Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: fine aggregate

27 Sustainable Development of Medium Strength Concrete Using Polypropylene as Aggregate Replacement

Authors: Reza Keihani, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Timothy James Clacy

Abstract:

Plastic as an environmental burden is a well-rehearsed topic in the research area. This is due to its global demand and destructive impacts on the environment, which has been a significant concern to the governments. Typically, the use of plastic in the construction industry is seen across low-density, non-structural applications due to its diverse range of benefits including high strength-to-weight ratios, manipulability and durability. It can be said that with the level of plastic consumption experienced in the construction industry, an ongoing responsibility is shown for this sector to continually innovate alternatives for application of recycled plastic waste such as using plastic made replacement from polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and polypropylene in the concrete mix design. In this study, the impact of partially replaced fine aggregate with polypropylene in the concrete mix design was investigated to evaluate the concrete’s compressive strength by conducting an experimental work which comprises of six concrete mix batches with polypropylene replacements ranging from 0.5 to 3.0%. The results demonstrated a typical decline in the compressive strength with the addition of plastic aggregate, despite this reduction generally mitigated as the level of plastic in the concrete mix increased. Furthermore, two of the six plastic-containing concrete mixes tested in the current study exceeded the ST5 standardised prescribed concrete mix compressive strength requirement at 28-days containing 1.50% and 2.50% plastic aggregates, which demonstrated the potential for use of recycled polypropylene in structural applications, as a partial by mass, fine aggregate replacement in the concrete mix.

Keywords: Compressive strength, concrete, polypropylene, sustainability.

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26 Utilization of Industrial Byproducts in Concrete Applications by Adopting Grey Taguchi Method for Optimization

Authors: V. K. Bansal, M. Kumar, P. P. Bansal, A. Batish

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate with industrial waste by-products on concrete strength properties. The Grey Taguchi approach has been used to optimize the mix proportions for desired properties. In this research work, a ternary combination of industrial waste by-products has been used. The experiments have been designed using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array with four factors having three levels each. The cement was partially replaced by ladle furnace slag (LFS), fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) at 10%, 25% and 40% level and fine aggregate (sand) was partially replaced with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS), iron slag (IS) and glass powder (GP) at 20%, 30% and 40% level. Three water to binder ratios, fixed at 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48, were used, and the curing age was fixed at 7, 28 and 90 days. Thus, a series of nine experiments was conducted on the specimens for water to binder ratios of 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48 at 7, 28 and 90 days of the water curing regime. It is evident from the investigations that Grey Taguchi approach for optimization helps in identifying the factors affecting the final outcomes, i.e. compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete. For the materials and a range of parameters used in this research, the present study has established optimum mixes in terms of strength properties. The best possible levels of mix proportions were determined for maximization through compressive and splitting tensile strength. To verify the results, the optimal mix was produced and tested. The mixture results in higher compressive strength and split tensile strength than other mixes. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of optimal mixtures are also compared with the control concrete mixtures. The results show that compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete made with partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate is more than control concrete at all ages and w/c ratios. Based on the overall observations, it can be recommended that industrial waste by-products in ternary combinations can effectively be utilized as partial replacements of cement and fine aggregates in all concrete applications.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, ANOVA, compressive strength, concrete, grey Taguchi method, industrial by-products, split tensile strength.

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25 Prediction of Rubberised Concrete Strength by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: A. M. N. El-Khoja, A. F. Ashour, J. Abdalhmid, X. Dai, A. Khan

Abstract:

In recent years, waste tyre problem is considered as one of the most crucial environmental pollution problems facing the world. Thus, reusing waste rubber crumb from recycled tyres to develop highly damping concrete is technically feasible and a viable alternative to landfill or incineration. The utilization of waste rubber in concrete generally enhances the ductility, toughness, thermal insulation, and impact resistance. However, the mechanical properties decrease with the amount of rubber used in concrete. The aim of this paper is to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the compressive strength of rubberised concrete (RuC). A trained and tested ANN was developed using a comprehensive database collected from different sources in the literature. The ANN model developed used 5 input parameters that include: coarse aggregate (CA), fine aggregate (FA), w/c ratio, fine rubber (Fr), and coarse rubber (Cr), whereas the ANN outputs were the corresponding compressive strengths. A parametric study was also conducted to study the trend of various RuC constituents on the compressive strength of RuC.

Keywords: Rubberized concrete, compressive strength, artificial neural network, prediction.

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24 Use of Cellulosic Fibres in Double Layer Porous Asphalt

Authors: Márcia Afonso, Marisa Dinis-Almeida, Cristina Fael

Abstract:

Climate change, namely precipitation patterns alteration, has led to extreme conditions such as floods and droughts. In turn, excessive construction has led to the waterproofing of the soil, increasing the surface runoff and decreasing the groundwater recharge capacity. The permeable pavements used in areas with low traffic lead to a decrease in the probability of floods peaks occurrence and the sediments reduction and pollutants transport, ensuring rainwater quality improvement. This study aims to evaluate the porous asphalt performance, developed in the laboratory, with addition of cellulosic fibres. One of the main objectives of cellulosic fibres use is to stop binder drainage, preventing its loss during storage and transport. Comparing to the conventional porous asphalt the cellulosic fibres addition improved the porous asphalt performance. The cellulosic fibres allowed the bitumen content increase, enabling retention and better aggregates coating and, consequently, a greater mixture durability. With this solution, it is intended to develop better practices of resilience and adaptation to the extreme climate changes and respond to the sustainability current demands, through the eco-friendly materials use. The mix design was performed for different size aggregates (with fine aggregates – PA1 and with coarse aggregates – PA2). The percentage influence of the fibres to be used was studied. It was observed that overall, the binder drainage decreases as the cellulose fibres percentage increases. It was found that the PA2 mixture obtained most binder drainage relative to PA1 mixture, irrespective of the fibres percentage used. Subsequently, the performance was evaluated through laboratory tests of indirect tensile stiffness modulus, water sensitivity, permeability and permanent deformation. The stiffness modulus for the two mixtures groups (with and without cellulosic fibres) presented very similar values between them. For the water sensitivity test it was observed that porous asphalt containing more fine aggregates are more susceptible to the water presence than mixtures with coarse aggregates. The porous asphalt with coarse aggregates have more air voids which allow water to pass easily leading to ITSR higher values. In the permeability test was observed that asphalt porous without cellulosic fibres presented had lower permeability than asphalt porous with cellulosic fibres. The resistance to permanent deformation results indicates better behaviour of porous asphalt with cellulosic fibres, verifying a bigger rut depth in porous asphalt without cellulosic fibres. In this study, it was observed that porous asphalt with bitumen higher percentages improve the performance to permanent deformation. This fact was only possible due to the bitumen retention by the cellulosic fibres.

Keywords: Binder drainage, cellulosic fibres, permanent deformation, porous asphalt.

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23 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: Hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability.

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22 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel

Abstract:

In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: Cement production, concrete, CO2 emission, marble, mechanical properties.

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21 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

Abstract:

There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: Building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy.

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20 Using Scanning Electron Microscope and Computed Tomography for Concrete Diagnostics of Airfield Pavements

Authors: M. Linek

Abstract:

This article presents the comparison of selected evaluation methods regarding microstructure modification of hardened cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Basic test results were presented for two pavement quality concrete lots. Analysis included standard concrete used for airfield pavements and modern material solutions based on concrete composite modification. In case of basic grain size distribution of concrete cement CEM I 42,5HSR NA, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate fractions in the form of granite chippings, water and admixtures were considered. In case of grain size distribution of modified concrete, the use of modern modifier as substitute of fine aggregate was suggested. Modification influence on internal concrete structure parameters using scanning electron microscope was defined. Obtained images were compared to the results obtained using computed tomography. Opportunity to use this type of equipment for internal concrete structure diagnostics and an attempt of its parameters evaluation was presented. Obtained test results enabled to reach a conclusion that both methods can be applied for pavement quality concrete diagnostics, with particular purpose of airfield pavements.

Keywords: Scanning electron microscope, computed tomography, cement concrete, airfield pavements.

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19 Investigation of the Recycling of Geopolymer Cement Wastes as Fine Aggregates in Mortar Mixes

Authors: Napoleana-Anna Chaliasou, Andrew Heath, Kevin Paine

Abstract:

Fly ash-slag based Geopolymer Cement (GPC) is presenting mechanical properties and environmental advantages that make it the predominant “green” alternative to Portland Cement (PC). Although numerous life-cycle analyses praising its environmental advantages, disposal after the end of its life remains as an issue that has been barely explored. The present study is investigating the recyclability of fly ash-slag GPC as aggregate in mortars. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of GPC fine Recycled Aggregates (RA), at replacement levels of 25% and 50%, on the main mechanical properties of PC and GPC mortar mixes. The results were compared with those obtained by corresponding mixes incorporating natural and PC-RA. The main physical properties of GPC-RA were examined and proven to be comparable to those of PC-RA and slightly inferior to those of natural sand. A negligible effect was observed at 28-day compressive and flexural strength of PC mortars with GPC aggregates having a milder effect than PC. As far as GPC mortars are concerned, the influence of GPC aggregates was enhancing for the investigated mechanical properties. Additionally, a screening test showed that recycled geopolymer aggregates are not prone of inducing alkali silica reaction.

Keywords: Concrete recycling, geopolymer cement, recycled concrete aggregates, sustainable concrete technology.

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18 Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.

Keywords: Blast furnace iron slag, HMA, Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength.

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17 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: Clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand.

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16 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Age Test Result Using Design of Experiments (RSM)

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Loubna Bentaher

Abstract:

Response Surface Methods (RSM) provide statistically validated predictive models that can then be manipulated for finding optimal process configurations. Variation transmitted to responses from poorly controlled process factors can be accounted for by the mathematical technique of propagation of error (POE), which facilitates ‘finding the flats’ on the surfaces generated by RSM. The dual response approach to RSM captures the standard deviation of the output as well as the average. It accounts for unknown sources of variation. Dual response plus propagation of error (POE) provides a more useful model of overall response variation. In our case, we implemented this technique in predicting compressive strength of concrete of 28 days in age. Since 28 days is quite time consuming, while it is important to ensure the quality control process. This paper investigates the potential of using design of experiments (DOE-RSM) to predict the compressive strength of concrete at 28th day. Data used for this study was carried out from experiment schemes at university of Benghazi, civil engineering department. A total of 114 sets of data were implemented. ACI mix design method was utilized for the mix design. No admixtures were used, only the main concrete mix constituents such as cement, coarseaggregate, fine aggregate and water were utilized in all mixes. Different mix proportions of the ingredients and different water cement ratio were used. The proposed mathematical models are capable of predicting the required concrete compressive strength of concrete from early ages.

Keywords: Mix proportioning, response surface methodology, compressive strength, optimal design.

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15 Investigation of the Operational Principle and Flow Analysis of a Newly Developed Dry Separator

Authors: Sung Uk Park, Young Su Kang, Sangmo Kang, Yong Kweon Suh

Abstract:

Mineral product, waste concrete (fine aggregates), waste in the optical field, industry, and construction employ separators to separate solids and classify them according to their size. Various sorting machines are used in the industrial field such as those operating under electrical properties, centrifugal force, wind power, vibration, and magnetic force. Study on separators has been carried out to contribute to the environmental industry. In this study, we perform CFD analysis for understanding the basic mechanism of the separation of waste concrete (fine aggregate) particles from air with a machine built with a rotor with blades. In CFD, we first performed two-dimensional particle tracking for various particle sizes for the model with 1 degree, 1.5 degree, and 2 degree angle between each blade to verify the boundary conditions and the method of rotating domain method to be used in 3D. Then we developed 3D numerical model with ANSYS CFX to calculate the air flow and track the particles. We judged the capability of particle separation for given size by counting the number of particles escaping from the domain toward the exit among 10 particles issued at the inlet. We confirm that particles experience stagnant behavior near the exit of the rotating blades where the centrifugal force acting on the particles is in balance with the air drag force. It was also found that the minimum particle size that can be separated by the machine with the rotor is determined by its capability to stay at the outlet of the rotor channels.

Keywords: Environmental industry, Separator, CFD, Fine aggregate.

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14 Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast–Furnace Slag

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sappakittipakorn, M. Mizukoshi, O. Takahashi

Abstract:

Ceramic Waste Aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level.

Keywords: Ceramic waste aggregate, Chloride diffusion, GGBS, Pore size distribution.

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13 An Investigation on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete while Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Aggregate

Authors: Md. Jahidul Islam, A. K. M. Rakinul Islam, Md. Salamah Meherier

Abstract:

This study investigates the suitability of using plastic, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a partial replacement of natural coarse and fine aggregates (for example, brick chips and natural sand) to produce lightweight concrete for load bearing structural members. The plastic coarse aggregate (PCA) and plastic fine aggregate (PFA) were produced from melted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Tests were conducted using three different water–cement (w/c) ratios, such as 0.42, 0.48, and 0.57, where PCA and PFA were used as 50% replacement of coarse and fine aggregate respectively. Fresh and hardened properties of concrete have been compared for natural aggregate concrete (NAC), PCA concrete (PCC) and PFA concrete (PFC). The compressive strength of concrete at 28 days varied with the water–cement ratio for both the PCC and PFC. Between PCC and PFC, PFA concrete showed the highest compressive strength (23.7 MPa) at 0.42 w/c ratio and also the lowest compressive strength (13.7 MPa) at 0.57 w/c ratio. Significant reduction in concrete density was mostly observed for PCC samples, ranging between 1977–1924 kg/m³. With the increase in water–cement ratio PCC achieved higher workability compare to both NAC and PFC. It was found that both the PCA and PFA contained concrete achieved the required compressive strength to be used for structural purpose as partial replacement of the natural aggregate; but to obtain the desired lower density as lightweight concrete the PCA is most suited.

Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate, plastic aggregate, concrete, fresh and hardened properties.

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12 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. Saidi, F. Ait-Medjber, B. Safi, M. Samar

Abstract:

This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0 /5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: Demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, concrete, workability, mechanical strength, porosity/water absorption.

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11 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan

Abstract:

Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: Aggregate Proportions, Artificial Neural Network, Concrete Grade, Concrete Mix Design.

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10 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution); the cement blend performs better, with no morphological difference between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: Blended, morphological, pozzolanic properties, waste.

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9 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal

Abstract:

Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India major number of thermal power plants is producing low calcium fly ash. Hence in the present investigation low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. More over the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces, beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: Cementing Efficiency, Compressive Strength, Low Calcium Fly Ash, Workability.

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8 The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

Authors: Dang Hanh Nguyen, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil, Lydia Leleyter, Fabienne Baraud

Abstract:

Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems.

Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervious Concrete Pavers.

The research methodology involved substituting the coarse aggregate in the previous concrete mix design with 20%, 40% and 60% SBP. The testing showed that pervious concrete containing less than 40% SBP had strengths, permeability and void content which are comparable to the pervious concrete containing with only natural aggregate. The samples that contained 40% SBP or higher had a significant loss in strength and an increase in permeability and a void content from the control mix pervious concrete. On the basis of the results in this research, it was found that the natural aggregate can be substituted by SBP without affecting the delicate balance of a pervious concrete mix. Additional, it is recommended that the optimum replacement percentage for SBP in pervious concrete is 40 % direct replacement of natural coarse aggregate while maintaining the structural performance and drainage capabilities of the pervious concrete.

Keywords: Seashell by-products, pervious concrete pavers, permeability and mechanical strength.

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7 Influence of Silica Fume on the Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Salem Alsanusi

Abstract:

A self-compacting concrete (SCC) is the one that can be placed in the form and can go through obstructions by its own weight and without the need of vibration. Since its first development in Japan in 1988, SCC has gained wider acceptance in Japan, Europe and USA due to its inherent distinct advantages. Although there are visible signs of its gradual acceptance in the North Africa through its limited use in construction, Libya has yet to explore the feasibility and applicability of SCC in new construction. The contributing factors to this reluctance appear to be lack of any supportive evidence of its suitability with local aggregates and the harsh environmental conditions. The primary aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of using SCC made with local aggregates of Eastern Province of Libya by examining its basic properties characteristics. This research consists of: (i) Development of a suitable mix for SCC such as the effect of water to cement ratio, limestone and silica fume that would satisfy the requirements of the plastic state; (ii) Casting of concrete samples and testing them for compressive strength and unit weight. Local aggregates, cement, admixtures and industrial waste materials were used in this research. The significance of this research lies in its attempt to provide some performance data of SCC made in the Eastern Province of Libya so as to draw attention to the possible use of SCC.

Keywords: Silica fume, self compacting concrete, workability, coarse and fine aggregate.

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6 The Effect of Fine Aggregate Properties on the Fatigue Behavior of the Conventional and Polymer Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Two Types of Sand as Fine Aggregate

Authors: S. G. Yasreen, N. B. Madzlan, K. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Fatigue cracking continues to be the main challenges in improving the performance of bituminous mixture pavements. The purpose of this paper is to look at some aspects of the effects of fine aggregate properties on the fatigue behaviour of hot mixture asphalt. Two types of sand (quarry and mining sand) with two conventional bitumen (PEN 50/60 & PEN 80/100) and four polymers modified bitumen PMB (PM1_82, PM1_76, PM2_82 and PM2_76) were used. Physical, chemical and mechanical tests were performed on the sands to determine their effect when incorporated with a bituminous mixture. According to the beam fatigue results, quarry sand that has more angularity, rougher, higher shear strength and a higher percentage of Aluminium oxide presented higher resistance to fatigue. Also a PMB mixture gives better fatigue results than conventional mixtures, this is due to the PMB having better viscosity property than that of the conventional bitumen.

Keywords: Beam fatigue test, chemical property, mechanical property, physical property

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5 Proportion and Particle Size Distribution of Fine Aggregates Extracted From the Drained Binder in a Binder Drainage Test

Authors: M. O. Hamzah, M. R. M. Hasan

Abstract:

Binder drainage test is widely used to set an upper limit to the design binder content of porous asphalt. However, the presence of high amount of fine particles in the drained binder may affect the accuracy of the test result. This paper presents a study to characterize the composition and particle size distribution of fine particles accumulated in the drained binder. Fine aggregates and filler in the drained binder were extracted using a suitable solvent. Then, wet and dry sieve analysis was carried out to identify the actual composition of the extracted fine aggregates and filler. From the results, almost half of the drained binder consisted of fine aggregates and this significantly affects the accuracy of the design binder content of porous asphalt mix. This simple finding highlights the importance of taking into account the presence of fine aggregates in the calculation of drained binder.

Keywords: Porous asphalt, Binder drainage test, Drained binder, Fine particle proportion

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4 Prediction of Compressive Strength of SCC Containing Bottom Ash using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Yogesh Aggarwal, Paratibha Aggarwal

Abstract:

The paper presents a comparative performance of the models developed to predict 28 days compressive strengths using neural network techniques for data taken from literature (ANN-I) and data developed experimentally for SCC containing bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregates (ANN-II). The data used in the models are arranged in the format of six and eight input parameters that cover the contents of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, fly ash as partial replacement of cement, bottom ash as partial replacement of sand, water and water/powder ratio, superplasticizer dosage and an output parameter that is 28-days compressive strength and compressive strengths at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days, respectively for ANN-I and ANN-II. The importance of different input parameters is also given for predicting the strengths at various ages using neural network. The model developed from literature data could be easily extended to the experimental data, with bottom ash as partial replacement of sand with some modifications.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, bottom ash, strength, prediction, neural network, importance factor.

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3 Properties of Bricks Produced With Recycled Fine Aggregate

Authors: S. Ismail, Z. Yaacob

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to study the possible use of recycled fine aggregate made from waste rubble wall to substitute partially for the natural sand used in the production of cement and sand bricks. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand; they were then replaced by recycled fine aggregate at 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight of natural sand. A series of tests was carried out to study the effect of using recycled aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks, such as density, drying shrinkage, water absorption characteristic, compressive and flexural strength. Test results indicate that it is possible to manufacture bricks containing recycled fine aggregate with good characteristics that are similar in physical and mechanical properties to those of bricks with natural aggregate, provided that the percentage of recycled fine aggregates is limited up to 50-75%.

Keywords: Bricks, cement, recycled aggregate, sand

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2 Research into Concrete Blocks with Waste Glass

Authors: P. Turgut, E. S. Yahlizade

Abstract:

In this paper, a parametric experimental study for producing paving blocks using fine and coarse waste glass is presented. Some of the physical and mechanical properties of paving blocks having various levels of fine glass (FG) and coarse glass (CG) replacements with fine aggregate (FA) are investigated. The test results show that the replacement of FG by FA at level of 20% by weight has a significant effect on the compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and abrasion resistance of the paving blocks as compared with the control sample because of puzzolanic nature of FG. The compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and abrasion resistance of the paving block samples in the FG replacement level of 20% are 69%, 90%, 47% and 15 % higher as compared with the control sample respectively. It is reported in the earlier works the replacement of FG by FA at level of 20% by weight suppress the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in the concrete. The test results show that the FG at level of 20% has a potential to be used in the production of paving blocks. The beneficial effect on these properties of CG replacement with FA is little as compared with FG.

Keywords: Concrete paving , Properties, Waste glass.

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1 Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

Authors: S.M. Gupta, V.K. Sehgal, S.K. Kaushik

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the shrinkage of High Strength Concrete. High Strength Concrete is made by partially replacement of cement by flyash and silica fume. The shrinkage of High Strength Concrete has been studied using the different types of coarse and fine aggregates i.e. Sandstone and Granite of 12.5 mm size and Yamuna and Badarpur Sand. The Mix proportion of concrete is 1:0.8:2.2 with water cement ratio as 0.30. Superplasticizer dose @ of 2% by weight of cement is added to achieve the required degree of workability in terms of compaction factor. From the test results of the above investigation it can be concluded that the shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete increases with age. The shrinkage strain of concrete with replacement of cement by 10% of Flyash and Silica fume respectively at various ages are more (6 to 10%) than the shrinkage strain of concrete without Flyash and Silica fume. The shrinkage strain of concrete with Badarpur sand as Fine aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (10%) than that of concrete with Yamuna Sand. Further, the shrinkage strain of concrete with Granite as Coarse aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (6 to 7%) than that of concrete with Sand stone as aggregate of same size. The shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete is also compared with that of normal strength concrete. Test results show that the shrinkage strain of high strength concrete is less than that of normal strength concrete.

Keywords: Shrinkage high strength concrete, fly ash, silica fume& superplastizers.

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