Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 810

Search results for: hollow fiber module.

810 The Extraction and Stripping of Hg (II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

The separation of Hg (II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a countercurrent flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution at 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg (II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg (II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg (II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment.

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809 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Using a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Module with High Surface Area

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

A polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module is used for separating dissolved gases which contain dissolved oxygen from water. These dissolved gases can be used for underwater breathing. To be used for a human, the minimum amount of oxygen is essential. To increase separation of dissolved gases, much water and high surface area of hollow fibers are requested. For efficient separation system, performance of single membrane module with high surface area needs to be investigated.

In this study, we set up experimental devices for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module. Separation of dissolved gases from water is investigated with variations of water flow rates. Composition of dissolved gases is also measured using GC. These results expect to be used in developing the portable separation system.

Keywords: High surface area, breathing, vacuum, composition.

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808 Mathematical Modelling for Separation of Binary Aqueous Solution using Hollow Fiber Reverse Osmosis Module

Authors: Anil Kumar, S. Deswal

Abstract:

The mathematical equation for Separation of the binary aqueous solution is developed by using the Spiegler- Kedem theory. The characteristics of a B-9 hollow fibre module of Du Pont are determined by using these equations and their results are compared with the experimental results of Ohya et al. The agreement between these results is found to be excellent.

Keywords: Binary aqueous solution, modeling, reverse osmosis module, Spiegler-Kedem theory.

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807 Selective Separation of Lead and Mercury Ions from Synthetic Produced Water via a Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane

Authors: S. Suren, U. Pancharoen

Abstract:

A double module hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was applied to selectively separate lead and mercury ions from dilute synthetic produced water. The experiments were investigated on several variables: types of extractants (D2EHPA, Cyanex 471, Aliquat 336, and TOA), concentration of the selected extractant and operating time. The results clearly showed that the double module HFSLM could selectively separate Pb(II) and Hg(II) in feed solution at a very low concentration to less than the regulatory discharge limit of 0.2 and 0.005 mg/L issued by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Natural Resource Environment, Thailand. The highest extractions of lead and mercury ions from synthetic produced water were 96% and 100% using 0.03 M D2EHPA and 0.06 M Aliquat 336 as the extractant for the first and second modules.

Keywords: Hollow fiber, Lead ions, Liquid membrane, Mercury ions, Selective separation

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806 Separation of Dissolved Gas for Breathing of a Human against Sudden Waves Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

The separation of dissolved gas including dissolved oxygen can be used in breathing for a human under water. When one is suddenly wrecked or meets a tsunami, one is instantly drowned and cannot breathe under water. To avoid this crisis, when we meet waves, the dissolved gas separated from water by wave is used, while air can be used to breathe when we are about to escape from water. In this thesis, we investigated the separation characteristics of dissolved gas using the pipe type of hollow fiber membrane with polypropylene and the nude type of one with polysulfone. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics under water are used to separate the dissolved gas. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics in an air are used to transfer air. The combination of membranes with good separation characteristics under water and good transferring one in an air is used to breathe instantly under water to be alive at crisis. These results showed that polypropylene represented better performance than polysulfone under both of air and water conditions.

Keywords: separation, wave, dissolved gas, hollow fiber

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805 Analytical Solution of Stress Distribution ona Hollow Cylindrical Fiber of a Composite with Cylindrical Volume Element under Axial Loading

Authors: M. H. Kargarnovin, K. Momeni

Abstract:

The study of the stress distribution on a hollow cylindrical fiber placed in a composite material is considered in this work and an analytical solution for this stress distribution has been constructed. Finally some parameters such as fiber-s thickness and fiber-s length are considered and their effects on the distribution of stress have been investigated. For finding the governing relations, continuity equations for the axisymmetric problem in cylindrical coordinate (r,o,z) are considered. Then by assuming some conditions and solving the governing equations and applying the boundary conditions, an equation relates the stress applied to the representative volume element with the stress distribution on the fiber has been found.

Keywords: Axial Loading, Composite, Hollow CylindricalFiber, Stress Distribution.

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804 Preconcentration and Determination of Cyproheptadine in Biological Samples by Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Najari Moghadam Sh., Qomi M., Raofie F., Khadiv J.

Abstract:

In this study, a liquid phase microextraction by hollow fiber (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector was applied to preconcentrate and determine trace levels of Cyproheptadine in human urine and plasma samples. Cyproheptadine was extracted from 10 mL alkaline aqueous solution (pH: 9.81) into an organic solvent (n-octnol) which was immobilized in the wall pores of a hollow fiber. Then was back-extracted into an acidified aqueous solution (pH: 2.59) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This method is simple, efficient and cost-effective. It is based on pH gradient and differences between two aqueous phases. In order to optimize the HF-LPME some affecting parameters including the pH of donor and acceptor phases, the type of organic solvent, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions enrichment factor, limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD(%), n=3) were up to 112, 15 μg.L−1 and 2.7, respectively.

Keywords: Biological samples, Cyproheptadine, hollow fiber, liquid phase microextraction.

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803 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, Ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, Ion-exchange.

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802 Separation Characteristics of the Hollow Fiber Membrane Module Using Water Mixed with Small Sized Bubbles Composed of Synthesized Exhalations

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, Hyunse Kim

Abstract:

Fish can breathe freely under water using dissolved oxygen and survive for a long time without going out of the water. A human can also survive under water using dissolved oxygens, if properly used. He needs more dissolved oxygens than the fish, so efficient separation device is required. Since the amount of oxygen contained in water is weak, a person needs a lot of surface area to breathe in water, which leads to a large-sized device. It can be applied to various fields if it is developed as a device which is advantageous to carry in small size. In this paper, we have carried out a study on the effective use of exhalations and proposed the separation characteristics of the gas containing dissolved oxygen in the state of mixed gas considering the components of exhalation. The system was configured to have a fine bubble when the gas mixture injected into the front end of the separator. While the fluid containing the fine bubbles was supplied to the separator, the dissolved gas contained in water was separated using a vacuum pump. The gas separation amount of the separating apparatus with respect to the supplied mixed gas was measured. The amounts of separation of dissolved gas were increased as the amounts of mixed gas supplied were increased.

Keywords: Small sized bubbles, synthesized exhalations, separation, hollow fiber module.

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801 High Performance of Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane to Separate Silver Ions from Medicinal Wastewater

Authors: Thidarat Wongsawa, Ura Pancharoen, Anchaleeporn Waritswat Lothongkum

Abstract:

The separation of silver ions from medicinal wastewater via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined to promote the performance of this technique. The wastewater consisting of 30mg/L silver ions and 120mg/L ferric ions was used as the feed solution. LIX84I dissolving in kerosene and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate solution were used as the liquid membrane and stripping solution, respectively. In order to access the highest performance of HFSLM, the optimum condition was investigated via several influential variables. Final concentration of silver ions in feed solution was obtained 0.2mg/L which was lower than the discharge limit of Thailand’s mandatory.

Keywords: Hollow fiber, Liquid membrane, Separation, Silver ions.

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800 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: Vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity.

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799 Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications

Authors: D. Abdul Budan, T.S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, Glass fiber, Helical composite spring, spring rate.

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798 Size Controlled Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Hollow Microspheres

Authors: Charu Dwivedi, V. Dutta

Abstract:

Titanium oxide hollow microspheres were synthesized from organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. Effects of precursor concentration, applied voltage and annealing have been investigated. It was observed that the annealing of the as-synthesized TiO2 hollow microspheres at 2500C, which had an average external diameter of 200 nm, leads to an increase in the size and also more spherical shape. The precursor concentration was found to have a direct impact on the size of the microspheres, which is also evident in the absorption spectrum. The as-prepared TiO2 hollow microspheres exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO.

Keywords: TiO2 hollow microspheres, spray pyrolysis, electric field, microscopy, microstructures.

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797 Reducing Humic Acid and Disinfection By-products in Raw Water using a Bio-activated Carbon Filter

Authors: Wei-Pin Tseng, Jie-Chung Lou, Ming-Ching Wu, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

For stricter drinking water regulations in the future, reducing the humic acid and disinfection byproducts in raw water, namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) is worthy for research. To investigate the removal of waterborne organic material using a lab-scale of bio-activated carbon filter under different EBCT, the concentrations of humic acid prepared were 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.29 mg/L. Then we conducted experiments using a pilot plant with in-field of the serially connected bio-activated carbon filters and hollow fiber membrane processes employed in traditional water purification plants. Results showed under low TOC conditions of humic acid in influent (0.69 to 1.03 mg TOC/L) with an EBCT of 30 min, 40 min, and 50 min, TOC removal rates increases with greater EBCT, attaining about 39 % removal rate. The removal rate of THMs and HAAs by BACF was 54.8 % and 89.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: Bio-activated carbon filter, hollow fiber membrane, humic acid, THMs, HAAs, Water Treatment

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796 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Concurrently Variable Mixed with Exhalations for the Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Pil Woo Heo

Abstract:

Water contains dissolved oxygen that a fish needs to breathe. It is important to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water for diverse applications using the separation system. In this paper, a separation system of dissolved gases from water concurrently variable mixed with the exhalations using a compressor is proposed. This system takes use of exhalations to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water. A compressor with variable off-time and on-time is used to control the exhalations mixed with inlet water. Exhalations contain some portion of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. Separation of dissolved gases containing dissolved oxygen is enhanced by using exhalations. The amounts of separation and the compositions of carbon dioxide and oxygen are measured. Higher amounts of separation can make the size of the separation device smaller, and then, application areas are diversified.

Keywords: Concurrently, variable mixed, exhalations, separation, hollow fiber.

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795 Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China

Authors: Yanhui Jia, Ning Guo, Juan Li, Yunkui Sun, Wei Yang, Tianping Zhang, Lin Ma, Wei Meng, Hai Geng

Abstract:

The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was design for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster, and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.

Keywords: LaB6, hollow cathode, thruster, lifetime test, electric propulsion.

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794 Research for Hollow Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers in Korea

Authors: Ho-Young Kim, Jae-Hoon Lee, Do-Kyu Hwang, Im-Jong Kwahk, Tae-Hoon Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Hollow section for bridge columns has some advantages. However, current seismic design codes do not provide design regulations for hollow bridge piers. There have been many experimental studied for hollow reinforced concrete piers in the world. But, Study for hollow section for bridge piers in Korea has been begun with approximately 2000s. There has been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of flexural controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Sung kyunkwan University, Korea Expressway Corporation in 2009. This study concluded that flexural controlled sections for hollow piers showed the similar behavior to solid sections. And there have been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of compression controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Korea Institute of Construction Technology in 2012. This study concluded that compression controlled sections for hollow piers showed compression fracture of concrete in inside wall face. Samsung Construction & Trading Corporation has been conducted study with Yeungnam University for reduce the quantity of reinforcement details about hollow piers. Reduce the quantity of reinforcement details are triangular cross tie. This study concluded that triangular reinforcement details showed the similar behavior as compared with existing reinforcement details.

Keywords: Hollow pier, flexural controlled section, compression controlled section, reduce the quantity of reinforcement details.

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793 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: Parallel fiber eutectic, no-damage strain, damage strain, fiber volume fraction, damage degree.

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792 Alternating Current Photovoltaic Module Model

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling of an Alternating Current (AC) Photovoltaic (PV) module using Matlab/Simulink. The proposed AC-PV module model is simple, realistic, and application oriented. The model is derived on module level as compared to cell level directly from the information provided by the manufacturer data sheet. DC-PV module, MPPT control, BC, VSI and LC filter, all were treated as a single unit. The model accounts for changes in variations of both irradiance and temperature. The AC-PV module proposed model is simulated and the results are compared with the datasheet projected numbers to validate model’s accuracy and effectiveness. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: AC PV Module, Datasheet, Matlab/Simulink, PV modeling.

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791 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas

Abstract:

The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: Patterns, quasi-periodic, swirling, synchronization, transition.

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790 Analysis of Hollow Rollers Implementation in Flexible Manufacturing of Large Bearings

Authors: S. Barabas, A.Fota.

Abstract:

In this paper is study the possibility of successfully implementing of hollow roller concept in order to minimize inertial mass of the large bearings, with major results in diminution of the material consumption, increasing of power efficiency (in wind power station area), increasing of the durability and life duration of the large bearings systems, noise reduction in working, resistance to vibrations, an important diminution of losses by abrasion and reduction of the working temperature. In this purpose was developed an original solution through which are reduced mass, inertial forces and moments of large bearings by using of hollow rollers. The research was made by using the method of finite element analysis applied on software type Solidworks - Nastran. Also, is study the possibility of rapidly changing the manufacturing system of solid and hollow cylindrical rollers.

Keywords: Large bearings, Von Mises stress, hollow rollers, flexible manufacturing system

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789 Axisymmetric Vibration of Pyrocomposite Hollow Cylinder

Authors: V. K. Nelson, S. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

Axisymmetric vibration of an infinite Pyrocomposite circular hollow cylinder made of inner and outer pyroelectric layer of 6mm-class bonded together by a Linear Elastic Material with Voids (LEMV) layer is studied. The exact frequency equation is obtained for the traction free surfaces with continuity condition at the interfaces. Numerical results in the form of data and dispersion curves for the first and second mode of the axisymmetric vibration of the cylinder BaTio3 / Adhesive / BaTio3 by taking the Adhesive layer as an existing Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) are compared with a hypothetical LEMV layer with and without voids and as well with a pyroelectric hollow cylinder. The damping is analyzed through the imaginary parts of the complex frequencies.

Keywords: Axisymmetric vibration, CFRP, hollow cylinders, LEMV, pyrocomposite

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788 Fiber Lens Structure for Large Distance Measurement

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee

Abstract:

We propose a new fiber lens structure for large distance measurement in which a polymer layer is added to a conventional fiber lens. The proposed fiber lens can adjust the working distance by properly choosing the refractive index and thickness of the polymer layer. In our numerical analysis for the fiber lens radius of 120 μm, the working distance of the proposed fiber lens is about 10 mm which is about 30 times larger than conventional fiber lens.

Keywords: fiber lens, distance measurement, collimation.

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787 Investigations on the Seismic Performance of Hot-Finished Hollow Steel Sections

Authors: Paola Pannuzzo, Tak-Ming Chan

Abstract:

In seismic applications, hollow steel sections show, beyond undeniable esthetical appeal, promising structural advantages since, unlike open section counterparts, they are not susceptible to weak-axis and lateral-torsional buckling. In particular, hot-finished hollow steel sections have homogeneous material properties and favorable ductility but have been underutilized for cyclic bending. The main reason is that the parameters affecting their hysteretic behaviors are not yet well understood and, consequently, are not well exploited in existing codes of practice. Therefore, experimental investigations have been conducted on a wide range of hot-finished rectangular hollow section beams with the aim to providing basic knowledge for evaluating their seismic performance. The section geometry (width-to-thickness and depth-to-thickness ratios) and the type of loading (monotonic and cyclic) have been chosen as the key parameters to investigate the cyclic effect on the rotational capacity and to highlight the differences between monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The test results provide information on the parameters that affect the cyclic performance of hot-finished hollow steel beams and can be used to assess the design provisions stipulated in the current seismic codes of practice.

Keywords: Hot-finished steel, hollow sections, cyclic tests, bending.

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786 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber According to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber. 

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, Fiber reinforcement, Macro fiber, Shape change.

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785 Module and Comodule Structures on Path Space

Authors: Lili Chen, Chao Yuan

Abstract:

On path space kQ, there is a trivial kQa-module structure determined by the multiplication of path algebra kQa and a trivial kQc-comodule structure determined by the comultiplication of path coalgebra kQc. In this paper, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQa-module structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial left kQa-module structure is isomorphic to the dual module structure of trivial right kQc-comodule. Dually, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQc-comodule structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial right kQc-comodule structure is isomorphic to the dual comodule structure of trivial left kQa-module. Finally, the trivial and nontrivial module structures on path space are compared from the aspect of submodule, and the trivial and nontrivial comodule structures on path space are compared from the aspect of subcomodule.

Keywords: Quiver, path space, module, comodule, dual.

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784 Formulation and Evaluation of Vaginal Suppositories Containing Lactobacillus

Authors: Sanae Kaewnopparat, Nattha Kaewnopparat

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop vaginal suppository containing lactobacillus. Four kinds of vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus paracasei HL32 were formulated: 1) a conventional suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base, 2) a conventional suppository with mixed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as a base, 3) a hollow-type suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base and 4) a hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as a base. The release studies demonstrated that the hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as the base gave the highest release of L. paracasei HL32 and was microbiological stable after storage at 2- 8°C over the period of 3 months.

Keywords: Lactobacillus paracasei HL32, vaginal suppository, release study, hollow-type, viability.

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783 Behavior of Optical Fiber Aged in CTAC Solutions

Authors: R. El Abdi, A. D. Rujinski, R. M. Boumbimba, M. Poulain

Abstract:

The evolution of silica optical fiber strength aged in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC) has been investigated. If the solution containing surfactants presents appreciable changes in physical and chemical properties at the critical micelle concentration (CMC), a non negligible mechanical behavior fiber change is observed for silica fiber aged in cationic surfactants as CTAC which can lead to optical fiber reliability questioning. The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of silica coated and naked optical fibers in contact with CTAC solution at different concentrations. Result analysis proves that the immersion in CTAC drastically decreases the fiber strength and specially near the CMC point. Beyond CMC point, a small increase of fiber strength is analyzed and commented.

Keywords: Optical fiber, CMC point, CTAC surfactant, fiber strength.

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782 Research of the Behavior of Solar Module Frame Installed by Solar Clamping System by Finite Element Method

Authors: Li-Chung Su, Chia-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yuan Lai, Sheng-Jye Hwang

Abstract:

Mechanical design of the thin-film solar framed module and mounting system is important to enhance module reliability and to increase areas of applications. The stress induced by different mounting positions played a main role controlling the stability of the whole mechanical structure. From the finite element method, under the pressure from the back of module, the stress at Lc (center point of the Long frame) increased and the stresses at Center, Corner and Sc (center point of the Short frame) decreased while the mounting position was away from the center of the module. In addition, not only the stress of the glass but also the stress of the frame decreased. Accordingly it was safer to mount in the position away from the center of the module. The emphasis of designing frame system of the module was on the upper support of the Short frame. Strength of the overall structure and design of the corner were also important due to the complexity of the stress in the Long frame.

Keywords: Finite element method, Framed module, Mountingposition

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781 Microneedles-Mediated Transdermal Delivery

Authors: M. Petchsangsai, N. Wonglertnirant, T. Rojanarata, P. Opanasopit, T. Ngawhirunpat

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of hollow microneedles for enhancing the transdermal delivery of Bovine Serum Albumin (MW~66,000 Da)-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC) conjugate, a hydrophilic large molecular compound. Moreover, the effect of different formulations was evaluated. The series of binary mixtures composed of propylene glycol (PG) and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was prepared and used as a medium for BSA-FITC. The results showed that there was no permeation of BSA-FITC solution across the neonatal porcine skin without using hollow microneedles, whereas the cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released at 8 h through the neonatal porcine skin was about 60-70% when using hollow microneedles. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the higher volume of PG in binary mixtures injected, the lower cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released and release rate of BSA-FITC from skin. These release profiles of BSA-FITC in binary mixtures were expressed by Fick-s law of diffusion. These results suggest the utilization of hollow microneedle to enhance transdermal delivery of protein and provide useful information for designing an effective hollow microneedle system.

Keywords: Hydrophilic macromolecules, Microneedles, Propylene glycol, Transdermal drug delivery

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