Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 326

Search results for: Current perturbation

326 About the Instability Modes of Current Sheet in Wide Range of Frequencies

Authors: V. V. Lyahov, V. M. Neshchadim

Abstract:

We offer a new technique for research of stability of current sheaths in space plasma taking into account the effect of polarization. At the beginning, the found perturbation of the distribution function is used for calculation of the dielectric permeability tensor, which simulates inhomogeneous medium of a current sheath. Further, we in the usual manner solve the system of Maxwell's equations closed with the material equation. The amplitudes of Fourier perturbations are considered to be exponentially decaying through the current sheath thickness. The dispersion equation follows from the nontrivial solution requirement for perturbations of the electromagnetic field. The resulting dispersion equation allows one to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of instability modes of the current sheath (within the limits of the proposed model) over a wide frequency range, including low frequencies.

Keywords: Current sheath, distribution function, effect of polarization, instability modes, low frequencies, perturbation of electromagnetic field dispersion equation, space plasma, tensor of dielectric permeability.

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325 Perturbation Based Modelling of Differential Amplifier Circuit

Authors: Rahul Bansal, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents the closed form nonlinear expressions of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) differential amplifier (DA) using perturbation method. Circuit equations have been derived using Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). The perturbation method has been applied to state variables for obtaining the linear and nonlinear terms. The implementation of the proposed method is simple. The closed form nonlinear expressions provide better insights of physical systems. The derived equations can be used for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Differential amplifier, perturbation method, Taylor series.

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324 Analytical solution of Gas Flow Through a Micro-Nano Porous Media by Homotopy Perturbation method

Authors: Jamal Amani Rad, Kourosh Parand

Abstract:

In this paper, we have applied the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) for obtaining the analytical solution of unsteady flow of gas through a porous medium and we have also compared the findings of this research with some other analytical results. Results showed a very good agreement between results of HPM and the numerical solutions of the problem rather than other analytical solutions which have previously been applied. The results of homotopy perturbation method are of high accuracy and the method is very effective and succinct.

Keywords: Unsteady gas equation, Homotopy perturbation method(HPM), Porous medium, Nonlinear ODE

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323 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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322 Perturbation Based Search Method for Solving Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming Problem

Authors: Muthu Solayappan, Kien Ming Ng, Kim Leng Poh

Abstract:

This paper presents a perturbation based search method to solve the unconstrained binary quadratic programming problem. The proposed algorithm was tested with some of the standard test problems and the results are reported for 10 instances of 50, 100, 250, & 500 variable problems. A comparison of the performance of the proposed algorithm with other heuristics and optimization software is made. Based on the results, it was found that the proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive and the solutions obtained match the best known solutions for smaller sized problems. For larger instances, the algorithm is capable of finding a solution within 0.11% of the best known solution. Apart from being used as a stand-alone method, this algorithm could also be incorporated with other heuristics to find better solutions.

Keywords: unconstrained binary quadratic programming, perturbation, interior point methods

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321 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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320 Constructing Approximate and Exact Solutions for Boussinesq Equations using Homotopy Perturbation Padé Technique

Authors: Mohamed M. Mousa, Aidarkhan Kaltayev

Abstract:

Based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and Padé approximants (PA), approximate and exact solutions are obtained for cubic Boussinesq and modified Boussinesq equations. The obtained solutions contain solitary waves, rational solutions. HPM is used for analytic treatment to those equations and PA for increasing the convergence region of the HPM analytical solution. The results reveal that the HPM with the enhancement of PA is a very effective, convenient and quite accurate to such types of partial differential equations.

Keywords: Homotopy perturbation method, Padé approximants, cubic Boussinesq equation, modified Boussinesq equation.

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319 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: Co-current, counter current, Euler Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer.

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318 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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317 A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror

Authors: Jasdeep Kaur, Nupur Prakash, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.

Keywords: Current Mirrors, Composite Cascode Structure, Current Source/Sink

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316 Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field

Authors: Siddharth Gadkari, Rochish Thaokar

Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Keywords: liquid-liquid jet, axisymmetric perturbation, asymmetric perturbation, radial electric field

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315 Free Vibration Analysis of Non-Uniform Euler Beams on Elastic Foundation via Homotopy Perturbation Method

Authors: U. Mutman, S. B. Coskun

Abstract:

In this study Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is employed to investigate free vibration of an Euler beam with variable stiffness resting on an elastic foundation. HPM is an easy-to-use and very efficient technique for the solution of linear or nonlinear problems. HPM produces analytical approximate expression which is continuous in the solution domain. This work shows that HPM is a promising method for free vibration analysis of nonuniform Euler beams on elastic foundation. Several case problems have been solved by using the technique and solutions have been compared with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Homotopy Perturbation Method, Elastic Foundation, Vibration, Beam

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314 A New Perturbation Technique in Numerical Study on Buckling of Composite Shells under Axial Compression

Authors: Zia R. Tahir, P. Mandal

Abstract:

A numerical study is presented on buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shells under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT). Asymmetric meshing technique is a perturbation technique to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects predicted buckling load, buckling mode shape and post-buckling behaviour. Linear (eigenvalue) and nonlinear (Riks) analyses have been performed to study the effect of asymmetric meshing in the form of a patch on buckling behaviour. The reduction in the buckling load using Asymmetric meshing technique was observed to be about 15%. An isolated dimple formed near the bifurcation point and the size of which increased to reach a stable state in the post-buckling region. The load-displacement curve behaviour applying asymmetric meshing is quite similar to the curve obtained using initial geometric imperfection in the shell model.

Keywords: CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell, Finite Element Analysis, Perturbation Technique, Asymmetric Meshing Technique, Linear Eigenvalue analysis, Non-linear Riks Analysis

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313 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

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312 Solving Inhomogeneous Wave Equation Cauchy Problems using Homotopy Perturbation Method

Authors: Mohamed M. Mousa, Aidarkhan Kaltayev

Abstract:

In this paper, He-s homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied to spatial one and three spatial dimensional inhomogeneous wave equation Cauchy problems for obtaining exact solutions. HPM is used for analytic handling of these equations. The results reveal that the HPM is a very effective, convenient and quite accurate to such types of partial differential equations (PDEs).

Keywords: Homotopy perturbation method, Exact solution, Cauchy problem, inhomogeneous wave equation

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311 Implementation of Second Order Current- Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Current Controllability

Authors: Koson Pitaksuttayaprot, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

The realization of current-mode quadrature oscillators using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed oscillators can provide 2 sinusoidal output currents with 90º phase difference. It is enabled non-interactive dual-current control for both the condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. High output impedances of the configurations enable the circuit to be cascaded without additional current buffers. The use of only grounded capacitors is ideal for integration. The circuit performances are depicted through PSpice simulations, they show good agreement to theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Current-mode, Oscillator, Integrated circuit, CCCCTA.

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310 A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)

Authors: Karama M. AL-Tamimi, Munir A. Al-Absi

Abstract:

A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.

Keywords: LCCA, OTA, Logarithmic, VGA, Weak inversion, Current-mode

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309 Perturbation in the Fractional Fourier Span due to Erroneous Transform Order and Window Function

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. The Fractional Fourier span in general depends on the amplitude and phase functions of the signal and varies with the transform order. However, with the development of the Fractional Fourier filter banks, it is advantageous in some cases to have different transform orders for different filter banks to achieve better decorrelation of the windowed and overlapped time signal. We present an expression that is useful for finding the perturbation in the Fractional Fourier span due to the erroneous transform order and the possible variation in the window shape and length. The expression is based on the dependency of the time-Fractional Fourier span Uncertainty on the amplitude and phase function of the signal. We also show with the help of the developed expression that the perturbation of span has a varying degree of sensitivity for varying degree of transform order and the window coefficients.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Perturbation, Fractional Fourier span, amplitude, phase, transform order, filterbanks.

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308 A Comparison of Shunt Active Power Filter Control Methods under Non-Sinusoidal and Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

Authors: H. Abaali, M. T. Lamchich, M. Raoufi

Abstract:

There are a variety of reference current identification methods, for the shunt active power filter (SAPF), such as the instantaneous active and reactive power, the instantaneous active and reactive current and the synchronous detection method are evaluated and compared under ideal, non sinusoidal and unbalanced voltage conditions. The SAPF performances, for the investigated identification methods, are tested for a non linear load. The simulation results, using Matlab Power System Blockset Toolbox from a complete structure, are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Shunt active power filter, Current perturbation, Non sinusoidal and unbalanced voltage conditions.

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307 Block Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Fuzzy Linear Systems

Authors: Shu-Xin Miao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an efficient numerical algorithm, namely block homotopy perturbation method, for solving fuzzy linear systems based on homotopy perturbation method. Some numerical examples are given to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: Homotopy perturbation method, fuzzy linear systems, block linear system, fuzzy solution, embedding parameter.

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306 About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath

Authors: V.V. Lyahov, V.M. Neshchadim

Abstract:

The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.

Keywords: Distribution function, electromagnetic field, magnetoactive plasma, nonelectroneutral current sheath, structural instability, bifurcational current sheath.

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305 A ±0.5V BiCMOS Class-A Current Conveyor

Authors: Subodh Thankachan, Manisha Pattanaik, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

In this paper, a new BiCMOS CCII and CCCII, capable of operate at ±0.5V and having wide dynamic range with achieved bandwidth of 480MHz and 430MHz respectively have been proposed. The structures have been found to be insensitive to the threshold voltage variations. The proposed circuits are suitable for implementation using 0.25μm BiCMOS technology. Pspice simulations confirm the performance of the proposed structures.

Keywords: BiCMOS, Current conveyor, Compound current conveyor, Low supply voltage, Threshold voltage variation.

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304 Two Active Elements Based All-Pass Section Suited for Current-Mode Cascading

Authors: J. Mohan, S. Maheshwari

Abstract:

A new circuit topology realizing a first-order currentmode all-pass filter is proposed using two dual-output second generation current conveyor and two passive components. The circuit possesses low-input and high-output impedance, which makes it ideal for current-mode systems. The proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE simulation results.

Keywords: active filter, all-pass filter, current-mode, current conveyor.

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303 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Current Sensing, Power-on protection, Step-up Converter, Soft-start.

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302 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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301 A Comparison Study of a Symmetry Solution of Magneto-Elastico-Viscous Fluid along a Semi- Infinite Plate with Homotopy Perturbation Method and4th Order Runge–Kutta Method

Authors: Mohamed M. Mousa, Aidarkhan Kaltayev

Abstract:

The equations governing the flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible viscous fluid over an infinite flat plate in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) with Padé approximants (PA) and 4th order Runge–Kutta method (4RKM). Approximate analytical and numerical solutions for the velocity field and heat transfer are obtained and compared with each other, showing excellent agreement. The effects of the magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on velocity field, shear stress, temperature and heat transfer are discussed as well.

Keywords: Electrically conducting elastico-viscous fluid, symmetry solution, Homotopy perturbation method, Padé approximation, 4th order Runge–Kutta, Maple

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300 High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

Authors: Néjib Hassen, Thouraya Ettaghzouti, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Keywords: Current controlled current conveyor CCCII, floating inductor, grounded inductor, oscillator, universal filter.

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299 Synchronization for Impulsive Fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Time Delays under Noise Perturbation

Authors: Changzhao Li, Juan Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a class of fuzzy Cohen- Grossberg neural networks with time delays and impulsive effects. By virtue of stochastic analysis, Halanay inequality for stochastic differential equations, we find sufficient conditions for the global exponential square-mean synchronization of the FCGNNs under noise perturbation. In particular, the traditional assumption on the differentiability of the time-varying delays is no longer needed. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the results in this paper.

Keywords: Fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (FCGNNs), complete synchronization, time delays, impulsive, noise perturbation.

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298 Application of Homotopy Perturbation Method to Solve Steady Flow of Walter B Fluid A Vertical Channel In Porous Media

Authors: A.Memari

Abstract:

In this article, a simulation method called the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is employed in the steady flow of a Walter's B' fluid in a vertical channel with porous wall. We employed Homotopy Perturbation Method to derive solution of a nonlinear form of equation obtained from exerting similarity transforming to the ordinary differential equation gained from continuity and momentum equations of this kind of flow. The results obtained from the Homotopy Perturbation Method are then compared with those from the Runge–Kutta method in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The results show that the Homotopy Perturbation Method can achieve good results in predicting the solution of such problems. Ultimately we use this solution to obtain the other terms of velocities and physical discussion about it.

Keywords: Steady flow; Walter's B' Fluid;, vertical channel;porous media, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), Numerical Solution (NS).

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297 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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