. It starts with the detailed account of the selection process of social infrastructure indicators and describes the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. Analyzing the block level data, this paper tries to identify the disparity among the blocks in the levels of social development. The results have been subsequently explained using both statistical analysis and geo spatial technique. The paper reveals that the social development is not going on at the same rate in every part of the district. Health facilities and educational facilities are concentrated at some selected point. So overall development activities come to be concentrated in a few centres and the disparity is seen over the blocks.

Keywords: Social Development, spatial variation, disparity, inter-block

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7700 Sustainability of Healthcare Insurance in India: A Review of Health Insurance Scheme Launched by States in India

Authors: Mohd Zuhair, Ram Babu Roy

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the accessibility, design, and functioning of health insurance plans launched by state governments in India. In recent years, the governments of several states in India have come forward to provide health insurance coverage for the low-income group and rural population to reduce the out of pocket expenditure (OPE) on healthcare. Different health insurance schemes have different structures and offerings which differ in the different demographic factors. This study will portray a comparative analysis of the various health insurance schemes by analyzing different offerings and finance generation of the schemes. The comparative analysis will explain the lesson to be learned from these schemes and extend the existing knowledge of the health insurance in India. This would help in recognizing tension between various drivers and identifying issues pertaining to the sustainability of health insurance schemes in India.

Keywords: Sustainability, Health Insurance, out of pocket expenditure, universal healthcare

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7699 Predictive Analysis for Big Data: Extension of Classification and Regression Trees Algorithm

Authors: Ameur Abdelkader, Abed Bouarfa Hafida

Abstract:

Since its inception, predictive analysis has revolutionized the IT industry through its robustness and decision-making facilities. It involves the application of a set of data processing techniques and algorithms in order to create predictive models. Its principle is based on finding relationships between explanatory variables and the predicted variables. Past occurrences are exploited to predict and to derive the unknown outcome. With the advent of big data, many studies have suggested the use of predictive analytics in order to process and analyze big data. Nevertheless, they have been curbed by the limits of classical methods of predictive analysis in case of a large amount of data. In fact, because of their volumes, their nature (semi or unstructured) and their variety, it is impossible to analyze efficiently big data via classical methods of predictive analysis. The authors attribute this weakness to the fact that predictive analysis algorithms do not allow the parallelization and distribution of calculation. In this paper, we propose to extend the predictive analysis algorithm, Classification And Regression Trees (CART), in order to adapt it for big data analysis. The major changes of this algorithm are presented and then a version of the extended algorithm is defined in order to make it applicable for a huge quantity of data.

Keywords: Big Data, predictive analysis, predictive analysis algorithms. CART algorithm

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7698 Modelling and Simulating CO2 Electro-Reduction to Formic Acid Using Microfluidic Electrolytic Cells: The Influence of Bi-Sn Catalyst and 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Tetra-Fluoroborate Electrolyte on Cell Performance

Authors: Akan C. Offong, E. J. Anthony, Vasilije Manovic

Abstract:

A modified steady-state numerical model is developed for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid. The numerical model achieves a CD (current density) (~60 mA/cm2), FE-faradaic efficiency (~98%) and conversion (~80%) for CO2 electro-reduction to formic acid in a microfluidic cell. The model integrates charge and species transport, mass conservation, and momentum with electrochemistry. Specifically, the influences of Bi-Sn based nanoparticle catalyst (on the cathode surface) at different mole fractions and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra-fluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) electrolyte, on CD, FE and CO2 conversion to formic acid is studied. The reaction is carried out at a constant concentration of electrolyte (85% v/v., [EMIM][BF4]). Based on the mass transfer characteristics analysis (concentration contours), mole ratio 0.5:0.5 Bi-Sn catalyst displays the highest CO2 mole consumption in the cathode gas channel. After validating with experimental data (polarisation curves) from literature, extensive simulations reveal performance measure: CD, FE and CO2 conversion. Increasing the negative cathode potential increases the current densities for both formic acid and H2 formations. However, H2 formations are minimal as a result of insufficient hydrogen ions in the ionic liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the limited hydrogen ions have a negative effect on formic acid CD. As CO2 flow rate increases, CD, FE and CO2 conversion increases.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Modelling, Ionic Liquids, Carbon Dioxide, electro-chemical reduction

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7697 Evaluation of Model-Based Code Generation for Embedded Systems–Mature Approach for Development in Evolution

Authors: Nikolay P. Brayanov, Anna V. Stoynova

Abstract:

Model-based development approach is gaining more support and acceptance. Its higher abstraction level brings simplification of systems’ description that allows domain experts to do their best without particular knowledge in programming. The different levels of simulation support the rapid prototyping, verifying and validating the product even before it exists physically. Nowadays model-based approach is beneficial for modelling of complex embedded systems as well as a generation of code for many different hardware platforms. Moreover, it is possible to be applied in safety-relevant industries like automotive, which brings extra automation of the expensive device certification process and especially in the software qualification. Using it, some companies report about cost savings and quality improvements, but there are others claiming no major changes or even about cost increases. This publication demonstrates the level of maturity and autonomy of model-based approach for code generation. It is based on a real live automotive seat heater (ASH) module, developed using The Mathworks, Inc. tools. The model, created with Simulink, Stateflow and Matlab is used for automatic generation of C code with Embedded Coder. To prove the maturity of the process, Code generation advisor is used for automatic configuration. All additional configuration parameters are set to auto, when applicable, leaving the generation process to function autonomously. As a result of the investigation, the publication compares the quality of generated embedded code and a manually developed one. The measurements show that generally, the code generated by automatic approach is not worse than the manual one. A deeper analysis of the technical parameters enumerates the disadvantages, part of them identified as topics for our future work.

Keywords: Embedded Systems, embedded code generation, embedded C code quality, model-based development

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7696 Religion versus Secularism on Women’s Liberation: The Question of Women Liberation and Modern Education

Authors: Kinda AlSamara

Abstract:

The nineteenth century was characterized by major educational reforms in the Arab World. One of the unintended outcomes of colonization in Arab countries was the initiation of women liberation as well as the introduction of modern education and its application in sensitizing people on the rights of women and their liberation. The reforms were often attributed to various undercurrents that took place at different levels within the Ottoman Empire, and particularly the arrival and influence of the Christian missionaries were supported by the American and European governments. These trends were also significantly attributed to the increase in the presence of Europeans in the region, as well as the introduction of secular ideas and approaches related to the meaning of modernity. Using literary analysis as a method, this paper examines the role of an important male figure like the political activist and writer Qāsim Amīn and the religious reformer Muḥammad ʻAbduh in starting this discourse and shows their impact on the emancipation of women movement (Taḥrīr), and how later women led the movement with their published work. This paper explores Arab Salons and the initiation of women’s literary circles. Women from wealthy families in Egypt and Syria who had studied in Europe or interacted with European counterparts began these circles. These salons acted as central locations where people could meet and hold discussions on political, social, and literary trends as they happened each day. The paper concludes with a discussion of current debates between the Islamist and the secularist branches of the movement today. While the Islamists believe that adhering to the core of Islam with some of its contested position on women is a modern ideology of liberation that fits the current culture of modern time Egypt; the secularists argue that the influence that Islam has on the women’s liberation movement in Egypt has been a threat to the natural success and progress of the movement, which was initiated in the early nineteenth century independent of the more recent trends towards religiosity in the country.

Keywords: educational model, crisis of terminologies, Arab awakening, nineteenth century

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7695 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Gözde Konuray, Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Çağla Özbek

Abstract:

The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: Milk, kefir, chickpea yogurt, kefir yogurt

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7694 Simplified Empirical Method for Predicting Liquefaction Potential and Its Application to Kaohsiung Areas in Taiwan

Authors: Darn H. Hsiao, Zhu-Yun Zheng

Abstract:

Since Taiwan is located between the Eurasian and Filipino plates and earthquakes often thus occur. The coastal plains in western Taiwan are alluvial plains, and the soils of the alluvium are mostly from the Lao-Shan belt in the central mountainous area of ​​southern Taiwan. It could come mostly from sand/shale and slate. The previous investigation found that the soils in the Kaohsiung area of ​​southern Taiwan are mainly composed of slate, shale, quartz, low-plastic clay, silt, silty sand and so on. It can also be found from the past earthquakes that the soil in Kaohsiung is highly susceptible to soil subsidence due to liquefaction. Insufficient bearing capacity of building will cause soil liquefaction disasters. In this study, the boring drilling data from nine districts among the Love River Basin in the city center, and some factors affecting liquefaction include the content of fines (FC), standard penetration test N value (SPT N), the thickness of clay layer near ground-surface, and the thickness of possible liquefied soil were further discussed for liquefaction potential as well as groundwater level. The results show that the liquefaction potential is higher in the areas near the riverside, the backfill area, and the west area of ​​the study area. This paper also uses the old paleo-geological map, soil particle distribution curve, compared with LPI map calculated from the analysis results. After all the parameters finally were studied for five sub zones in the Love River Basin by maximum-minimum method, it is found that both of standard penetration test N value and the thickness of the clay layer will be most influential.

Keywords: Liquefaction, western Taiwan, liquefaction potential map, factors influence high liquefaction potential areas, LPI analysis

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7693 Fast Fourier Transform-Based Steganalysis of Covert Communications over Streaming Media

Authors: Jinghui Peng, Shanyu Tang, Jia Li

Abstract:

Steganalysis seeks to detect the presence of secret data embedded in cover objects, and there is an imminent demand to detect hidden messages in streaming media. This paper shows how a steganalysis algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be used to detect the existence of secret data embedded in streaming media. The proposed algorithm uses machine parameter characteristics and a network sniffer to determine whether the Internet traffic contains streaming channels. The detected streaming data is then transferred from the time domain to the frequency domain through FFT. The distributions of power spectra in the frequency domain between original VoIP streams and stego VoIP streams are compared in turn using t-test, achieving the p-value of 7.5686E-176 which is below the threshold. The results indicate that the proposed FFT-based steganalysis algorithm is effective in detecting the secret data embedded in VoIP streaming media.

Keywords: Security, Steganalysis, fast fourier transform, streaming media

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7692 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Corrosion, welding, Automobiles, lap joints, Micro XRD

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7691 A Conceptual Analysis of Teams’ Climate Role in the Intrapreneurial Process

Authors: Georgia C. Kosta, Christos S. Nicolaidis

Abstract:

The present paper discusses the role of teams’ climate in the intrapreneurial process. Intrapreneurship, which corresponds for entrepreneurship in existing organizations, puts special emphasis on climate as an influential factor of the intrapreneurial behavior. Although climate exists at every level and in every subgroup of the organizational structure, research focuses mainly on the study of climate that characterizes organization as a whole. However, the climate of a work team may differ radically from the organizational climate, and in fact it can be far more influential. The paper provides a conceptual analysis of organizational climate from the intrapreneurial point of view, and sheds light upon teams’ climate role in the intrapreneurial posture.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Organizational Climate, intrapreneurship, teams’ climate

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7690 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López

Abstract:

Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Operational modal analysis, Fourier transform, global position system

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7689 Evaluation of Manual and Automatic Calibration Methods for Digital Tachographs

Authors: Sarp Erturk, Hasan Kaya, Levent Eyigel, Cihat Celik, Muhammet Sahinoglu, Serdar Ay, Yasin Kaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the need for automotive calibration methods for digital tachographs. Digital tachographs are mandatory for vehicles used in people and goods transport and they are an important aspect for road safety and inspection. Digital tachographs need to be calibrated for workshops in order for the digital tachograph to display and record speed and odometer values correctly. Calibration of digital tachographs can be performed either manual or automatic. It is shown in this paper that manual calibration of digital tachographs is prone to errors and there can be differences between manual and automatic calibration parameters. Therefore automatic calibration methods are imperative for digital tachograph calibration. The presented experimental results and error analysis clearly support the claims of the paper by evaluating and statistically comparing manual and automatic calibration methods.

Keywords: Road Safety, digital tachograph, tachograph calibration, tachograph workshops

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7688 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi

Abstract:

Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, CFD, fluidized bed reactor, solar reactor

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7687 The Design of Multiple Detection Parallel Combined Spread Spectrum Communication System

Authors: Lixin Tian, Wei Xue

Abstract:

Many jobs in society go underground, such as mine mining, tunnel construction and subways, which are vital to the development of society. Once accidents occur in these places, the interruption of traditional wired communication is not conducive to the development of rescue work. In order to realize the positioning, early warning and command functions of underground personnel and improve rescue efficiency, it is necessary to develop and design an emergency ground communication system. It is easy to be subjected to narrowband interference when performing conventional underground communication. Spreading communication can be used for this problem. However, general spread spectrum methods such as direct spread communication are inefficient, so it is proposed to use parallel combined spread spectrum (PCSS) communication to improve efficiency. The PCSS communication not only has the anti-interference ability and the good concealment of the traditional spread spectrum system, but also has a relatively high frequency band utilization rate and a strong information transmission capability. So, this technology has been widely used in practice. This paper presents a PCSS communication model-multiple detection parallel combined spread spectrum (MDPCSS) communication system. In this paper, the principle of MDPCSS communication system is described, that is, the sequence at the transmitting end is processed in blocks and cyclically shifted to facilitate multiple detection at the receiving end. The block diagrams of the transmitter and receiver of the MDPCSS communication system are introduced. At the same time, the calculation formula of the system bit error rate (BER) is introduced, and the simulation and analysis of the BER of the system are completed. By comparing with the common parallel PCSS communication, we can draw a conclusion that it is indeed possible to reduce the BER and improve the system performance. Furthermore, the influence of different pseudo-code lengths selected on the system BER is simulated and analyzed, and the conclusion is that the larger the pseudo-code length is, the smaller the system error rate is.

Keywords: cyclic shift, multiple detection, parallel combined spread spectrum, PN code

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7686 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun

Abstract:

The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, heat exchanger, design of experiment, refrigerator

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7685 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis

Abstract:

This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, thermodynamic, Exergy, Refrigeration, temperature

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7684 Analysis of the Accuracy of Earth Movement with Drone Surveys

Authors: Raúl Pereda García, Julio Manuel de Luis Ruiz, Elena Castillo López, Rubén Pérez Álvarez, Felipe Piña García

Abstract:

New technologies for the capture of point clouds have experienced a great advance in recent years. In this way, its use has been extended in geomatics, providing measurement solutions that have been popularized without there being, many times, a detailed study of its accuracy. This research focuses on the study of the viability of topographic works with drones incorporating different sensors sensitive to the visible spectrum. The fundamentals have been applied to a road, located in Cantabria (Spain), where a platform extension and the reform of a riprap were being constructed. A total of six flights were made during two months, all of them with GPS as part of the photogrammetric process, and the results were contrasted with those measured with total station. The obtained results show that the choice of the camera and the planning of the flight have an important impact on the accuracy. In fact, the representations with a level of detail corresponding to 1/1000 scale are admissible, depending on the existing vegetation, and obtaining better results in the area of the riprap. This set of techniques is, therefore, suitable for the control of earthworks in road works but with certain limitations which are exposed in this paper.

Keywords: drone, global position system, earth movement control, surveying technology

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7683 The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes’ Body Composition

Authors: G. Vici, L. Cesanelli, L. Belli, R. Ceci, V. Polzonetti

Abstract:

Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is one of them. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients’ balance and timing in order to improve athlete’s physical status and performance. Nevertheless, a high content of proteins is commonly found in resistance training athletes’ diet with carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet contents on body composition and sport performance on a group of resistance training athletes. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both groups were subjected to the same resistance training fitness program with study group following a specific diet and control group following an ab libitum diet. Body compositions were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was found to be lower than in control group. There was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually people consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7 g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view.

Keywords: Exercise, Protein, diet, Body Composition

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7682 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Surface Plasmon Resonance, engine oil, ICCD spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser, rotating disk electrode optical emission spectroscopy

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7681 Mordechai Vanunu: “The Atomic Spy” as a Nuclear Threat to Discourse in Israeli Society

Authors: Ada Yurman

Abstract:

Using the case of Israeli Atomic Spy Mordechai Vanunu as an example, this study sought to examine social response to political deviance whereby social response can be mobilized in order to achieve social control. Mordechai Vanunu, a junior technician in the Dimona Atomic Research Center, played a normative role in the militaristic discourse while working in the “holy shrine” of the Israeli defense system for many years. At a certain stage, however, Vanunu decided to detach himself from this collective and launched an assault on this top-secret circle. Israeli society in general and the security establishment in particular found this attack intolerable and unforgivable. They presented Vanunu as a ticking time bomb, delegitimized him and portrayed him as “other”. In addition, Israeli enforcement authorities imposed myriad prohibitions and sanctions on Vanunu even after his release from prison – “as will be done to he who desecrates holiness.” Social response to Vanunu at the time of his capture and trial was studied by conducting a content analysis of six contemporary daily newspapers. The analysis focused on use of language and forms of expression. In contrast with traditional content analysis methodology, this study did not just look at frequency of expressions of ideas and terms in the text and covert content; rather, the text was analyzed as a structural whole, and included examination of style, tone and unusual use of imagery, and more, in order to uncover hidden messages within the text. The social response to this case was extraordinarily intense, not only because in this case of political deviance, involving espionage and treason, Vanunu’s actions comprised a real potential threat to the country, but also because of the threat his behavior posed to the symbolic universe of society. Therefore, the response to this instance of political deviance can be seen as being part of a mechanism of social control aiming to protect world view of society as a whole, as well as to punish the criminal.

Keywords: Militarism, Social Control, Social Construction, political deviance

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7680 Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: Rakkrit Duangsoithong, Jermphiphut Jaruenpunyasak, Alba Garcia

Abstract:

The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.

Keywords: Deep learning, Convolutional Neural Networks, foot recognition, knee rehabilitation

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7679 Analysis of the Main Concepts and Discussions Involving Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra

Abstract:

The development of tourism is on the use of landscapes, natural or constructed, which involves a number of factors that contribute to the deterioration of nature. Tourist activity coupled with sustainable development has led to the emergence of many questions about these terms, since they are not well defined in this sense through literature searches. The present study was to analyze the main concepts and discussions involving sustainable tourism, providing reflections that can cause answers about one of the main questions in today's activity sector on whether its sustainability is a myth or reality. The methodology of this study is discussions, theoretical studies and bibliographic research. The results showed that the scholars who address the issue, often leave uncertainty about some discussions that demonstrate that there are still many studies to be conducted in order to prove that the claims so as to form the basis of what will be Tourism sustainable.

Keywords: Development, Tourism, Sustainability, discussions

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