Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: stabilization

81 LQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Efe Sirimoglu, Cevdet Hancer, Taylan Ayken, Mustafa Unel

Abstract:

We present our ongoing work on the development of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle which has a tilt-wing mechanism. The vehicle is capable of take-off/landing in vertical flight mode (VTOL) and flying over long distances in horizontal flight mode. Full dynamic model of the vehicle is derived using Newton-Euler formulation. Linear and nonlinear controllers for the stabilization of attitude of the vehicle and control of its altitude have been designed and implemented via simulations. In particular, an LQR controller has been shown to be quite effective in the vertical flight mode for all possible yaw angles. A sliding mode controller (SMC) with recursive nature has also been proposed to stabilize the vehicle-s attitude and altitude. Simulation results show that proposed controllers provide satisfactory performance in achieving desired maneuvers.

Keywords: UAV, VTOL, dynamic model, stabilization, LQR, SMC

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80 Stabilization of Angular-Shaped Riprap under Overtopping Flows

Authors: Dilavar Khan, Z. Ahmad

Abstract:

Riprap is mostly used to prevent erosion by flows down the steep slopes in river engineering. A total of 53 stability tests performed on angular riprap with a median stone size ranging from 15 to 278 mm and slope ranging from 1 to 40% are used in this study. The existing equations for the prediction of medium size of angular stones are checked for their accuracy using the available data. Predictions of median size using these equations are not satisfactory and results show deviation by more than ±20% from the observed values. A multivariable power regression analysis is performed to propose a new equation relating the median size with unit discharge, bed slope, riprap thickness and coefficient of uniformity. The proposed relationship satisfactorily predicts the median angular stone size with ±20% error. Further, the required size of the rounded stone is more than the angular stone for the same unit discharge and the ratio increases with unit discharge and also with embankment slope of the riprap.

Keywords: Angularity, Gradation, Riprap, Stabilization

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79 Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network

Authors: Myung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper studies a robust stabilization problem of a single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical agents, when the network topology of the system is completely unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. From an existing robust stabilization result, we present sufficient conditions for a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.

Keywords: Multi-agent System, Robust Stabilization, Transfer Function.

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78 Robust Quadratic Stabilization of Uncertain Impulsive Switched Systems

Authors: Xiu Liu, Shouming Zhong, Xiuyong Ding

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the quadratic stabilization problem for a class of uncertain impulsive switched systems. The uncertainty is assumed to be norm-bounded and enters both the state and the input matrices. Based on the Lyapunov methods, some results on robust stabilization and quadratic stabilization for the impulsive switched system are obtained. A stabilizing state feedback control law realizing the robust stabilization of the closed-loop system is constructed.

Keywords: Impulsive systems, switched systems, quadratic stabilization, robust stabilization.

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77 Robust BIBO Stabilization Analysis for Discrete-time Uncertain System

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

The discrete-time uncertain system with time delay is investigated for bounded input bounded output (BIBO). By constructing an augmented Lyapunov function, three different sufficient conditions are established for BIBO stabilization. These conditions are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived results.

Keywords: Robust BIBO stabilization, delay-dependent stabilization, discrete-time system, time delay.

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76 Combined Model Predictive Controller Technique for Enhancing NAO Gait Stabilization

Authors: Brahim Brahmi, Mohammed Hamza Laraki, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Islam M. Rasedul, M. Assad Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

The humanoid robot, specifically the NAO robot must be able to provide a highly dynamic performance on the soccer field. Maintaining the balance of the humanoid robot during the required motion is considered as one of a challenging problems especially when the robot is subject to external disturbances, as contact with other robots. In this paper, a dynamic controller is proposed in order to ensure a robust walking (stabilization) and to improve the dynamic balance of the robot during its contact with the environment (external disturbances). The generation of the trajectory of the center of mass (CoM) is done by a model predictive controller (MPC) conjoined with zero moment point (ZMP) technique. Taking into account the properties of the rotational dynamics of the whole-body system, a modified previous control mixed with feedback control is employed to manage the angular momentum and the CoM’s acceleration, respectively. This latter is dedicated to provide a robust gait of the robot in the presence of the external disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: Preview control, walking, stabilization, humanoid robot.

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75 Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh

Abstract:

The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.

Keywords: Cation exchange capacity, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, soil stabilization.

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74 Stabilization and Observation of Attitude Control Systems for Micro Satellites

Authors: A. Elakkary, A. Echchatbi, N. Elalami

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in attitude control of a satellite, which using wheels of reaction, by state feedback. First, we develop a method allowing us to put the control and its integral in the state-feedback form. Then, by using the theorem of Gronwall- Bellman, we put the sufficient conditions so that the nonlinear system modeling the satellite is stabilisable and observed by state feedback.

Keywords: Satellite, attitude control, state feedback, attitude stabilization.

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73 FACTS Based Stabilization for Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Adel M. Sharaf, Foad H. Gandoman

Abstract:

Nowadays, Photovoltaic-PV Farms/ Parks and large PV-Smart Grid Interface Schemes are emerging and commonly utilized in Renewable Energy distributed generation. However, PVhybrid- Dc-Ac Schemes using interface power electronic converters usually has negative impact on power quality and stabilization of modern electrical network under load excursions and network fault conditions in smart grid. Consequently, robust FACTS based interface schemes are required to ensure efficient energy utilization and stabilization of bus voltages as well as limiting switching/fault onrush current condition. FACTS devices are also used in smart grid- Battery Interface and Storage Schemes with PV-Battery Storage hybrid systems as an elegant alternative to renewable energy utilization with backup battery storage for electric utility energy and demand side management to provide needed energy and power capacity under heavy load conditions. The paper presents a robust interface PV-Li-Ion Battery Storage Interface Scheme for Distribution/Utilization Low Voltage Interface using FACTS stabilization enhancement and dynamic maximum PV power tracking controllers. Digital simulation and validation of the proposed scheme is done using MATLAB/Simulink software environment for Low Voltage- Distribution/Utilization system feeding a hybrid Linear-Motorized inrush and nonlinear type loads from a DC-AC Interface VSC-6- pulse Inverter Fed from the PV Park/Farm with a back-up Li-Ion Storage Battery.

Keywords: AC FACTS, Smart grid, Stabilization, PV-Battery Storage, Switched Filter-Compensation (SFC).

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72 Optimal Speed Controller Design of the Two-Inertia Stabilization System

Authors: Byoung-Uk Nam, Hag-Seong Kim, Ho-Jung Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim

Abstract:

This paper focuses on systematic analysis and controller design of the two-inertia STABILIZATION system, considering the angular motion on a base body. This approach is essential to the stabilization system to aim at a target under three or six degrees of freedom base motion. Four controllers, such as conventional PDF(Pseudo-Derivative Feedback) controller with motor speed feedback, PDF controller with load speed feedback, modified PDF controller with motor-load speed feedback and feedforward controller added to modified PDF controller, are suggested to improve reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance. Characteristics and performance of each controller are analyzed and validated by simulation in the case of the modified PDF controller with and without a feedforward controller.

Keywords: Two-Inertia stabilization System, ITAE criterion, Speed Control.

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71 Tropical Peat Soil Stabilization using Class F Pond Ash from Coal Fired Power Plant

Authors: Kolay, P.K., Sii, H. Y., Taib, S.N.L.

Abstract:

This paper presents the stabilization potential of Class F pond ash (PA) from a coal fired thermal power station on tropical peat soil. Peat or highly organic soils are well known for their high compressibility, natural moisture content, low shear strength and long-term settlement. This study investigates the effect of different amount (i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of PA on peat soil, collected from Sarawak, Malaysia, mainly compaction and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) properties. The amounts of PA added to the peat soil sample as percentage of the dry peat soil mass. With the increase in PA content, the maximum dry density (MDD) of peat soil increases, while the optimum moisture content (OMC) decreases. The UCS value of the peat soils increases significantly with the increase of PA content and also with curing periods. This improvement on compressive strength of tropical peat soils indicates that PA has the potential to be used as a stabilizer for tropical peat soil. Also, the use of PA in soil stabilization helps in reducing the pond volume and achieving environment friendly as well as a sustainable development of natural resources.

Keywords: Compaction, Peat soil, Pond ash, Stabilization.

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70 Delay-independent Stabilization of Linear Systems with Multiple Time-delays

Authors: Ping He, Heng-You Lan, Gong-Quan Tan

Abstract:

The multidelays linear control systems described by difference differential equations are often studied in modern control theory. In this paper, the delay-independent stabilization algebraic criteria and the theorem of delay-independent stabilization for linear systems with multiple time-delays are established by using the Lyapunov functional and the Riccati algebra matrix equation in the matrix theory. An illustrative example and the simulation result, show that the approach to linear systems with multiple time-delays is effective.

Keywords: Linear system, Delay-independent stabilization, Lyapunovfunctional, Riccati algebra matrix equation.

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69 Stabilization of γ-Sterilized Food-Packaging Materials by Synergistic Mixtures of Food-Contact Approval Stabilizers

Authors: Sameh A. S. Alariqi

Abstract:

Food is widely packaged with plastic materials to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize the food-packaging materials. Sterilization by γ-radiation causes degradation such as embrittlement, stiffening, softening, discoloration, odour generation, and decrease in molecular weight. Many antioxidants can prevent γ-degradation but most of them are toxic. The migration of antioxidants to its environment gives rise to major concerns in case of food packaging plastics. In this attempt, we have aimed to utilize synergistic mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and organophosphites (hydroperoxide decomposer). Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency of mixtures with and without phenol system. Among phenol containing systems where we mostly observed discoloration due to the oxidation of hindered phenol, the combination of secondary HAS, tertiary HAS, organo-phosphite and hindered phenol exhibited improved stabilization efficiency than single or binary additive systems. The mixture of secondary HAS and tertiary HAS, has shown antagonistic effect of stabilization. However, the combination of organo-phosphite with secondary HAS, tertiary HAS and phenol antioxidants have been found to give synergistic even at higher doses of Gamma-irradiation. The effects have been explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. After γ-irradiation, the consumption of oligomeric stabilizer significantly depends on the components of stabilization mixture. The effect of the organo-phosphite antioxidant on the overall stability has been discussed.

Keywords: Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer, Synergistic mixtures, Gamma-sterilization and stabilization.

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68 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Salawu Sadiku

Abstract:

A clay soil classified as A-7-6 and CH soil according to AASHTO and unified soil classification system respectively, was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20%, to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both British Standard Light (BSL) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction energy levels and using Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) as evaluation criteria. The Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the treated soils at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% replacement. The trend of the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) with varied A-3 soil replacement was similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in void ratio from 0% to 40% replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% replacement. The maximum UCS for the soil at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% replacement to 295 and 795 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% replacement. Beyond 70% replacement, the mixtures could not be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay soil, pozzolanic action, stabilization.

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67 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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66 Stabilization of Nonnecessarily Inversely Stable First-Order Adaptive Systems under Saturated Input

Authors: M. De la Sen, O. Barambones

Abstract:

This paper presents an indirect adaptive stabilization scheme for first-order continuous-time systems under saturated input which is described by a sigmoidal function. The singularities are avoided through a modification scheme for the estimated plant parameter vector so that its associated Sylvester matrix is guaranteed to be non-singular and then the estimated plant model is controllable. The modification mechanism involves the use of a hysteresis switching function. An alternative hybrid scheme, whose estimated parameters are updated at sampling instants is also given to solve a similar adaptive stabilization problem. Such a scheme also uses hysteresis switching for modification of the parameter estimates so as to ensure the controllability of the estimated plant model.

Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems, discrete systems, saturated input, control, stabilization.

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65 Partial Stabilization of a Class of Nonlinear Systems Via Center Manifold Theory

Authors: Ping He

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of the partial state feedback stabilization of a class of nonlinear systems. In order to stabilization this class systems, the especial place of this paper is to reverse designing the state feedback control law from the method of judging system stability with the center manifold theory. First of all, the center manifold theory is applied to discuss the stabilization sufficient condition and design the stabilizing state control laws for a class of nonlinear. Secondly, the problem of partial stabilization for a class of plane nonlinear system is discuss using the lyapunov second method and the center manifold theory. Thirdly, we investigate specially the problem of the stabilization for a class of homogenous plane nonlinear systems, a class of nonlinear with dual-zero eigenvalues and a class of nonlinear with zero-center using the method of lyapunov function with homogenous derivative, specifically. At the end of this paper, some examples and simulation results are given show that the approach of this paper to this class of nonlinear system is effective and convenient.

Keywords: Partial stabilization, Nonlinear critical systems, Centermanifold theory, Lyapunov function, System reduction.

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64 Feature Point Reduction for Video Stabilization

Authors: Theerawat Songyot, Tham Manjing, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara, Chanjira Sinthanayothin

Abstract:

Corner detection and optical flow are common techniques for feature-based video stabilization. However, these algorithms are computationally expensive and should be performed at a reasonable rate. This paper presents an algorithm for discarding irrelevant feature points and maintaining them for future use so as to improve the computational cost. The algorithm starts by initializing a maintained set. The feature points in the maintained set are examined against its accuracy for modeling. Corner detection is required only when the feature points are insufficiently accurate for future modeling. Then, optical flows are computed from the maintained feature points toward the consecutive frame. After that, a motion model is estimated based on the simplified affine motion model and least square method, with outliers belonging to moving objects presented. Studentized residuals are used to eliminate such outliers. The model estimation and elimination processes repeat until no more outliers are identified. Finally, the entire algorithm repeats along the video sequence with the points remaining from the previous iteration used as the maintained set. As a practical application, an efficient video stabilization can be achieved by exploiting the computed motion models. Our study shows that the number of times corner detection needs to perform is greatly reduced, thus significantly improving the computational cost. Moreover, optical flow vectors are computed for only the maintained feature points, not for outliers, thus also reducing the computational cost. In addition, the feature points after reduction can sufficiently be used for background objects tracking as demonstrated in the simple video stabilizer based on our proposed algorithm.

Keywords: background object tracking, feature point reduction, low cost tracking, video stabilization.

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63 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah.

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62 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: A. S. Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipments by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be said that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: Expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent.

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61 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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60 Feedback Stabilization Based on Observer and Guaranteed Cost Control for Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems

Authors: A. Thabet, G. B. H. Frej, M. Boutayeb

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of dynamic feedback control based on observer for a class of large scale Lipschitz nonlinear systems. The use of Differential Mean Value Theorem (DMVT) is to introduce a general condition on the nonlinear functions. To ensure asymptotic stability, sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). High performances are shown through real time implementation with ARDUINO Duemilanove board to the one-link flexible joint robot.

Keywords: Feedback stabilization, DMVT, Lipschitz nonlinear systems, nonlinear observer, real time implementation.

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59 Switching Rule for the Exponential Stability and Stabilization of Switched Linear Systems with Interval Time-varying Delays

Authors: Kreangkri Ratchagit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton-s formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability and stabilization of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

Keywords: Switching design, exponential stability and stabilization, switched linear systems, interval delay, Lyapunov function, linear matrix inequalities.

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58 Improved Robust Stability and Stabilization Conditions of Discrete-time Delayed System

Authors: Zixin Liu

Abstract:

The problem of robust stability and robust stabilization for a class of discrete-time uncertain systems with time delay is investigated. Based on Tchebychev inequality, by constructing a new augmented Lyapunov function, some improved sufficient conditions ensuring exponential stability and stabilization are established. These conditions are expressed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. Compared with some previous results derived in the literature, the new obtained criteria have less conservatism. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the improvement and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robust stabilization, robust stability, discrete-time system, time delay.

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57 Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Abstract:

Recently, the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for linear feedback control systems has been shown in several papers. However, the random dither quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators. Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites using discrete-level actuators.

Keywords: Quantized control, nonlinear systems, random dither quantization.

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56 The Characteristics of Transformation of Institutional Changes and Georgia

Authors: Nazira Kakulia

Abstract:

The analysis of transformation of institutional changes outlines two important characteristics. These are: the speed of the changes and their sequence. Successful transformation must be carried out in three different stages; On the first stage, macroeconomic stabilization must be achieved with the help of fiscal and monetary tools. Two-tier banking system should be established and the active functions of central bank should be replaced by the passive ones (reserve requirements and refinancing rate), together with the involvement growth of private sector. Fiscal policy by itself here means the creation of tax system which must replace previously existing direct state revenues; the share of subsidies in the state expenses must be reduced also. The second stage begins after reaching the macroeconomic stabilization at a time of change of formal institutes which must stimulate the private business. Corporate legislation creates a competitive environment at the market and the privatization of state companies takes place. Bankruptcy and contract law is created. he third stage is the most extended one, which means the formation of all state structures that is necessary for the further proper functioning of a market economy. These three stages about the cycle period of political and social transformation and the hierarchy of changes can also be grouped by the different methodology: on the first and the most short-term stage the transfer of power takes place. On the second stage institutions corresponding to new goal are created. The last phase of transformation is extended in time and it includes the infrastructural, socio-cultural and socio-structural changes. The main goal of this research is to explore and identify the features of such kind of models.

Keywords: Competitive, environment, fiscal policy, macro-economic stabilization.

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55 Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Nehla Mansour

Abstract:

This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.

Keywords: Geogrid, reinforcement, stabilization, subgrade.

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54 A New Self-stabilizing Algorithm for Maximal 2-packing

Authors: Zhengnan Shi

Abstract:

In the self-stabilizing algorithmic paradigm, each node has a local view of the system, in a finite amount of time the system converges to a global state with desired property. In a graph G = (V, E), a subset S C V is a 2-packing if Vi c V: IN[i] n SI <1. In this paper, an ID-based, constant space, self-stabilizing algorithm that stabilizes to a maximal 2-packing in an arbitrary graph is proposed. It is shown that the algorithm stabilizes in 0(n3) moves under any scheduler (daemon). Specifically, it is shown that the algorithm stabilizes in linear time-steps under a synchronous daemon where every privileged node moves at each time-step.

Keywords: self-stabilization, 2-packing, distributed computing, fault tolerance, graph algorithms

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53 Observation and Study of Landslides Affecting the Tangier – Oued R’mel Motorway Segment

Authors: S. Houssaini, L. Bahi

Abstract:

The motorway segment between Tangier and Oued R’mel has experienced, since the beginning of building works, significant instability and landslides linked to a number of geological, hydrogeological and geothermic factors affecting the different formations. The landslides observed are not fully understood, despite many studies conducted on this segment. This study aims at producing new methods to better explain the phenomena behind the landslides, taking into account the geotechnical and geothermic contexts. This analysis builds up on previous studies and geotechnical data collected in the field. The final body of data collected shall be processed through the Plaxis software for a better and customizable view of the landslide problems in the area, which will help tofind solutions and stabilize land in the area.

Keywords: Landslides, modeling, risk, stabilization.

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52 Stabilization of a New Configurable Two- Wheeled Machine Using a PD-PID and a Hybrid FL Control Strategies: A Comparative Study

Authors: M. Almeshal, M. O. Tokhi, K. M. Goher

Abstract:

A novel design of two-wheeled robotic vehicle with moving payload is presented in this paper. A mathematical model describing the vehicle dynamics is derived and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment. Two control strategies were developed to stabilise the vehicle in the upright position. A robust Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control strategy has been implemented and initially tested to measure the system performance, while the second control strategy is to use a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The results are given on a comparative basis for the system performance in terms of disturbance rejection, control algorithms robustness as well as the control effort in terms of input torque.

Keywords: double inverted pendulum, modelling, robust control, simulation,

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