Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31103
Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Pabdeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations (Cretaceous-Tertiary) Based on Clay Mineral Distribution

Authors: B. Soleimani


Paleoclimate was reconstructed by the clay mineral assemblages of shale units of Pabdeh (Paleocene- Oligocene), Gurpi (Upper Cretaceous), Kazhdumi (Albian-Cenomanian) and Gadvan (Aptian-Neocomian) formations in the Bangestan anticline. To compare with clay minerals assemblages in these formations, selected samples also taken from available formations in drilled wells in Ahvaz, Marun, Karanj, and Parsi oil fields. Collected samples prepared using standard clay mineral methodology. They were treated as normal, glycolated and heated oriented glass slides. Their identification was made on X-Ray diffractographs. Illite % varies from 8 to 36. Illite quantity increased from Pabdeh to Gurpi Formation. This may be due to dominant dry climate. Kaolinite is in range of 12-49%. Its variation style in different formations could be a marker of climate changes from wet to dry which is supported by the lithological changes. Chlorite (4-28%) can also be detected in those samples without any kaolinite. Mixed layer minerals as the mixture of illite-chlorite and illite-vermiculite-montmorillonite are varied from 6 to 36%, decreased during Kazhdumi deposition from the base to the top. This result may be according to decreasing of illite leaching process. Vermiculite was also determined in very less quantity and found in those units without kaolinite. Montmorillonite varies from 8 to 43%, and its presence is due to terrestrial depositional condition. Stratigraphical documents is also supported this idea that clay mineral distribution is a function of the climate changes. It seems, thus, the present results can be indicated a possible procedure for ancient climate changes evaluation.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, Paleoclimate, XRD, oriented slide

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1787


[1] Patchett, J., An investigation of shale conductivity, The log Analy, Vol.16, No.6, pp.3, 1975.
[2] Bruce, C.H., Smectite dehydration- It-s relation to structural development and hydrocarbon accumulation in northern Gulf of Mexico Basin: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., V.68, pp. 673-683, 1984.
[3] Mckeen, R.G., A model for predicting expansive soil behavior. 7 th. Int. Conf. On Expansive Soils, Dallas, Texas, P1-6, august 3-5, 1992.
[4] Carretero, M.I., Clay mineral and their beneficial effects upon human health: A review, J. Applied Clay Science, V. 21, pp.155-163, 2002.
[5] Boles, J.R., & Frank,S.G., Clay diagenesis in Wilcox sandstones of SWTexas: Implication of smectite diagenesis on sandstone cementation. J. Sedim. Petrol., Vol. 49, pp.55-70, 1979.
[6] Midtbq, R. E. A., Rykkye, J.M. and Ramm, M., Deep burial diagenesis and reservoir quality along the eastern flank of the Viking Graben. Evidence for illitization and quartz cementation after hydrocarbon emplacement. Clay Minerals, 35, pp. 227-237, 2000.
[7] Chilingarian, G.U., Compactional Diagenesis, In: Sedim. Diag., Parker, pp.57-168, 1981.
[8] Keller, W.D., Diagenesis in Clay minerals - a review, in Bradley, V.F. Clay & clay minerals, Droc. Nas. Conf. NewYork, MacMillian, Co., No. 1011, pp.136-157, 1963.
[9] Hingston, F. G., Reaction between Boron and Clays, Aust. J. Soil Res., vol. 2, pp. 83-95, 1964.
[10] Pollastro, R.M., Consideration and application of the Illite/Smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Min., vol. 41, pp. 119-133, 1993.
[11] Soleimani, B., Subsidence- Uplift history and petroleum source rock study of Cenozoic Foreland basin of NW Himalaya, HP., India, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Roorkee (unpublished), 1999.
[12] Slatt, R..M., Importance of shales and mudrocks in oil and gas exploration and reservoir development. In: Scott, E.D., A.H. Bouma, and W.R. Pryant (eds.), Siltstone, mudstone and shales; depositional processes and characteristics, SEPM/GCAGS Spec. Publ., SEPEM, May, pp. 1-22, 2003.
[13] Net, L.I., Alonso, M.S. and Limarino, C.O., Source rock and environmental control on clay mineral associations, Lower section of Panganzo Group (Carboniferous), Northwest Argentina, J. Sedimentary Geol., vol. 52, pp. 183-199, 2002.
[14] Biscaye, P.E., Mineralogy of sedimentation of recent deep clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans. Geol. Soc. Am.Bull., vol.76, pp.803-832, 1965.
[15] Grim, R.E., Clay mineralogy. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co., New York, p.596, 1968.
[16] Ingles-Ramos, M., Guerrero, R.E., Sedimentological control on the clay mineral distribution in the marine and non-marine Paleogene deposits of Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), J. Sedimentary Geol., vol. 94, pp. 229-243, 1995.
[17] Weaver, C. E., Developments in Sedimentology, 44; Clays, Muds and Shales. Elsevier Sci., Publi., p. 819, 1989.
[18] Keller, W.D., Environmental aspects of clay minerals, J. Sed. Pet, vol.40, pp.783-813, 1970.
[19] Boggs, S.G., Principles of Sedimentology & Stratighraphy, Merrin Publ. Comp., p. 784, 1987.
[20] Cavanagh, A., Couples, G. and Haszeldine, S., Implication of burial flow modelling on illite ages for the Magnus reservoir, North Sea, ClayMineral evolution, Basin Maturity and Mudrock properties, Held at BGS, Keyworth/ Nottingham, UK, 1997.
[21] Odin, G.S., Fullagar, P.D., Geological Significance of the glaucony facies. Green marin clays (Odin,G.S.,ed.), pp.295- 332, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988.
[22] Prothero, D. R., & Schwab, F., An introduction to Sedimentary rocks and Stratigraphy. Sedimentary Geology, Freeman & Company, p. 575, 1996.
[23] Ingram, R.L., Robinson, M. and Odum, H.T., Clay mineralogy of some Carolina Bay sediments. Southeastern Geology, vol. 1, pp. 1-10, 1959.
[24] Moll, W.F., Jr., Origin of CMS Samples, in: Data Handbook for Clay Materials and Other Non-Metallic Minerals (H. van Olphen and J.J. Fripiat, editors).Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 69-125, 1979.
[25] Jeans, C.V., Wray, D.S., Merriman, R. J., and Fisher, M. J., Volcanogenic clays in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of England and the North Sea Basin. Clay Minerals; March 2000; vol. 35, pp. 25-55, 2000.
[26] Drits, V.A., Structural and chemical heterogeneity of layer silicates and clay minerals. Clay Minerals, vol. 38, pp. 403-432, 2003.
[27] Arslan, M., Kadir, S., Abdioglu, E., and Kolayli, H., Origin and formation of kaolin minerals in saprolite of Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks, Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey. Clay Minerals, vol. 41, pp. 597- 617, 2006.
[28] Jeans, C. V., Clay mineralogy of the Cretaceous strata of the British Isles. Clay Minerals, vol. 41, pp. 47-150, 2006a.
[29] Jeans, C.V., Clay mineralogy of the Jurassic strata of the British Isles. Clay Minerals, vol. 41, pp. 187-307, 2006b.
[30] Jeans, C.V., Clay mineralogy of the Permo-Triassic strata of the British Isles: onshore and offshore. Clay Minerals, vol. 41, pp. 309-354, 2006c.
[31] Elsinger, E. and Pevear, D., Clay minerals for petroleum geologist and engineers, Soc. Econ. Paleontol, Mineral short course- Notes22, 1988.
[32] Kublicki, C., & Millot, G., Diagenesis of clay in sedimentary and petroliferous series. Proc. of Twentienth, Nat. Cof. On Clays and Clay minerals, vol. 10, p. 329, Pergoman Press, London, 1963.
[33] Jeans, C.V., Mineral diagenesis and reservoir quality-The way forward: an introduction, Clay Minerals, vol.35, pp. 3-4, 2000
[34] Aly, S.A., El-Sayed, A.M., and El-Shawadfy, A., Application of well logs to assess the effect of clay minerals on the petrophysical parameters of Lower Cretaceous reservoirs, north Sinai, Egypt. EGS Journal, vol. 1, pp. 117-127, 2003.
[35] Blum, P.,Rabaute, A., Gaudon, P., Allan,J.F., Analysis of Natural Gamma-ray Spectra obtained from sediment cores with the Shipboard scintillation detector of ocean drilling program: example from Leg 156. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 156, pp. 183-195, 1997.
[36] Meyer, B.L. and Nederlof, M.H., Identification of source rock on wireline logs by Density/Resistivity and Sonic transit time/Resistivity Cross-plots, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 68, no.2, pp.121-129, 1984.
[37] Hassan, M.A., Abdeh-Wahab, M., Nad, A., Dine, N. and Khazbak, A., Determination of Uranium and Thorium in Egyptian Monazite by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., vol.48, no.1, pp.149- 152, 1997.
[38] Jurado, M. J., Moore, J. C. and Goldberg, D., Comprative logging results in clay-rich litholoies on the Barbados ridge. Proceeding of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 156, pp. 321-331, 1997.
[39] Mondshine, T.C. and Kercheville, J.D., Successful Gumbo-shale Drilling, J. The oil and Gas, vol. 64, no.13, pp.194, 1996.
[40] Fam, M.A., Dussealt, M.B. and Fooks, J.C., Drilling in Mud rocks: rock behavior issues, J. Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol.38, pp.155- 166, 2003.
[41] Schnyder, J., Ruffell, A., Deconinck, J.F., and Baudin, F., Cojuntive use of spectral gamma -ray logs and clay minerals in drilling Late Jurassicearly Cretaceous paleoclimate change (Dorset, U.K.), Paleo. Paleo. Paleo., vol. 229, pp. 303-320, 2006
[42] Mats, V.D., Lomonosova, T.K., Vorobyova, G.A., and Granina, L.Z., Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic clay minerals of the Baikal region (eastern Siberia), Applied Clay Science, vol. 24, pp. 327-336, 2004.
[43] Velde, B., Diagenetic reaction in Clays, in sediment diagenesis, (Ed.A.,Parker & Sellword,B.W., D.Reidal Publ. Comp., p. 427, 1981.
[44] Flores, R.M., Weaver, J.N., Bossiroy, D. and Thorez, J., Genesis of clay mineral assemblages and micropaleoclimatic implications in the Tertiary Powder River Basin, Wyoming. AAPG Bulletin, Vol/Issue: 74:5; Annual convention and exposition of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists; ; San Francisco, CA (USA), .3-6 Jun ,1990
[45] Van Valkenburg,, S.G., Mason, D.B., Owens, J.P., and McCartan, L., Clay mineralogy of the Cape May, Atlantic City, and Island Beach Boreholes, New Jersey. In: Miller, K.G., and Snyder, S.W. (Eds.), 1997. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 150X, pp. 59-64.
[46] Lindgreen, H., and Surlyk, F., Upper Permian-Lower Cretaceous clay mineralogy of East Greenland: provenance, palaeoclimate and volcanicity. Clay Minerals; December 2000; vol. 35, pp. 791-806, 2000.
[47] Moll, W.F., Jr., Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: Geological origin. Clays and Clay Minerals, vol. 49, pp. 374-380, 2001.
[48] Tucker, M., Techniques in sedimentology, BlackWell Scientific Publ.,p. 394, 1988.
[49] Carrol, D., Clay minerals; A guide to their X-Ray Identification, Special Paper 126, Geo. Soc. Am., Boulder, Colorado, 1970.
[50] Carver, R. E., Procedures in sedimentary petrology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 652, 1971.
[51] Tucker, M., Sedimentary Petrology. Blackwell, Oxford, p. 260, 1991.
[52] Lindholm, R.C., A practical approach to sedimentology, Allen & Unwin Inc., p. 277, 1987.
[53] Weir, D.L., Ormerod, E.C. and Ei-Mansey, M.I., Clay mineralogy of sediment of western Nile Delta, J. Clay mineralogy, vol. 10, pp. 369- 386, 1975.
[54] Sepehr, M., & Cosgrove, J.W., Structural framework of the Zagros Fold- Thrust Belt, Iran, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 21, pp. 829-843, 2004.
[55] Mattes, D. H., & Mountjoy, E. W., Burial Dolomitization of the upper Devonian Miette Build up, Jasper National Park, Alberta. In: concepts and models of Dolomitization. E.D by D. H. Zenger, J. B. Dunham and R. L. Ethington, Spec. Publ. Soc. Paleont. Miner, vol. 28, pp. 259-297, 1980.