Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: three-point bending

83 A Comparative Study of Force Prediction Models during Static Bending Stage for 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending

Authors: Mahesh Chudasama, Harit Raval

Abstract:

Conical sections and shells of metal plates manufactured by 3-roller conical bending process are widely used in the industries. The process is completed by first bending the metal plates statically and then dynamic roller bending sequentially. It is required to have an analytical model to get maximum bending force, for optimum design of the machine, for static bending stage. Analytical models assuming various stress conditions are considered and these analytical models are compared considering various parameters and reported in this paper. It is concluded from the study that for higher bottom roller inclination, the shear stress affects greatly to the static bending force whereas for lower bottom roller inclination it can be neglected.

Keywords: Roller-bending, static-bending, stress-conditions, analytical-modeling.

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82 Development of Analytical Model of Bending Force during 3-Roller Conical Bending Process and Its Experimental Verification

Authors: Mahesh Chudasama, Harit Raval

Abstract:

Conical sections and shells made from metal plates are widely used in various industrial applications. 3-roller conical bending process is preferably used to produce such conical sections and shells. Bending mechanics involved in the process is complex and little work is done in this area. In the present paper an analytical model is developed to predict bending force which will be acting during 3-roller conical bending process. To verify the developed model, conical bending experiments are performed. Analytical results and experimental results were compared. Force predicted by analytical model is in close proximity of the experimental results. The error in the prediction is ±10%. Hence the model gives quite satisfactory results. Present model is also compared with the previously published bending force prediction model and it is found that the present model gives better results. The developed model can be used to estimate the bending force during 3-roller bending process and can be useful to the designers for designing the 3-roller conical bending machine.

Keywords: Bending-force, Experimental-verification, Internal-moment, Roll-bending.

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81 Comparative Study of Static and Dynamic Bending Forces during 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending Process

Authors: Mahesh K. Chudasama, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

3-roller conical bending process is widely used in the industries for manufacturing of conical sections and shells. It involves static as well dynamic bending stages. Analytical models for prediction of bending force during static as well as dynamic bending stage are available in the literature. In this paper bending forces required for static bending stage and dynamic bending stages have been compared using the analytical models. It is concluded that force required for dynamic bending is very less as compared to the bending force required during the static bending stage.

Keywords: Analytical modeling, cone frustum, dynamic bending, static bending.

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80 Bendability Analysis for Bending of C-Mn Steel Plates on Heavy Duty 3-Roller Bending Machine

Authors: Himanshu V. Gajjar, Anish H. Gandhi, Tanvir A Jafri, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Bendability is constrained by maximum top roller load imparting capacity of the machine. Maximum load is encountered during the edge pre-bending stage of roller bending. Capacity of 3-roller plate bending machine is specified by maximum thickness and minimum shell diameter combinations that can be pre-bend for given plate material of maximum width. Commercially available plate width or width of the plate that can be accommodated on machine decides the maximum rolling width. Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) provide the machine capacity chart based on reference material considering perfectly plastic material model. Reported work shows the bendability analysis of heavy duty 3-roller plate bending machine. The input variables for the industry are plate thickness, shell diameter and material property parameters, as it is fixed by the design. Analytical models of equivalent thickness, equivalent width and maximum width based on power law material model were derived to study the bendability. Equation of maximum width provides bendability for designed configuration i.e. material property, shell diameter and thickness combinations within the machine limitations. Equivalent thicknesses based on perfectly plastic and power law material model were compared for four different materials grades of C-Mn steel in order to predict the bend-ability. Effect of top roller offset on the bendability at maximum top roller load imparting capacity is reported.

Keywords: 3-Roller bending, Bendability, Equivalent thickness, Equivalent width, Maximum width.

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79 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar

Abstract:

In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: Bending, V-bending, FEM, spring-back, Taguchi, HyperForm, profile projector, HSLA 420 & St12 materials.

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78 Multifunctional Bending and Straightening Machines for Shipbuilding

Authors: V. Yu. Shungin, A. V. Popov

Abstract:

The paper gives basic information on application of rotation bending for manufacturing ship hull parts from steel plates and on MGPS machines, employed for this purpose.

Keywords: Roller bending, steel plates, shipbuilding, ship repair.

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77 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang

Abstract:

This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: Friction, L-bending, Springback, Stribeck curves.

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76 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura

Abstract:

The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: Bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function.

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75 Theoretical and Experimental Bending Properties of Composite Pipes

Authors: M. Stefanovska, S. Risteska, B. Samakoski, G. Maneski, B. Kostadinoska

Abstract:

Aim of this work is to determine the theoretical and experimental properties of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy resin composite pipes with different winding design subjected under bending. For determination of bending strength of composite samples three point bending tests were conducted. Good correlation between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained, where sample No4 has shown the highest value of bending strength. All samples have demonstrated matrix cracking and fiber failure followed by layers delamination during testing. Also, it was found that smaller winding angles lead to an increase in bending stress. From presented results good merger between glass fibers and epoxy resin was confirmed by SEM analysis.

Keywords: Bending properties, composite pipe, winding design.

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74 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Notched Bars under Combined Loading of Static Tension and Pure Bending

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

The effect of notch depth on the elastic new strainconcentration factor (SNCF) of rectangular bars with single edge Unotch under combined loading is studied here. The finite element method (FEM) and super position technique are used in the current study. This new SNCF under combined loading of static tension and pure bending has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant gross thickness of 16.7 mm and net section thickness varied to give net-to-gross thickness ratio ho/Ho from 0.2 to 0.95. The results indicated that the elastic SNCF for combined loading increases with increasing notch depth up to ho/Ho = 0.7 and sharply decreases with increasing notch depth. It is also indicated that the elastic SNCF of combined loading is greater than that of pure bending and less than that of the static tension for 0.2 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.7. However, the elastic SNCF of combined loading is the elastic SNCF for static tension and less than that of pure bending for shallow notches (i.e. 0.8 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.95).

Keywords: Bar, notch, strain, tension, bending

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73 Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

Authors: Hassan A. Alshahrani, Mehdi H. Hojjati

Abstract:

In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.

Keywords: Bending stiffness, out of autoclave prepreg, forming process, numerical simulation.

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72 Potential of Irish Orientated Strand Board in Bending Active Structures

Authors: M. Collins, B. O’Regan, T. Cosgrove

Abstract:

To determine the potential of a low cost Irish engineered timber product to replace high cost solid timber for use in bending active structures such as gridshells a single Irish engineered timber product in the form of orientated strand board (OSB) was selected. A comparative study of OSB and solid timber was carried out to determine the optimum properties that make a material suitable for use in gridshells. Three parameters were identified to be relevant in the selection of a material for gridshells. These three parameters are the strength to stiffness ratio, the flexural stiffness of commercially available sections, and the variability of material and section properties. It is shown that when comparing OSB against solid timber, OSB is a more suitable material for use in gridshells that are at the smaller end of the scale and that have tight radii of curvature. Typically, for solid timber materials, stiffness is used as an indicator for strength and engineered timber is no different. Thus, low flexural stiffness would mean low flexural strength. However, when it comes to bending active gridshells, OSB offers a significant advantage. By the addition of multiple layers, an increased section size is created, thus endowing the structure with higher stiffness and higher strength from initial low stiffness and low strength materials while still maintaining tight radii of curvature. This allows OSB to compete with solid timber on large scale gridshells. Additionally, a preliminary sustainability study using a set of sustainability indicators was carried out to determine the relative sustainability of building a large-scale gridshell in Ireland with a primary focus on economic viability but a mention is also given to social and environmental aspects. For this, the Savill garden gridshell in the UK was used as the functional unit with the sustainability of the structural roof skeleton constructed from UK larch solid timber being compared with the same structure using Irish OSB. Albeit that the advantages of using commercially available OSB in a bending active gridshell are marginal and limited to specific gridshell applications, further study into an optimised engineered timber product is merited.

Keywords: Bending active gridshells, High end timber structures, Low cost material, Sustainability.

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71 An Analysis of Collapse Mechanism of Thin- Walled Circular Tubes Subjected to Bending

Authors: Somya Poonaya, Chawalit Thinvongpituk, Umphisak Teeboonma

Abstract:

Circular tubes have been widely used as structural members in engineering application. Therefore, its collapse behavior has been studied for many decades, focusing on its energy absorption characteristics. In order to predict the collapse behavior of members, one could rely on the use of finite element codes or experiments. These tools are helpful and high accuracy but costly and require extensive running time. Therefore, an approximating model of tubes collapse mechanism is an alternative for early step of design. This paper is also aimed to develop a closed-form solution of thin-walled circular tube subjected to bending. It has extended the Elchalakani et al.-s model (Int. J. Mech. Sci.2002; 44:1117-1143) to include the rate of energy dissipation of rolling hinge in the circumferential direction. The 3-D geometrical collapse mechanism was analyzed by adding the oblique hinge lines along the longitudinal tube within the length of plastically deforming zone. The model was based on the principal of energy rate conservation. Therefore, the rates of internal energy dissipation were calculated for each hinge lines which are defined in term of velocity field. Inextensional deformation and perfect plastic material behavior was assumed in the derivation of deformation energy rate. The analytical result was compared with experimental result. The experiment was conducted with a number of tubes having various D/t ratios. Good agreement between analytical and experiment was achieved.

Keywords: Bending, Circular tube, Energy, Mechanism.

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70 High Precision Draw Bending of Asymmetric Channel Section with Restriction Dies and Axial Tension

Authors: Y. Okude, S. Sakaki, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald

Abstract:

In recent years asymmetric cross section aluminum alloy stock has been finding increasing use in various industrial manufacturing areas such as general structures and automotive components. In these areas, components are generally required to have complex curved configuration and, as such, a bending process is required during manufacture. Undesirable deformation in bending processes such as flattening or wrinkling can easily occur when thin-walled sections are bent. Hence, a thorough understanding of the bending behavior of such sections is needed to prevent these undesirable deformations. In this study, the bending behavior of asymmetric channel section was examined using finite element analysis (FEA). Typical methods of preventing undesirable deformation, such as asymmetric laminated elastic mandrels were included in FEA model of draw bending. Additionally, axial tension was applied to prevent wrinkling. By utilizing the FE simulations effect of restriction dies and axial tension on undesirable deformation during the process was clarified.

Keywords: bending, draw bending, asymmetric channel section, restriction dies, axial tension, FEA

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69 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fiber under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat

Abstract:

Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and Young’s modulus of all soils examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimens’ demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: Flexural strength, Durabilty, Lime, Coir Fibers, Bending force, Ductility.

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68 Bending Gradient Coefficient Correction for I-Beams

Authors: H. R. Kazemi Nia, A. Yeganeh Fallah

Abstract:

Without uncertainty by applying external loads on beams, bending is created. The created bending in I-beams, puts one of the flanges in tension and the other one in compression. With increasing of bending, compression flange buckled and beam in out of its plane direction twisted, this twisting well-known as Lateral Torsional Buckling. Providing bending moment varieties along the beam, the critical moment is greater than the case its under pure bending. In other words, the value of bending gradient coefficient is always greater than unite. In this article by the use of " ANSYS 10.0" software near 80 3-D finite element models developed for the propose of analyzing beams` lateral torsional buckling and surveying influence of slenderness on beams' bending gradient coefficient. Results show that, presented Cb coefficient via AISC is not correct for some of beams and value of this coefficient is smaller than what proposed by AISC. Therefore instead of using a constant Cb for each case of loading , a function with two criterion for calculation of Cb coefficient for some cases is proposed.

Keywords: Beams critical moment, Bending Gradient Coefficient, finite element, Lateral Torsional Buckling

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67 Effect of Friction Models on Stress Distribution of Sheet Materials during V-Bending Process

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Zaidi Mohd Ripin

Abstract:

In a metal forming process, the friction between the material and the tools influences the process by modifying the stress distribution of the workpiece. This frictional behaviour is often taken into account by using a constant coefficient of friction in the finite element simulations of sheet metal forming processes. However, friction coefficient varies in time and space with many parameters. The Stribeck friction model is investigated in this study to predict springback behaviour of AA6061-T4 sheets during V-bending process. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The plane-strain bending process is simulated in ABAQUS/Standard. We compared the computed punch load-stroke curves and springback related to the constant coefficient of friction with the defined friction model. The results clearly showed that the new friction model provides better agreement between experiments and results of numerical simulations. The influence of friction models on stress distribution in the workpiece is also studied numerically

Keywords: Friction model, Stress distribution, V-bending.

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66 Study of the Appropriate Factors for Laminated Bamboo Bending by Design of Experiments

Authors: Vanchai Laemlaksakul, Sompoap Talabgaew

Abstract:

This research studied the appropriate factors and conditions for laminated bamboo bending by Design of Experiments (DOE). The interested factors affecting the spring back in laminates bamboo were (1) time, (2) thickness, and (3) frequency. This experiment tested the specimen by using high frequency machine and measured its spring back immediately and next 24 hours for comparing the spring back ratio. Results from the experiments showed that significant factors having major influence to bending of laminates bamboo were thickness and frequency. The appropriate conditions of thickness and frequency were 4 mm. and 1.5 respectively.

Keywords: Bamboo, bending, spring back, design of experiments.

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65 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin

Abstract:

An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected at one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum overpressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed, of 63ms-1, was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe; greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23ms-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate, which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: Bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, overpressure.

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64 A Study on the Comparison of Mechanical and Thermal Properties According to Laminated Orientation of CFRP through Bending Test

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, Lee Ku Kwac, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim

Abstract:

In rapid industrial development, the demand for high-strength and lightweight materials have been increased. Thus, various CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) with composite materials are being used. The design variables of CFRP are its lamination direction, order and thickness. Thus, the hardness and strength of CFRP depends much on their design variables. In this paper, the lamination direction of CFRP was used to produce a symmetrical ply [0°/0°, -15°/+15°, -30°/+30°, -45°/+45°, -60°/+60°, -75°/+75° and 90°/90°] and an asymmetrical ply [0°/15°, 0°/30°, 0°/45°, 0°/60° 0°/75° and 0°/90°]. The bending flexure stress of the CFRP specimen was evaluated through a bending test. Its thermal property was measured using an infrared camera. The symmetrical specimen and the asymmetrical specimen were analyzed. The results showed that the asymmetrical specimen increased the bending loads according to the increase in the orientation angle; and from 0°, the symmetrical specimen showed a tendency opposite the asymmetrical tendency because the tensile force of fiber differs at the vertical direction of its load. Also, the infrared camera showed that the thermal property had a trend similar to that of the mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Bending Test, Infrared Camera, Composite.

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63 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh

Abstract:

The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-thethickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stresslife (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0°, saddle, and crown 180° positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KTjoint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: Tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula.

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62 Durability Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates under Sustained Bending in Distilled Water and Seawater Immersions: Effects on the Visco-Elastic Properties

Authors: Innocent Kafodya, Guijun Xian

Abstract:

This paper presents effects of distilled water, seawater and sustained bending strains of 30% and 50% ultimate strain at room temperature, on the durability of unidirectional pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. In this study, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to investigate the synergic effects of the immersions and bending strains on the viscoelastic properties of (CFRP) such as storage modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature. The study reveals that the storage modulus and glass transition temperature increase while tan delta peak decreases in the initial stage of both immersions due to the progression of curing. The storage modulus and Tg subsequently decrease and tan delta increases due to the matrix plasticization. The blister induced damages in the unstrained seawater samples enhance water uptake and cause more serious degradation of Tg and storage modulus than in water immersion. Increasing sustained bending decreases Tg and storage modulus in a long run for both immersions due to resin matrix cracking and debonding. The combined effects of immersions and strains are not clearly reflected due to the statistical effects of DMA sample sizes and competing processes of molecular reorientation and postcuring.

Keywords: Pultruded CFRP plate, bending strain, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, tan delta.

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61 Modeling the Effect of Inlet Manifold Pipes Bending Angle on SI Engine Performance

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Isam H. Qasem , M.Riyad H. Abdelkader

Abstract:

the intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different bending manifold pipes on engine performance for different engine speed. Power, Torque, and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying bending pipes angles on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for 4-cylinders spark ignition engine with turbocharger has been built and calculated. The analysis of the results shows that for 120o angle the torque increases about 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm without changing in fuel consumption. For 90o angle the increment in torque is about 10 %. For the same bending angle the increment in brake power is around 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm. The increment in fuel consumption is about 12% for 60o and 30% for 90o between (6000- 7000) rpm.

Keywords: bending pipes, inlet manifold, spark ignition engines, performance

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60 In-Situ EBSD Observations of Bending for Single-Crystalline Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Saori Yoshikawa, Hideo Morimoto

Abstract:

To understand the material characteristics of singleand poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A bending test is performed in a SEM apparatus and while its behaviors are observed in situ. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from EBSD analyses.

Keywords: Pure Copper, Bending, Single Crystal, SEM-EBSD Analysis, Texture, Microstructure

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59 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: Square tube, bending stress, energy absorption, finite element analysis, rigidity.

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58 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.

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57 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young’s modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Stress Concentration, Circular Hole, FGM Plate, Bending.

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56 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Ying-jun Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and microstructures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: Pure aluminum, Pure copper, Single crystal, Bending, SEM-EBSD analysis, Texture, Microstructure.

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55 Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Formulation for Plate Bending Analysis

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Sifeddine Abderrahmani, Toufik Maalem, Oussama Temami

Abstract:

In recent years many finite elements have been developed for plate bending analysis. The formulated elements are based on the strain based approach. This approach leads to the representation of the displacements by higher order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom. Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding displacement based elements, having the same total number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the plate bending elements are free from any shear locking since they converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the corresponding displacement based elements. In this paper the efficiency of the strain based approach compared to well known displacement formulation is presented. The results obtained by a new formulated plate bending element based on the strain approach and Kirchhoff theory are compared with some others elements. The good convergence of the new formulated element is confirmed.

Keywords: Displacement fields, finite elements, plate bending, Kirchhoff theory, strain based approach.

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54 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5mm to 6.3mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3mm to 8mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: Anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, Column faces bending and concrete filled hollow sections.

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