Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 523

Search results for: Differential speed rolling

523 Cladding of Al and Cu by Differential Speed Rolling

Authors: Tae Yun Chung, Jungho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Al/Cu clad sheet has been fabricated by using differential speed rolling (DSR) process, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100 and 150oC with speed ratios from 1.4 to 2.2, in which the total thickness reduction was in the range between 14 and 46%. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and tension tests. The DSR process was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing speed ratio. Post heat treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of clad sheet by forming intermetallic compounds in the interface area. 

Keywords: Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, Differential speed rolling, Interface microstructure, Annealing, Tensile test.

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522 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: Rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting.

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521 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by differential speed rolling (DSR) process were studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100oC with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400oC for 30 to 120min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction.

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520 A Model for Study of the Defects in Rolling Element Bearings at Higher Speed by Vibration Signature Analysis

Authors: Abhay Utpat, R. B. Ingle, M. R. Nandgaonkar

Abstract:

The vibrations produced by a single point defect on various parts of the bearing under constant radial load are predicted by using a theoretical model. The model includes variation in the response due to the effect of bearing dimensions, rotating frequency distribution of load. The excitation forces are generated when the defects on the races strike to rolling elements. In case of the outer ring defect, the pulses generated are with periodicity of outer ring defect frequency where as for inner ring defect, the pulses are with periodicity of inner ring defect frequency. The effort has been carried out in preparing the physical model of the system. Different defect frequencies are obtained and are used to find out the amplitudes of the vibration due to excitation of the bearing parts. Increase in the radial load or severity of the defect produces a significant change in bearing signature characteristics.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, defect frequency, rolling element, vibration response.

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519 Investigation on a Wave-Powered Electrical Generator Consisted of a Geared Motor-Generator Housed by a Double-Cone Rolling on Concentric Circular Rails

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

An electrical generator able to harness energy from the water waves and designed as a double-cone geared motor-generator (DCGMG), is proposed and theoretically investigated. Similar to a differential gear mechanism, used in the transmission system of the auto vehicle wheels, an angular speed differential is created between the cones rolling on two concentric circular rails. Water wave acting on the floating DCGMG produces and a gear-box amplifies the speed differential to gain sufficient torque for power generation. A model that allows computation of the speed differential, torque, and power of the DCGMG is suggested. Influence of various parameters, regarding the construction of the DCGMG, as well as the contact between the double-cone and rails, on the electro-mechanical output, is emphasized. Results obtained indicate that the generated electrical power can be increased by augmenting the mass of the double-cone, the span of the rails, the apex angle of the cones, the friction between cones and rails, the amplification factor of the gear-box, and the efficiency of the motor-generator. Such findings are useful to formulate a design methodology for the proposed wave-powered generator.

Keywords: Wave-powered electrical generator, double-cone, circular concentric rails, amplification of angular speed differential.

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518 Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter

Authors: Abhijit Chandra, Sudipta Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin.  Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.

Keywords: Convergence speed, Differential Evolution (DE), error histogram, finite impulse response (FIR) filter, total power of two (TPT), zero-valued filter coefficient (ZFC).

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517 The Effect on Rolling Mill of Waviness in Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Sunthorn S., Kittiphat R.

Abstract:

The edge waviness in hot rolled steel is a common defect. Variables that affect such defect include raw material and machine. These variables are necessary to consider to understand such defect. This research studied the defect of edge waviness for SS 400 of metal sheet manufacture. Defect of metal sheets were divided into two groups. The specimens were investigated on chemical composition and mechanical properties to find the difference. The results of investigation showed that the difference was not significant. Therefore the roll mill machine should be used to adjust to support another location on a roller to avoide edge waviness.

Keywords: Edge waviness, Hot rolling steel, Metal sheet defect, SS 400, Roll leveler.

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516 Genetic Algorithms in Hot Steel Rolling for Scale Defect Prediction

Authors: Jarno Haapamäki, Juha Röning

Abstract:

Scale defects are common surface defects in hot steel rolling. The modelling of such defects is problematic and their causes are not straightforward. In this study, we investigated genetic algorithms in search for a mathematical solution to scale formation. For this research, a high-dimensional data set from hot steel rolling process was gathered. The synchronisation of the variables as well as the allocation of the measurements made on the steel strip were solved before the modelling phase.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, hot strip rolling, knowledge discovery, modeling.

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515 Tribological Aspects of Advanced Roll Material in Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammed Tahir, Jonas Lagergren

Abstract:

Vancron 40, a nitrided powder metallurgical tool Steel, is used in cold work applications where the predominant failure mechanisms are adhesive wear or galling. Typical applications of Vancron 40 are among others fine blanking, cold extrusion, deep drawing and cold work rolls for cluster mills. Vancron 40 positive results for cold work rolls for cluster mills and as a tool for some severe metal forming process makes it competitive compared to other type of work rolls that require higher precision, among others in cold rolling of thin stainless steel, which required high surface finish quality. In this project, three roll materials for cold rolling of stainless steel strip was examined, Vancron 40, Narva 12B (a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with tungsten) and Supra 3 (a Chromium-molybdenum tungsten-vanadium alloyed high speed steel). The purpose of this project was to study the depth profiles of the ironed stainless steel strips, emergence of galling and to study the lubrication performance used by steel industries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine scratch of the strip, galling and surface roughness of the roll materials under severe tribological conditions. The critical sliding length for onset of galling was estimated for stainless steel with four different lubricants. Laboratory experiments result of performance evaluation of resistance capability of rolls toward adhesive wear under severe conditions for low and high reductions. Vancron 40 in combination with cold rolling lubricant gave good surface quality, prevents galling of metal surfaces and good bearing capacity.

Keywords: Adhesive wear, Cold rolling, Lubricant, Stainless steel, Surface finish, Vancron 40.

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514 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik

Abstract:

Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: Asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet.

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513 Using Game Engines in Lightning Shielding: The Application of the Rolling Spheres Method on Virtual As-Built Power Substations

Authors: Yuri A. Gruber, Matheus Rosendo, Ulisses G. A. Casemiro, Klaus de Geus, Rafael T. Bee

Abstract:

Lightning strikes can cause severe negative impacts to the electrical sector causing direct damage to equipment as well as shutdowns, especially when occurring in power substations. In order to mitigate this problem, a meticulous planning of the power substation protection system is of vital importance. A critical part of this is the distribution of shielding wires through the substation, which creates a 3D imaginary protection mesh similar to a circus tarpaulin. Equipment enclosed in the volume defined by that 3D mesh is considered protected against lightning strikes. The use of traditional methods of longitudinal cutting analysis based on 2D CAD tools makes the process laborious and the results obtained may not guarantee satisfactory protection of electrical equipment. This work describes the application of a Game Engine to the problem of lightning protection of power substations providing the visualization of the 3D protection mesh, the amount of protected components and the highlight of equipment which remain unprotected. In addition, aspects regarding the implementation and the advantages of approaching the problem using Unreal® Engine 4 are described. In order to validate results, a comparison with traditional 2D methods is applied to the same case study to which the proposed technique has been applied. Finally, a comparative study involving different levels of protection using the technique developed in this work is presented, showing that modern game engines can be a powerful accessory for simulations in several areas of engineering.

Keywords: Game engine, rolling spheres method, substation protection, UE4, Unreal® Engine 4.

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512 Analysis of the Strip Shape and Microstructure with Consideration of Roll Crossing and Shifting

Authors: Z. Y. Jiang, H. B. Tibar, A. Aljabri

Abstract:

Optimisation of the physical and mechanical properties of cold rolled thin strips is achieved by controlling the rolling parameters. In this paper, the factors affecting the asymmetrical cold rolling of thin low carbon steel strip have been studied at a speed ratio of 1.1 without lubricant applied. The effect of rolling parameters on the resulting microstructure was also investigated. It was found that under dry condition, work roll shifting and work roll cross angle can improve the strip profile, and the result is more significant with an increase of work roll cross angle rather than that of work roll shifting. However, there was no obvious change in microstructure. In addition, effects of rolling parameters on strip profile and microstructure have also been discussed.

Keywords: Reduction ratio, rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work rolls cross angle, work roll shifting.

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511 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa

Abstract:

Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: Natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis.

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510 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughness

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509 Robust Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor with DTFC and Fuzzy Speed Regulator

Authors: Jagadish H. Pujar, S. F. Kodad

Abstract:

Recent developments in Soft computing techniques, power electronic switches and low-cost computational hardware have made it possible to design and implement sophisticated control strategies for sensorless speed control of AC motor drives. Such an attempt has been made in this work, for Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor (IM) by means of Direct Torque Fuzzy Control (DTFC), PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and MRAS speed estimator strategy, which is absolutely nonlinear in its nature. Direct torque control is known to produce quick and robust response in AC drive system. However, during steady state, torque, flux and current ripple occurs. So, the performance of conventional DTC with PI speed regulator can be improved by implementing fuzzy logic techniques. Certain important issues in design including the space vector modulated (SVM) 3-Ф voltage source inverter, DTFC design, generation of reference torque using PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and sensor less speed estimator have been resolved. The proposed scheme is validated through extensive numerical simulations on MATLAB. The simulated results indicate the sensor less speed control of IM with DTFC and PI-type fuzzy speed regulator provides satisfactory high dynamic and static performance compare to conventional DTC with PI speed regulator.

Keywords: Sensor-less Speed Estimator, Fuzzy Logic Control(FLC), SVM, DTC, DTFC, IM, fuzzy speed regulator.

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508 A Comparative Study of SVM Classifiers and Artificial Neural Networks Application for Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis using Wavelet Transform Preprocessing

Authors: Commander Sunil Tyagi

Abstract:

Effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings are presented in this paper. The characteristic features of vibration signals of rotating driveline that was run in its normal condition and with faults introduced were used as input to ANN and SVM classifiers. Simple statistical features such as standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis etc. of the time-domain vibration signal segments along with peaks of the signal and peak of power spectral density (PSD) are used as features to input the ANN and SVM classifier. The effect of preprocessing of the vibration signal by Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) prior to feature extraction is also studied. It is shown from the experimental results that the performance of SVM classifier in identification of bearing condition is better then ANN and pre-processing of vibration signal by DWT enhances the effectiveness of both ANN and SVM classifier

Keywords: ANN, Artificial Intelligence, Fault Diagnosis, Pattern Recognition, Rolling Element Bearing, SVM. Wavelet Transform

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507 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: Hot Forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (hv), impact toughness (j), microstructure, low alloy steels.

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506 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: Normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume.

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505 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.

Abstract:

In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer. 

Keywords: Surface hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness.

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504 Differential Sandwich Theorems with Generalised Derivative Operator

Authors: Maslina Darus, Khalifa Al-Shaqsi

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized derivatives operator n λ,βf introduced by the authors will be discussed. Some subordination and superordination results involving this operator for certain normalized analytic functions in the open unit disk will be investigated. Our results extend corresponding previously known results.

Keywords: Analytic functions, Univalent functions, Derivative operator, Differential subordination, Differential superordination.

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503 Influence of Deep Cold Rolling and Low Plasticity Burnishing on Surface Hardness and Surface Roughness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) process are cold working processes, which easily produce a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. The present study focuses on the surface roughness and surface hardness aspects of AISI 4140 work material, using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in order to identify the predominant factors amongst the selected parameters. They were then categorized in order of significance followed by setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. In the present work, the influence of main process parameters (force, feed rate, number of tool passes/overruns, initial roughness of the work piece, ball material, ball diameter and lubricant used) on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied for both LPB and DCR process and the results are compared. It was observed that by using LPB process surface hardness has been improved by 167% and in DCR process surface hardness has been improved by 442%. It was also found that the force, ball diameter, number of tool passes and initial roughness of the workpiece are the most pronounced parameters, which has a significant effect on the work piece-s surface during deep cold rolling and low plasticity burnishing process.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, burnishing, surface roughness, surface hardness, design of experiments, AISI4140 steel.

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502 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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501 Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

Authors: Tarun Kumar Rawat, Abhirup Lahiri, Ashish Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parameters for improved noise characteristics of the differential amplifier.

Keywords: Single-ended input differential amplifier, Noise, stochastic differential equation, mean and variance.

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500 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama

Abstract:

We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion.

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499 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations with Impulse Effect

Authors: Sanjay K.Srivastava, Bhanu Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper some results on strict stability heve beeb extended for fuzzy differential equations with impulse effect using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin technique.

Keywords: Fuzzy differential equations, Impulsive differential equations, Strict stability, Lyapunov function, Razumikhin technique.

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498 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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497 Effect of Rollers Differential Speed and Paddy Moisture Content on Performance of Rubber Roll Husker

Authors: S. Firouzi, M.R. Alizadeh, S. Minaei

Abstract:

A study was carried out at the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII) to investigate the effect of rollers differential peripheral speed of commercial rubber roll husker and paddy moisture content on the husking index and percentage of broken rice. The experiment was conducted at six levels of rollers differential speed (1.5, 2.2, 2.9, 3.6, 4.3 and 5 m/s) and three levels of paddy moisture content (8-9, 10-11 and 12-13% w.b.). Two common paddy varieties namely, Binam and Khazer, were selected for this study. Results revealed that the effect of rollers differential speed and moisture content significantly (P<0.01) affected percentage of broken brown rice and paddy husking index. Average broken kernel percentage increased from 13 to 14.61% while husking index decreased from 71.64 to 61.81%, as paddy moisture content increased from 8-9 to 12-13%. It was observed that amount of broken rice decreased from 18.83 to 9.97%, when rollers differential speed varied from 1.5 to 5 m/s, while the husking index initially increased and then started to decrease. The mean value of husking index for Khazar variety (64.71%) was significantly lower than that for Binam variety (69.2%). It was concluded that rollers differential speed of 2.9 m/s and moisture content of 8-9% was the most appropriate combination for paddy husking of Binam and Khazar varieties in rubber roll husker.

Keywords: husking index, moisture content, paddy, rubber roll husker.

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496 Existence of Iterative Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation

Authors: Rabha W. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Our main aim in this paper is to use the technique of non expansive operators to more general iterative and non iterative fractional differential equations (Cauchy type ). The non integer case is taken in sense of Riemann-Liouville fractional operators. Applications are illustrated.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional differential equation, Cauchy equation, Riemann-Liouville fractional operators, Volterra integral equation, non-expansive mapping, iterative differential equation.

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495 Development of a Speed Sensorless IM Drives

Authors: Dj. Cherifi, Y. Miloud, A. Tahri

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to elimination of the problem of sensitivity to parameter variation of induction motor drive. The proposed sensorless strategy is based on an algorithm permitting a better simultaneous estimation of the rotor speed and the stator resistance including an adaptive mechanism based on the lyaponov theory. To study the reliability and the robustness of the sensorless technique to abnormal operations, some simulation tests have been performed under several cases.

The proposed sensorless vector control scheme showed a good performance behavior in the transient and steady states, with an excellent disturbance rejection of the load torque.

Keywords: Induction Motor Drive, field-oriented control, adaptive speed observer, stator resistance estimation.

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494 The Effect of High-speed Milling on Surface Roughness of Hardened Tool Steel

Authors: Manop Vorasri, Komson Jirapattarasilp, Sittichai Kaewkuekool

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study factors, which were affected on surface roughness in high speed milling of hardened tool steel. Material used in the experiment was tool steel JIS SKD 61 that hardened on 60 ±2 HRC. Full factorial experimental design was conducted on 3 factors and 3 levels (3 3 designs) with 2 replications. Factors were consisted of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The results showed that influenced factor affected to surface roughness was cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut which showed statistical significant. Higher cutting speed would cause on better surface quality. On the other hand, higher feed rate would cause on poorer surface quality. Interaction of factor was found that cutting speed and depth of cut were significantly to surface quality. The interaction of high cutting speed associated with low depth of cut affected to better surface quality than low cutting speed and high depth of cut.

Keywords: High-speed milling, Tool steel, SKD 61 Steel, Surface roughness, Cutting speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut

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