Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Akbar Soleimani

41 Effects of Dry Period Length on, Milk Production and Composition, Blood Metabolites and Complete Blood Count in Subsequent Lactation of Holstein Dairy Cows

Authors: Akbar Soleimani, Alireza Heravi Moussavi, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Abolqasem Golian

Abstract:

Twenty - nine Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effects of different dry period (DP) lengths on milk yield and composition, some blood metabolites, and complete blood count (CBC). Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: 1) 60-d dry period, 2) 35-d DP. Milk yield, from calving to 60 days, was not different for cows on the treatments (p =0.130). Cows in the 35-d DP produced more milk protein and SNF compare with cows in treatment 1 (p ≤ 0.05). Serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. The results of this study demonstrated we can reduce the dry period length to 35 days with no problems.

Keywords: complete blood count, dairy cows, dry period, milk yield

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40 Ionic Liquid Promoted One-pot Synthesis of Benzo[b][1,4]oxazines

Authors: Ebrahim Soleimani, Afsaneh Taheri Kal koshvandi

Abstract:

benzo[b][1,4]oxazines have been synthesized in good to excellent yields in the presence of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide [bmim]Br under relatively mild conditions without any added catalyst, the reaction workup is simple and the ionic liquid can be easily separated from the product and reused.

Keywords: Isocyanide, Benzo[b][1, 4]oxazines, Multi-componentreactions, [bmim]Br, Ionic Liquid.

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39 Physical and Chemical Investigation of Polycaprolactone, Nanohydroxyapatite and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Scaffolds

Authors: A.Doustgani, E.Vasheghani- Farahani, M. Soleimani, S. Hashemi-Najafabadi

Abstract:

Aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds of PVA/PCL/nHA were fabricated by electrospinning method. The composite nanofibrous scaffolds were subjected to detailed analysis. Morphological investigations revealed that the prepared nanofibers have uniform morphology and the average fiber diameters of aligned and random scaffolds were 135.5 and 290 nm, respectively. The obtained scaffolds have a porous structure with porosity of 88 and 76% for random and aligned nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, FTIR analysis demonstrated that there were strong intramolecular interactions between the molecules of PVA/PCL/nHA. On the other hand, mechanical characterizations show that aligning the nanofibers, could significantly improve the rigidity of the resultant biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds.

Keywords: Electrospinnig, nanofibrous scaffold, poly (vinyl alcohol), polycaprolactone.

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38 Analysis of a Secondary Autothermal Reformer Using a Thermodynamic POX Model

Authors: Akbar Zamaniyan, Alireza Behroozsarand, Hadi Ebrahimi

Abstract:

Partial oxidation (POX) of light hydrocarbons (e.g. methane) is occurred in the first part of the autothermal reformer (ATR). The results of the detailed modeling of the reformer based on the thermodynamic model of the POX and 1D heterogeneous catalytic model for the fixed bed section are considered here. According to the results, the overall performance of the ATR can be improved by changing the important feed parameters.

Keywords: Autothermal Reformer, Partial Oxidation, Mathematical Modeling, Process Simulation, Syngas.

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37 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: Coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, cuk converter, sepic converter.

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36 Optimal Control Problem, Quasi-Assignment Problem and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Omid S. Fard, Akbar H. Borzabadi

Abstract:

In this paper we apply one of approaches in category of heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithms for obtaining approximate solution of optimal control problems. The firs we convert optimal control problem to a quasi Assignment Problem by defining some usual characters as defined in Genetic algorithm applications. Then we obtain approximate optimal control function as an piecewise constant function. Finally the numerical examples are given.

Keywords: Optimal control, Integer programming, Genetic algorithm, Discrete approximation, Linear programming.

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35 Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the First Kind via Converting to Optimization Problems

Authors: Akbar H. Borzabadi, Omid S. Fard

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an approach via optimization methods to find approximate solutions for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the first kind. To this purpose, we consider two stages of approximation. First we convert the integral equation to a moment problem and then we modify the new problem to two classes of optimization problems, non-constraint optimization problems and optimal control problems. Finally numerical examples is proposed.

Keywords: Fredholm integral equation, Optimization method, Optimal control, Nonlinear and linear programming

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34 Novel Mobile Climbing Robot Agent for Offshore Platforms

Authors: Akbar F. Moghaddam, Magnus Lange, Omid Mirmotahari, Mats Høvin

Abstract:

To improve HSE standards, oil and gas industries are interested in using remotely controlled and autonomous robots instead of human workers on offshore platforms. In addition to earlier reason this strategy would increase potential revenue, efficient usage of work experts and even would allow operations in more remote areas. This article is the presentation of a custom climbing robot, called Walloid, designed for offshore platform topside automation. This 4 arms climbing robot with grippers is an ongoing project at University of Oslo.

Keywords: Climbing Robots, Mobile Robots, Offshore Robotics, Offshore Platforms, Automation, Inspection, Monitoring.

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33 Development Prospects of Education System in Modernization

Authors: Akbar Seraly, Kazbek Primbetov, Gulmira Abdiraiymova, Gulnapis Abdikerova

Abstract:

the article analyzes the development prospects of education system in Kazakhstan. Education is among key sources of culture and social mobility. Modern education must become civic which means availability of high quality education to all people irrespective of their racial, ethnic, religious, social, gender and any other differences. Socially focused nature of modernization of Kazakhstan-s society is predicated upon formation of a civic education model in the future. Kazakhstan-s education system undergoes intensive reforms first of all intended to achieve international education standards and integration into the global educational and information space.

Keywords: Education system, Kazakhstan , Modernization

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32 Characterization of Monoids by a Generalization of Flatness Property

Authors: Mahdiyeh Abbasi, Akbar Golchin

Abstract:

It is well-known that, using principal weak flatness property, some important monoids are characterized, such as regular monoids, left almost regular monoids, and so on. In this article, we define a generalization of principal weak flatness called GP-Flatness, and will characterize monoids by this property of their right (Rees factor) acts. Also we investigate new classes of monoids called generally regular monoids and generally left almost regular monoids.

Keywords: G-left stabilizing, GP-flatness, generally regular, principal weak flatness.

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31 Evaluation of Protein Digestibility in Canola Meals between Caecectomised and Intact Adult Cockerels

Authors: Ali Nouri Emamzadeh, Akbar Yaghobfar

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate digestibility quantities of protein in Canola Meals (CMs) between caecectomised and intact adult Rhode Island Red (RIR) cockerels with using conventional addition method (CAM) for 7 d: a 4-d adaptation and a 3-d experiment period on the basis of a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Results indicated that caecectomy decreased (P<0.05) apparent and true digestibility quantities of protein for CMs, except for CMs 2 and 3. The mean apparent and true digestibility quantities for all CMs in caecectomised (80.5 and 81.4%, respectively) were (3.1 and 3.3%, respectively) less (P<0.05) than intact cockerels (83.6 and 84.7%, respectively). Therefore, the caecectomy method increases accuracy of the digestibility measurements of protein for this meal in bioassays based on excreta collection in adult cockerels.

Keywords: Adult cockerels, caecectomy, canola meals, proteindigestibility.

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30 Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure

Authors: Nader H. Ghareeb, Mohamed S. Gaith, Sayed M. Soleimani

Abstract:

In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.

Keywords: Active linear control, Lyapunov stability theorem, piezoelectricity, smart structure, static deflection.

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29 Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization

Authors: Omid Heydarnia, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, M. R. Sayyed Noorani

Abstract:

Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.

Keywords: Underactuated system, biped robot, fuzzy control, partial feedback linearization.

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28 A Direct Probabilistic Optimization Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problem

Authors: Akbar Banitalebi, Mohd Ismail Abd Aziz, Rohanin Ahmad

Abstract:

A new stochastic algorithm called Probabilistic Global Search Johor (PGSJ) has recently been established for global optimization of nonconvex real valued problems on finite dimensional Euclidean space. In this paper we present convergence guarantee for this algorithm in probabilistic sense without imposing any more condition. Then, we jointly utilize this algorithm along with control parameterization technique for the solution of constrained optimal control problem. The numerical simulations are also included to illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PGSJ algorithm in the solution of control problems.

Keywords: Optimal Control Problem, Constraints, Direct Methods, Stochastic Algorithm

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27 Using Reuse Water for Irrigation Green space of Naein City

Authors: Nasri M., Soleimani A.

Abstract:

Since water resources of desert Naein City are very limited, a approach which saves water resources and meanwhile meets the needs of the greenspace for water is to use city-s sewage wastewater. Proper treatment of Naein-s sewage up to the standards required for green space uses may solve some of the problems of green space development of the city. The present paper closely examines available statistics and information associated with city-s sewage system, and determines complementary stages of sewage treatment facilities of the city. In the present paper, population, per capita water use, and required discharge for various greenspace pieces including different plants are calculated. Moreover, in order to facilitate the application of water resources, a Crude water distribution network apart from drinking water distribution network is designed, and a plan for mixing municipal wells- water with sewage wastewater in proposed mixing tanks is suggested. Hence, following greenspace irrigation reform and complementary plan, per capita greenspace of the city will be increased from current amount of 13.2 square meters to 32 square meters.

Keywords: Sewage Treatment Facility, Wastewater, Greenspace, Distribution Network, Naein City

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26 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: Torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate.

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25 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents

Authors: Mohammad Songolzadeh, Maryam Takht Ravanchi, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas, accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical changes on them. There are several post combustion gas separation and capture technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b) cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques, the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the application of adsorption from either technology, require easily regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2 capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2 adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future research directions were suggested as well.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, pre-combustion, postcombustion, adsorption

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24 Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking

Authors: Ali Akbar Attari, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, spread spectrum, discrete wavelet transform, psychoacoustic, Savitsky-Golay filter.

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23 Identification of an Appropriate Alternative Waste Technology for Energy Recovery from Waste through Multi-Criteria Analysis

Authors: Sharmina Begum, M. G. Rasul, Delwar Akbar

Abstract:

Waste management is now a global concern due to its high environmental impact on climate change. Because of generating huge amount of waste through our daily activities, managing waste in an efficient way has become more important than ever. Alternative Waste Technology (AWT), a new category of waste treatment technology has been developed for energy recovery in recent years to address this issue. AWT describes a technology that redirects waste away from landfill, recovers more useable resources from the waste flow and reduces the impact on the surroundings. Australia is one of the largest producers of waste per-capita. A number of AWTs are using in Australia to produce energy from waste. Presently, it is vital to identify an appropriate AWT to establish a sustainable waste management system in Australia. Identification of an appropriate AWT through Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) of four AWTs by using five key decision making criteria is presented and discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Alternative waste technology (AWT), Energy fromwaste, Gasification, Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA)

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22 Classifier Combination Approach in Motion Imagery Signals Processing for Brain Computer Interface

Authors: Homayoon Zarshenas, Mahdi Bamdad, Hadi Grailu, Akbar A. Shakoori

Abstract:

In this study we focus on improvement performance of a cue based Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface (BCI). For this purpose, data fusion approach is used on results of different classifiers to make the best decision. At first step Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization method is used as a feature selection method to determine most informative frequencies in recorded signals and its performance is evaluated by frequency search method. Then informative features are extracted by packet wavelet transform. In next step 5 different types of classification methods are applied. The methodologies are tested on BCI Competition II dataset III, the best obtained accuracy is 85% and the best kappa value is 0.8. At final step ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method is used to provide a proper aggregation classifiers outputs. Using OWA enhanced system accuracy to 95% and kappa value to 0.9. Applying OWA just uses 50 milliseconds for performing calculation.

Keywords: BCI, EEG, Classifier, Fuzzy operator, OWA.

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21 Biological Soil Conservation Planning by Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques (Case Study: Bonkuh Watershed in Iran)

Authors: Ali Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

This paper discusses site selection process for biological soil conservation planning. It was supported by a valuefocused approach and spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques. A first set of spatial criteria was used to design a number of potential sites. Next, a new set of spatial and non-spatial criteria was employed, including the natural factors and the financial costs, together with the degree of suitability for the Bonkuh watershed to biological soil conservation planning and to recommend the most acceptable program. The whole process was facilitated by a new software tool that supports spatial multiple criteria evaluation, or SMCE in GIS software (ILWIS). The application of this tool, combined with a continual feedback by the public attentions, has provided an effective methodology to solve complex decisional problem in biological soil conservation planning.

Keywords: GIS, Biological soil conservation planning, Spatial multi-criteria evaluation, Iran

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20 Applying the Regression Technique for Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to assist physicians in early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is obvious. The main purpose of this study would be to enable patients to become better informed about their condition and to encourage them to seek professional care at an earlier stage in the appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, were selected as the main features.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, acute heart attacks, prediction, logistic regression.

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19 Authentication in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Kaleemullah Khan, Muhammmad Akbar

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are an emerging technology for last-mile broadband access. In WMNs, similar to ad hoc networks, each user node operates not only as a host but also as a router. User packets are forwarded to and from an Internet-connected gateway in multi-hop fashion. The WMNs can be integrated with other networking technologies i.e. ad hoc networks, to implement a smooth network extension. The meshed topology provides good reliability and scalability, as well as low upfront investments. Despite the recent start-up surge in WMNs, much research remains to be done in standardizing the functional parameters of WMNs to fully exploit their full potential. An edifice of the security concerns of these networks is authentication of a new client joining an integrated ad hoc network and such a scenario will require execution of a multihop authentication technique. Our endeavor in this paper is to introduce a secure authentication technique, with light over-heads that can be conveniently implemented for the ad-hoc nodes forming clients of an integrated WMN, thus facilitating their inter-operability.

Keywords: Multi-Hop WMNs, PANA, EAP-TTLS, Authentication, RADIUS.

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18 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: High strength concrete, beam-column connection, FRP, FEM.

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17 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar

Abstract:

The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: Apostasy, Islam, Quran, hadith, Abdolkarim Soroush, contextualization.

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16 Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Pabdeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations (Cretaceous-Tertiary) Based on Clay Mineral Distribution

Authors: B. Soleimani

Abstract:

Paleoclimate was reconstructed by the clay mineral assemblages of shale units of Pabdeh (Paleocene- Oligocene), Gurpi (Upper Cretaceous), Kazhdumi (Albian-Cenomanian) and Gadvan (Aptian-Neocomian) formations in the Bangestan anticline. To compare with clay minerals assemblages in these formations, selected samples also taken from available formations in drilled wells in Ahvaz, Marun, Karanj, and Parsi oil fields. Collected samples prepared using standard clay mineral methodology. They were treated as normal, glycolated and heated oriented glass slides. Their identification was made on X-Ray diffractographs. Illite % varies from 8 to 36. Illite quantity increased from Pabdeh to Gurpi Formation. This may be due to dominant dry climate. Kaolinite is in range of 12-49%. Its variation style in different formations could be a marker of climate changes from wet to dry which is supported by the lithological changes. Chlorite (4-28%) can also be detected in those samples without any kaolinite. Mixed layer minerals as the mixture of illite-chlorite and illite-vermiculite-montmorillonite are varied from 6 to 36%, decreased during Kazhdumi deposition from the base to the top. This result may be according to decreasing of illite leaching process. Vermiculite was also determined in very less quantity and found in those units without kaolinite. Montmorillonite varies from 8 to 43%, and its presence is due to terrestrial depositional condition. Stratigraphical documents is also supported this idea that clay mineral distribution is a function of the climate changes. It seems, thus, the present results can be indicated a possible procedure for ancient climate changes evaluation.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, Paleoclimate, XRD, oriented slide

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15 Experimental and Finite Element Study of Bending Fatigue Failure: A Case Study on Main Shaft of a Gyrator Crusher

Authors: Rahim Sotoudeh Bahreini, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi, Akbar Jafari

Abstract:

This study investigates the mechanism of a Gyratory crusher-located in Golgohar mining and industrial Co. specifically with a focus on stresses distribution and fatigue failure of its main shaft. At first step, the cross section of the fractured shaft is studied, and the crack growth is analyzed. Then, the rotational motion of the shaft and the oil temperature of oil circuit of equipment are monitored. Condition monitoring is used to help finding a better modification. Based on the results of this study, the main causes of shaft failure are identified, and corrective solution is offered to increase crusher performance, especially its main shaft life. To predict the efficiency of the proposed modification, finite element simulation is performed, and its results are compared with the similar modified cases. The comparison and interpretation of simulation results confirm the efficiency of proposed corrective method.

Keywords: Fatigue failure, finite element method, gyratory crusher, condition monitoring.

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14 Faculty Stress at Higher Education: A Study on the Business Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Aqsa Akbar, Waheed Akhter

Abstract:

Job stress is one of the most important concepts for the today-s corporate as well as institutional world. The current study is conducted to identify the causes of faculty stress at Higher Education in Pakistan. For the purpose, Public & Private Business Schools of Punjab is selected as representative of Pakistan. A sample of 300 faculty members (214 males, 86 females) responded to the survey. Regression analysis shows that the Workload, Student Related issues and Role Conflicts are the major sources contributing significantly towards producing stress. The study also revealed that Private sector faculty members experienced more stress as compared to faculty in Public sector Business Schools. Moreover, females, younger ages, lower designation & low qualification faculty members experience more stress as compared to males, older ages, higher designation and high qualification. The study yield many significant results for the policy makers of Business Institutions.

Keywords: Faculty Stress, Higher Education, Stress Coping Strategies, Work Load

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13 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Easa Ali Abbasi, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Reza Jahangiri, Behnam Dadashzadeh

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: Cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric.

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12 Modeling and Simulation of Honeycomb Steel Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

Authors: Sayed M. Soleimani, Nader H. Ghareeb, Nourhan H. Shaker, Muhammad B. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Honeycomb sandwich panels have been widely used as protective structural elements against blast loading. The main advantages of these panels include their light weight due to the presence of voids, as well as their energy absorption capability. Terrorist activities have imposed new challenges to structural engineers to design protective measures for vital structures. Since blast loading is not usually considered in the load combinations during the design process of a structure, researchers around the world have been motivated to study the behavior of potential elements capable of resisting sudden loads imposed by the detonation of explosive materials. One of the best candidates for this objective is the honeycomb sandwich panel. Studying the effects of explosive materials on the panels requires costly and time-consuming experiments. Moreover, these type of experiments need permission from defense organizations which can become a hurdle. As a result, modeling and simulation using an appropriate tool can be considered as a good alternative. In this research work, the finite element package ABAQUS® is used to study the behavior of hexagonal and squared honeycomb steel sandwich panels under the explosive effects of different amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The results of finite element modeling of a specific honeycomb configuration are initially validated by comparing them with the experimental results from literature. Afterwards, several configurations including different geometrical properties of the honeycomb wall are investigated and the results are compared with the original model. Finally, the effectiveness of the core shape and wall thickness are discussed, and conclusions are made.

Keywords: Blast loading, finite element modeling, steel honeycomb sandwich panel.

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