Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Asmaa M. Hussein

72 Multivariate Analysis of Spectroscopic Data for Agriculture Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Hussein, Amr Wassal, Ahmed Farouk Al-Sadek, A. F. Abd El-Rahman

Abstract:

In this study, a multivariate analysis of potato spectroscopic data was presented to detect the presence of brown rot disease or not. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (1,350-2,500 nm) combined with multivariate analysis was used as a rapid, non-destructive technique for the detection of brown rot disease in potatoes. Spectral measurements were performed in 565 samples, which were chosen randomly at the infection place in the potato slice. In this study, 254 infected and 311 uninfected (brown rot-free) samples were analyzed using different advanced statistical analysis techniques. The discrimination performance of different multivariate analysis techniques, including classification, pre-processing, and dimension reduction, were compared. Applying a random forest algorithm classifier with different pre-processing techniques to raw spectra had the best performance as the total classification accuracy of 98.7% was achieved in discriminating infected potatoes from control.

Keywords: Brown rot disease, NIR spectroscopy, potato, random forest.

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71 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Planning in the United States: Evidences from North Carolina

Authors: Asmaa Benbaba

Abstract:

This paper aims to reconsider relationships between animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and planning. It stresses the idea of the necessity for a methodological revolution in order to increase the chances for dialogue between different actors and various planning agencies and create possibilities to manage conflicts. The explored case of North Carolina shows limitations in environmental agencies’ actions and methods. It also calls for a more integrated approach among agencies including the local agencies.

Keywords: (CAFOs), North Carolina, Planning, United States.

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70 From Maskee to Audible Noise in Perceptual Speech Enhancement

Authors: Asmaa Amehraye, Dominique Pastor, Ahmed Tamtaoui, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

A new analysis of perceptual speech enhancement is presented. It focuses on the fact that if only noise above the masking threshold is filtered, then noise below the masking threshold, but above the absolute threshold of hearing, can become audible after the masker filtering. This particular drawback of some perceptual filters, hereafter called the maskee-to-audible-noise (MAN) phenomenon, favours the emergence of isolated tonals that increase musical noise. Two filtering techniques that avoid or correct the MAN phenomenon are proposed to effectively suppress background noise without introducing much distortion. Experimental results, including objective and subjective measurements, show that these techniques improve the enhanced speech quality and the gain they bring emphasizes the importance of the MAN phenomenon.

Keywords: Perceptual speech filtering, maskee to audible noise, distorsion, musical noise.

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69 RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Abdellah Chehri, Hussein Mouftah, Paul Fortier, Hasnaa Aniss

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN. Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.

Keywords: Sensor networks, RF Link, path loss.

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68 Towards Sustainable Urban Transportation Case Studies

Authors: R. M. R. Hussein

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the greatest environmental, economic, and social challenges of our time. Urban transportation has had a major negative impact on our environment—most of our air pollution comes from transport. This paper explores ways to move toward a more sustainable transport system by focusing on creating a more efficient and livable city and improving the environmental efficiency of transport activity. The analytical study covers some international examples of applying sustainable transportation and uses them to suggest a frame work to develop the transportation system in Egypt to be sustainable and more intelligent.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency, electric vehicle, liveable city, sustainable transportation.

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67 A Genetic Algorithm for Optimum Design of PID Controller in Load Frequency Control

Authors: T. Hussein

Abstract:

In this paper, determining the optimal proportionalintegral- derivative (PID) controller gains of an single-area load frequency control (LFC) system using genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The LFC is notoriously difficult to control optimally using conventionally tuning a PID controller because the system parameters are constantly changing. It is for this reason the GA as tuning strategy was applied. The simulation has been conducted in MATLAB Simulink package for single area power system. the simulation results shows the effectiveness performance of under various disturbance.

Keywords: Load Frequency Control (LFC), PID controller and Genetic Algorithm (GA).

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66 Simple and Advanced Models for Calculating Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Line-Side Harmonics

Authors: Hussein A. Kazem, Abdulhakeem Abdullah Albaloshi, Ali Said Ali Al-Jabri, Khamis Humaid AlSaidi

Abstract:

This paper proposes different methods for estimation of the harmonic currents of the single-phase diode bridge rectifier. Both simple and advanced methods are compared and the models are put into a context of practical use for calculating the harmonic distortion in a typical application. Finally, the different models are compared to measurements of a real application and convincing results are achieved.

Keywords: Single-phase rectifier, line side Harmonics

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65 WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis

Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Thanaa Hussein Abd, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji, S. A. Aljunid

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum- Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate (BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems. Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no bandwidth expansion in needed.

Keywords: WDM, OCDMA, BER, RD code

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64 Using PFA in Feature Analysis and Selection for H.264 Adaptation

Authors: Nora A. Naguib, Ahmed E. Hussein, Hesham A. Keshk, Mohamed I. El-Adawy

Abstract:

Classification of video sequences based on their contents is a vital process for adaptation techniques. It helps decide which adaptation technique best fits the resource reduction requested by the client. In this paper we used the principal feature analysis algorithm to select a reduced subset of video features. The main idea is to select only one feature from each class based on the similarities between the features within that class. Our results showed that using this feature reduction technique the source video features can be completely omitted from future classification of video sequences.

Keywords: Adaptation, feature selection, H.264, Principal Feature Analysis (PFA)

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63 Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Usage and Financial Performance of Branches in Jordanian Banking Industry

Authors: Hamzah Hussein Al-mawali, Yuserrie Zainuddin, Noor Nasir Kader Ali

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting, particularly performance measurement systems within the BSC framework, by investigating empirically the extent of multiple performance measures usage and their effects on the financial performance of Jordanian banks in the branches level. Nevertheless, the result of this study shows that the non-financial measures usages, particularly, customer oriented indicators and product/ service oriented indicators, appears to be important as it enhances firm performance. Remarkably, the findings reveal that there is positive relationship between the usages of multiple performance measures via overall BSC measures and financial performance in the branches level.

Keywords: Performance measurements systems, BalancedScorecard, Jordan.

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62 Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Strengthened Using a Steel Jacketing Technique

Authors: Mohamed K. Elsamny, Adel A. Hussein, Amr M. Nafie, Mohamed K. Abd-Elhamed

Abstract:

An experimental study of Reinforced Concrete, RC, columns strengthened using a steel jacketing technique was conducted. The jacketing technique consisted of four steel vertical angles installed at the corners of the column joined by horizontal steel straps confining the column externally. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated by testing the RC column specimens under eccentric monotonic loading until failure occurred. Strain gauges were installed to monitor the strains in the internal reinforcement as well as the external jacketing system. The effectiveness of the jacketing technique was demonstrated, and the parameters affecting the technique were studied.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Columns, Steel Jacketing, Strengthening, Eccentric Load.

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61 Investigation of the Capability of REALP5 to Solve Complex Fuel Geometry

Authors: D. Abdelrazek, M. NaguibAly, A. A. Badawi, Asmaa G. Abo Elnour, A. A. El-Kafas

Abstract:

This work is developed within IAEA Coordinated Research Program 1496, “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal-hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors”.

The study investigates the capability of Code RELAP5/Mod3.4 to solve complex geometry complexity. Its results are compared to the results of PARET, a common code in thermal hydraulic analysis for research reactors, belonging to MTR-PC groups.

The WWR-SM reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in the Republic of Uzbekistan is simulated using both PARET and RELAP5 at steady state. Results from the two codes are compared.

REALP5 code succeeded in solving the complex fuel geometry. The PARET code needed some calculations to obtain the final result. Although the final results from the PARET are more accurate, the small differences in both results makes using RELAP5 code recommended in case of complex fuel assemblies. 

Keywords: Complex fuel geometry, PARET, RELAP5, WWR-SM reactor.

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60 Performance of Power System Stabilizer (UNITROL D) in Benghazi North Power Plant

Authors: T. Hussein

Abstract:

The use of power system stabilizers (PSSs) to damp power system swing mode of oscillations is practical important. Our purpose is to retune the power system stabilizer (PSS1A) parameters in Unitrol D produced by ABB– was installed in 1995in Benghazi North Power Plants (BNPPs) at General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL). The optimal values of the power system stabilizer (PSS1A) parameters are determined off-line by a particle swarm optimization technique (PSO). The objective is to damp the local and inter-area modes of oscillations that occur following power system disturbances. The retuned power system stabilizer (PSS1A) can cope with large disturbance at different operating points and has enhanced power system stability.

Keywords: Static excitation system, particle swarm optimization (PSO), power system stabilizer (PSS).

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59 Branding Urban Spaces as an Approach for City Branding -Case study: Cairo City, Egypt

Authors: Mohammad R. M. Abdelaal, Reeman M. R. Hussein

Abstract:

With the beginning of the new century, man still faces many challenges in how to form and develop his urban environment. To meet these challenges, many cities have tried to develop its visual image. This is by transforming their urban environment into a branded visual image; this is at the level of squares, the main roads, the borders, and the landmarks. In this realm, the paper aims at activating the role of branded urban spaces as an approach for the development of visual image of cities, especially in Egypt. It concludes the need to recognize the importance of developing the visual image in Egypt, through directing the urban planners to the important role of such spaces in achieving sustainability.

Keywords: Urban branded spaces, brand image, sustainable development, Cairo.

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58 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Authors: Osama Terra, Mariesa Nel, Hatem Hussein

Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has a crucial role for the accurate determination of fault locations and the accurate calculation of loss budget of long-haul optical fibre links during installation and repair. A comparison has been made between the Egyptian National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt) and the National Metrology institute of South Africa (NMISA-South Africa) for the calibration of an OTDR. The distance and the attenuation scales of a transfer OTDR have been calibrated by both institutes using their standards according to the standard IEC 61746-1 (2009). The results of this comparison have been compiled in this report.

Keywords: OTDR calibration, recirculating loop, concatenated method, standard fibre.

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57 Analysis of Heart Beat Dynamics through Singularity Spectrum

Authors: Harish Kumar, Hussein Yahia, Oriol Pont, Michel Haissaguerre, Nicolas Derval, Meleze Hocini

Abstract:

The analysis to detect arrhythmias and life-threatening conditions are highly essential in today world and this analysis can be accomplished by advanced non-linear processing methods for accurate analysis of the complex signals of heartbeat dynamics. In this perspective, recent developments in the field of multiscale information content have lead to the Microcanonical Multiscale Formalism (MMF). We show that such framework provides several signal analysis techniques that are especially adapted to the study of heartbeat dynamics. In this paper, we just show first hand results of whether the considered heartbeat dynamics signals have the multiscale properties by computing local preticability exponents (LPEs) and the Unpredictable Points Manifold (UPM), and thereby computing the singularity spectrum.

Keywords: Microcanonical Multiscale Formalism (MMF), UnpredictablePoints Manifold (UPM), Heartbeat Dynamics.

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56 Particle Swarm Optimization Approach on Flexible Structure at Wiper Blade System

Authors: A. Zolfagharian, M.Z. Md. Zain, A. R. AbuBakar, M. Hussein

Abstract:

Application of flexible structures has been significantly, increased in industry and aerospace missions due to their contributions and unique advantages over the rigid counterparts. In this paper, vibration analysis of a flexible structure i.e., automobile wiper blade is investigated and controlled. The wiper generates unwanted noise and vibration during the wiping the rain and other particles on windshield which may cause annoying noise in different ranges of frequency. A two dimensional analytical modeled wiper blade whose model accuracy is verified by numerical studies in literature is considered in this study. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed in alliance with input shaping (IS) technique in order to control or to attenuate the amplitude level of unwanted noise/vibration of the wiper blade.

Keywords: Input shaping, noise reduction, particle swarmoptimization, wiper blade

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55 Human Behavior Modeling in Video Surveillance of Conference Halls

Authors: Nour Charara, Hussein Charara, Omar Abou Khaled, Hani Abdallah, Elena Mugellini

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a human behavior modeling approach in videos scenes. This approach is used to model the normal behaviors in the conference halls. We exploited the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis technique (PLSA), using the 'Bag-of-Terms' paradigm, as a tool for exploring video data to learn the model by grouping similar activities. Our term vocabulary consists of 3D spatio-temporal patch groups assigned by the direction of motion. Our video representation ensures the spatial information, the object trajectory, and the motion. The main importance of this approach is that it can be adapted to detect abnormal behaviors in order to ensure and enhance human security.

Keywords: Activity modeling, clustering, PLSA, video representation.

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54 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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53 Optimal Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm Technique

Authors: Ahmed Z. Gabr, Ahmed A. Helal, Hussein E. Said

Abstract:

With the incessant increase of power systems capacity and voltage grade, the safety of grounding grid becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, the designing substation grounding grid is presented by means of genetic algorithm (GA). This approach purposes to control the grounding cost of the power system with the aid of controlling grounding rod number and conductor lengths under the same safety limitations. The proposed technique is used for the design of the substation grounding grid in Khalda Petroleum Company “El-Qasr” power plant and the design was simulated by using CYMGRD software for results verification. The result of the design is highly complying with IEEE 80-2000 standard requirements.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, optimum grounding grid design, power system analysis, power system protection, single layer model, substation.

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52 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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51 Kinematic Analysis of an Assistive Robotic Leg for Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients

Authors: M.R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, K. F. Samat, M.S. Che Kob, M.S. Yaacob, M.Z. Md Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the kinematic analysis and mechanism design of an assistive robotic leg for hemiplegic and hemiparetic patients. In this work, the priority is to design and develop the lightweight, effective and single driver mechanism on the basis of experimental hip and knee angles- data for walking speed of 1 km/h. A mechanism of cam-follower with three links is suggested for this purpose. The kinematic analysis is carried out and analysed using commercialized MATLAB software based on the prototype-s links sizes and kinematic relationships. In order to verify the kinematic analysis of the prototype, kinematic analysis data are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement between them proves that the anthropomorphic design of the lower extremity exoskeleton follows the human walking gait.

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, assistive robotic leg, lower extremity exoskeleton, cam-follower mechanism.

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50 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil-Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee, Eid A. Ismail, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Moataz A. Elsawy

Abstract:

Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: Jojoba oil, transesterification, microwave, gas chromatography jojoba esters, Jojoba alcohol.

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49 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

Abstract:

Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, Internal Features, Punch Shapes, Sheet metal, STEP.

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48 Wavelet Entropy Based Algorithm for Fault Detection and Classification in FACTS Compensated Transmission Line

Authors: Amany M. El-Zonkoly, Hussein Desouki

Abstract:

Distance protection of transmission lines including advanced flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices has been a very challenging task. FACTS devices of interest in this paper are static synchronous series compensators (SSSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC). In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to detect and classify the fault and identify the fault position in a transmission line with respect to a FACTS device placed in the midpoint of the transmission line. Discrete wavelet transformation and wavelet entropy calculations are used to analyze during fault current and voltage signals of the compensated transmission line. The proposed algorithm is very simple and accurate in fault detection and classification. A variety of fault cases and simulation results are introduced to show the effectiveness of such algorithm.

Keywords: Entropy calculation, FACTS, SSSC, UPFC, wavelet transform.

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47 Preliminary Survey on MATLAB Learning among Power Electronics Students in Technical Education: A Case Study

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani, Insaf Ali Siming

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the findings of preliminary survey on MATLAB software learning among power electronics students. One of the main focuses of power electronics course is on DC to DC boost convertors, because boost convertors are generally used in different industrial and non industrial applications. Population samples of this study were randomly selected final year bachelor of electronics and electrical engineering students from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM).As per the results from the survey questioner analysis, almost eighty percent students are facing problem and difficulties in Dc to Dc boost convertors experimental understanding without using MATLAB simulink package. As per finding of this study it is clear that MATLAB play an effective and efficient function for better understanding of boost convertors experimental work among power electronics learners.

Keywords: MATLAB, Simulation, Power Electronics, Experimental Work.

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46 Development of a Mobile Image-Based Reminder Application to Support Tuberculosis Treatment in Africa

Authors: Haji Ali Haji, Hussein Suleman, Ulrike Rivett

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, development and evaluation of an application prototype developed to support tuberculosis (TB) patients’ treatment adherence. The system makes use of graphics and voice reminders as opposed to text messaging to encourage patients to follow their medication routine. To evaluate the effect of the prototype applications, participants were given mobile phones on which the reminder system was installed. Thirty-eight people, including TB health workers and patients from Zanzibar, Tanzania, participated in the evaluation exercises. The results indicate that the participants found the mobile image-based application is useful to support TB treatment. All participants understood and interpreted the intended meaning of every image correctly. The study findings revealed that the use of a mobile visualbased application may have potential benefit to support TB patients (both literate and illiterate) in their treatment processes.

Keywords: ICT4D, mobile technology, tuberculosis, visualbased reminder.

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45 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial hydrogel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, grafting, olive pulp.

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44 Kinematic Gait Analysis of Upper and Lower Limbs Joints in Hemiplegic Children

Authors: Zeinab A.Hussein, Manal S. Abd El-Wahab, Shorouk A. W. El-Shennawy

Abstract:

Children with hemiplgic cerebral palsy often walk with diminished reciprocal arm swing so the purpose of this study was to describe kinematic characteristics in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) during the gait suphases, and find if there is a correlation between upper(shoulder and elbow) and lower(hip, knee, and ankle) limb joints either in involved or uninvolved.48 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (18boys, 30girls) with an average age of (5.1±0.87) years were selected randomly to evaluate joint angles during gait by 3D motion analysis system with 6 pro reflex cameras in a sagittal plane for both sides of the body. The results showed increased shoulder and elbow flexion, increased hip angular displacement, decreased knee and ankle arcs during gait cycle, also there is correlation between shoulder and elbow to hip, knee, and ankle joints during various subphases of gait.

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Gait, Hemiplegia, Motion analysis.

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43 Loop-free Local Path Repair Strategy for Directed Diffusion

Authors: Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni, Sherine M. Abd El-kader, Hussein S. Eissa

Abstract:

This paper proposes an implementation for the directed diffusion paradigm aids in studying this paradigm-s operations and evaluates its behavior according to this implementation. The directed diffusion is evaluated with respect to the loss percentage, lifetime, end-to-end delay, and throughput. From these evaluations some suggestions and modifications are proposed to improve the directed diffusion behavior according to this implementation with respect to these metrics. The proposed modifications reflect the effect of local path repair by introducing a technique called Loop-free Local Path Repair (LLPR) which improves the directed diffusion behavior especially with respect to packet loss percentage by about 92.69%. Also LLPR improves the throughput and end-to-end delay by about 55.31% and 14.06% respectively, while the lifetime decreases by about 29.79%.

Keywords: Attribute-value based naming scheme, data gathering, data-centric routing, energy-efficiency, locality, wireless sensor network.

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