Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3042

Search results for: software defined radio (SDR)

3042 A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. A. Fodha, H. Benfradj, A. Ghazel

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.

Keywords: Multi-core architectures, reconfigurable architecture, software defined radio.

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3041 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: Channel Characteristic, HF Communication System, LabVIEW, Software-Defined Radio, Universal Software Radio Pheripheral.

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3040 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the reduction of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) for the OFDM in Mobile-WiMAX physical layer (PHY) standard. In the process, the best achievable PAPR of 0 dB is found for the OFDM spectrum using phase modulation technique which avoids the nonlinear distortion. The performance of the WiMAX PHY standard is handled by the software defined radio (SDR) prototype in which GNU Radio and USRP N210 employed as software and hardware platforms respectively. It is also found that BER performance is shown for different coding and different modulation schemes. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.

Keywords: BER, Channel sounding, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210.

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3039 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX.

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3038 Cognitive Radio Spectrum Management

Authors: Swapnil Singhal, Santosh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The emerging Cognitive Radio is combo of both the technologies i.e. Radio dynamics and software technology. It involve wireless system with efficient coding, designing, and making them artificial intelligent to take the decision according to the surrounding environment and adopt themselves accordingly, so as to deliver the best QoS. This is the breakthrough from fixed hardware and fixed utilization of the spectrum. This software-defined approach of research is centralized at user-definition and application driven model, various software method are used for the optimization of the wireless communication. This paper focused on the Spectrum allocation technique using genetic algorithm GA to evolve radio, represented by chromosomes. The chromosomes gene represents the adjustable parameters in given radio and by using GA, evolving over the generations, the optimized set of parameters are evolved, as per the requirement of user and availability of the spectrum, in our prototype the gene consist of 6 different parameters, and the best set of parameters are evolved according to the application need and availability of the spectrum holes and thus maintaining best QoS for user, simultaneously maintaining licensed user rights. The analyzing tool Matlab is used for the performance of the prototype.

Keywords: ASDR, Cognitive Radio, QoS, Spectrum.

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3037 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi

Abstract:

The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: Spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency.

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3036 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: Pulse-shaping filters, jitter, inter-symbol interference, symmetric FIR filters, QAM

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3035 High Dynamic Range Resampling for Software Radio

Authors: Arthur David Snider, Laiq Azam

Abstract:

The classic problem of recovering arbitrary values of a band-limited signal from its samples has an added complication in software radio applications; namely, the resampling calculations inevitably fold aliases of the analog signal back into the original bandwidth. The phenomenon is quantified by the spur-free dynamic range. We demonstrate how a novel application of the Remez (Parks- McClellan) algorithm permits optimal signal recovery and SFDR, far surpassing state-of-the-art resamplers.

Keywords: Sampling methods, Signal sampling, Digital radio, Digital-analog conversion.

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3034 Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router

Authors: Khine Phyu, Aung Myint Aye

Abstract:

This paper presents results of measurements campaign carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in planning the networks of future personal communications services.

Keywords: radio wave signal analyzing, LOS radio wavepropagation, indoor radio wave propagation, free space model, tworay model and indoor attenuation.

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3033 Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi

Abstract:

Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: Quadrature baseband, Radio frequency, MultipathCompensation, Frequency modulation, Signal Processing.

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3032 Modulation Identification Algorithm for Adaptive Demodulator in Software Defined Radios Using Wavelet Transform

Authors: P. Prakasam, M. Madheswaran

Abstract:

A generalized Digital Modulation Identification algorithm for adaptive demodulator has been developed and presented in this paper. The algorithm developed is verified using wavelet Transform and histogram computation to identify QPSK and QAM with GMSK and M–ary FSK modulations. It has been found that the histogram peaks simplifies the procedure for identification. The simulated results show that the correct modulation identification is possible to a lower bound of 5 dB and 12 dB for GMSK and QPSK respectively. When SNR is above 5 dB the throughput of the proposed algorithm is more than 97.8%. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) has been computed to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm and the analysis shows that the probability of detection (Pd) drops rapidly when SNR is 5 dB and probability of false alarm (Pf) is smaller than 0.3. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with existing methods and found it will identify all digital modulation schemes with low SNR.

Keywords: Bit Error rate, Receiver Operating Characteristics, Software Defined Radio, Wavelet Transform.

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3031 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.

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3030 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: Dual-mode resonators, perturbation element, perturbation theory, reconfigurable filters, software defined radio (SDR), cognitine radio.

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3029 Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas

Authors: V. Nagaraju, Tapas Bapu. B. R, Beryl J. Victor

Abstract:

In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed. The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: Band-pass filter, Cognitive radio, filtenna, frequency reconfigurable, ultra-wideband antenna.

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3028 Implementation and Demonstration of Software-Defined Traffic Grooming

Authors: Lei Guo, Xu Zhang, Weigang Hou

Abstract:

Since the traditional network is closed and it has no architecture to create applications, it has been unable to evolve with changing demands under the rapid innovation in services. Additionally, due to the lack of the whole network profile, the quality of service cannot be well guaranteed in the traditional network. The Software Defined Network (SDN) utilizes global resources to support on-demand applications/services via open, standardized and programmable interfaces. In this paper, we implement the traffic grooming application under a real SDN environment, and the corresponding analysis is made. In our SDN: 1) we use OpenFlow protocol to control the entire network by using software applications running on the network operating system; 2) several virtual switches are combined into the data forwarding plane through Open vSwitch; 3) An OpenFlow controller, NOX, is involved as a logically centralized control plane that dynamically configures the data forwarding plane; 4) The traffic grooming based on SDN is demonstrated through dynamically modifying the idle time of flow entries. The experimental results demonstrate that the SDN-based traffic grooming effectively reduces the end-to-end delay, and the improvement ratio arrives to 99%.

Keywords: NOX, OpenFlow, software defined network, traffic grooming.

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3027 An Agent Oriented Approach to Operational Profile Management

Authors: Sunitha Ramanujam, Hany El Yamany, Miriam A. M. Capretz

Abstract:

Software reliability, defined as the probability of a software system or application functioning without failure or errors over a defined period of time, has been an important area of research for over three decades. Several research efforts aimed at developing models to improve reliability are currently underway. One of the most popular approaches to software reliability adopted by some of these research efforts involves the use of operational profiles to predict how software applications will be used. Operational profiles are a quantification of usage patterns for a software application. The research presented in this paper investigates an innovative multiagent framework for automatic creation and management of operational profiles for generic distributed systems after their release into the market. The architecture of the proposed Operational Profile MAS (Multi-Agent System) is presented along with detailed descriptions of the various models arrived at following the analysis and design phases of the proposed system. The operational profile in this paper is extended to comprise seven different profiles. Further, the criticality of operations is defined using a new composed metrics in order to organize the testing process as well as to decrease the time and cost involved in this process. A prototype implementation of the proposed MAS is included as proof-of-concept and the framework is considered as a step towards making distributed systems intelligent and self-managing.

Keywords: Software reliability, Software testing, Metrics, Distributed systems, Multi-agent systems

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3026 Classification of Radio Communication Signals using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Zuzana Dideková, Beata Mikovičová

Abstract:

Characterization of radio communication signals aims at automatic recognition of different characteristics of radio signals in order to detect their modulation type, the central frequency, and the level. Our purpose is to apply techniques used in image processing in order to extract pertinent characteristics. To the single analysis, we add several rules for checking the consistency of hypotheses using fuzzy logic. This allows taking into account ambiguity and uncertainty that may remain after the extraction of individual characteristics. The aim is to improve the process of radio communications characterization.

Keywords: fuzzy classification, fuzzy inference system, radio communication signals, telecommunications

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3025 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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3024 A Novel Method for Behavior Modeling in Uncertain Information Systems

Authors: Ali Haroonabadi, Mohammad Teshnehlab

Abstract:

None of the processing models in the software development has explained the software systems performance evaluation and modeling; likewise, there exist uncertainty in the information systems because of the natural essence of requirements, and this may cause other challenges in the processing of software development. By definition an extended version of UML (Fuzzy- UML), the functional requirements of the software defined uncertainly would be supported. In this study, the behavioral description of uncertain information systems by the aid of fuzzy-state diagram is crucial; moreover, the introduction of behavioral diagrams role in F-UML is investigated in software performance modeling process. To get the aim, a fuzzy sub-profile is used.

Keywords: Fuzzy System, Software Development Model, Software Performance Evaluation, UML

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3023 Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Johana Hernández, Edwin Rivas

Abstract:

The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, neural network, prediction, primary user.

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3022 Defect Management Life Cycle Process for Software Quality Improvement

Authors: Aedah A. Rahman, Nurdatillah Hasim

Abstract:

Software quality issues require special attention especially in view of the demands of quality software product to meet customer satisfaction. Software development projects in most organisations need proper defect management process in order to produce high quality software product and reduce the number of defects. The research question of this study is how to produce high quality software and reducing the number of defects. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a framework for managing software defects by following defined life cycle processes. The methodology starts by reviewing defects, defect models, best practices, and standards. A framework for defect management life cycle is proposed. The major contribution of this study is to define a defect management roadmap in software development. The adoption of an effective defect management process helps to achieve the ultimate goal of producing high quality software products and contributes towards continuous software process improvement.

Keywords: Defects, defect management, life cycle process, software quality.

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3021 Variation of Metrological Parameters as They Affect the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity for Akure South-West Nigeria

Authors: Famoriji J.Oluwole

Abstract:

This research work examines the effect of variations of metrological parameters on the tropospheric radio refractivity during dry and raining seasons for Akure in 2013. The daily averages of radio refractivity during dry (January) and raining (August) seasons were calculated from the data obtained from the Nigeria Metrological Agency (NIMET). The data that was used for the computation of radio refractivity is a daily interval of the variations of metrological parameters for each day in the troposphere for Akure. Consequently, the daily averages of radio refractivity during raining season (August) were greater than the results in dry season (January) as a result of the variations in meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere.

Keywords: Troposphere, Radio refractivity, Akure, Meteorological parameters.

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3020 Dynamic Metrics for Polymorphism in Object Oriented Systems

Authors: Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Gurdev Singh

Abstract:

Metrics is the process by which numbers or symbols are assigned to attributes of entities in the real world in such a way as to describe them according to clearly defined rules. Software metrics are instruments or ways to measuring all the aspect of software product. These metrics are used throughout a software project to assist in estimation, quality control, productivity assessment, and project control. Object oriented software metrics focus on measurements that are applied to the class and other characteristics. These measurements convey the software engineer to the behavior of the software and how changes can be made that will reduce complexity and improve the continuing capability of the software. Object oriented software metric can be classified in two types static and dynamic. Static metrics are concerned with all the aspects of measuring by static analysis of software and dynamic metrics are concerned with all the measuring aspect of the software at run time. Major work done before, was focusing on static metric. Also some work has been done in the field of dynamic nature of the software measurements. But research in this area is demanding for more work. In this paper we give a set of dynamic metrics specifically for polymorphism in object oriented system.

Keywords: Metrics, Software, Quality, Object oriented system, Polymorphism.

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3019 A Survey on Requirements and Challenges of Internet Protocol Television Service over Software Defined Networking

Authors: Esmeralda Hysenbelliu

Abstract:

Over the last years, the demand for high bandwidth services, such as live (IPTV Service) and on-demand video streaming, steadily and rapidly increased. It has been predicted that video traffic (IPTV, VoD, and WEB TV) will account more than 90% of global Internet Protocol traffic that will cross the globe in 2016. Consequently, the importance and consideration on requirements and challenges of service providers faced today in supporting user’s requests for entertainment video across the various IPTV services through virtualization over Software Defined Networks (SDN), is tremendous in the highest stage of attention. What is necessarily required, is to deliver optimized live and on-demand services like Internet Protocol Service (IPTV Service) with low cost and good quality by strictly fulfill the essential requirements of Clients and ISP’s (Internet Service Provider’s) in the same time. The aim of this study is to present an overview of the important requirements and challenges of IPTV service with two network trends on solving challenges through virtualization (SDN and Network Function Virtualization). This paper provides an overview of researches published in the last five years.

Keywords: Challenges, IPTV Service, Requirements, Software Defined Networking.

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3018 Cyber Security Enhancement via Software-Defined Pseudo-Random Private IP Address Hopping

Authors: Andre Slonopas, Warren Thompson, Zona Kostic

Abstract:

Obfuscation is one of the most useful tools to prevent network compromise. Previous research focused on the obfuscation of the network communications between external-facing edge devices. This work proposes the use of two edge devices, external and internal facing, which communicates via private IPv4 addresses in a software-defined pseudo-random IP hopping. This methodology does not require additional IP addresses and/or resources to implement. Statistical analyses demonstrate that the hopping surface must be at least 1e3 IP addresses in size with a broad standard deviation to minimize the possibility of coincidence of monitored and communication IPs. The probability of breaking the hopping algorithm requires a collection of at least 1e6 samples, which for large hopping surfaces will take years to collect. The probability of dropped packets is controlled via memory buffers and the frequency of hops and can be reduced to levels acceptable for video streaming. This methodology provides an impenetrable layer of security ideal for information and supervisory control and data acquisition systems.

Keywords: Moving Target Defense, cybersecurity, network security, hopping randomization, software defined network, network security theory.

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3017 A Study of DSRC Radio Testbed under Heavy Channel Load

Authors: Chih-Neng Liang, Bo-Chiuan Chen, C. W. Hsu

Abstract:

Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a key enabling technology for the next generation of communication-based safety applications. One of the important problems for DSRC deployment is maintaining high performance under heavy channel load. Many studies focus on congestion control mechanisms for simulating hundreds of physical radios deployed on vehicles. The U.S. department of transportation-s (DOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) division has a plan to chosen prototype on-board devices capable of transmitting basic “Here I am" safety messages to other vehicles. The devices will be used in an IntelliDrive safety pilot deployment of up to 3,000 vehicles. It is hard to log the information of 3,000 vehicles. In this paper we present the designs and issues related to the DSRC Radio Testbed under heavy channel load. The details not only include the architecture of DSRC Radio Testbed, but also describe how the Radio Interfere System is used to help for emulating the congestion radio environment.

Keywords: DSRC, UDP, WAVE, Radio Testbed

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3016 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.

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3015 Use of RFID Technology for Identification, Traceability Monitoring and the Checking of Product Authenticity

Authors: Adriana Alexandru, Eleonora Tudora, Ovidiu Bica

Abstract:

This paper is an overview of the structure of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems and radio frequency bands used by RFID technology. It also presents a solution based on the application of RFID for brand authentication, traceability and tracking, by implementing a production management system and extending its use to traders.

Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification, Tag, Tag reader, Traceability.

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3014 A Systematic Mapping Study on Software Engineering Education

Authors: Bushra Malik, Saad Zafar

Abstract:

Inadequate curriculum for software engineering is considered to be one of the most common software risks. A number of solutions, on improving Software Engineering Education (SEE) have been reported in literature but there is a need to collectively present these solutions at one place. We have performed a mapping study to present a broad view of literature; published on improving the current state of SEE. Our aim is to give academicians, practitioners and researchers an international view of the current state of SEE. Our study has identified 70 primary studies that met our selection criteria, which we further classified and categorized in a well-defined Software Engineering educational framework. We found that the most researched category within the SE educational framework is Innovative Teaching Methods whereas the least amount of research was found in Student Learning and Assessment category. Our future work is to conduct a Systematic Literature Review on SEE.

Keywords: Mapping Study, Software Engineering, Software Engineering Education, Literature Survey.

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3013 Project Management and Software Development Processes: Integrating PMBOK and OPEN

Authors: Maurício Covolan Rosito, Daniel Antonio Callegari, Ricardo Melo Bastos

Abstract:

Software organizations are constantly looking for better solutions when designing and using well-defined software processes for the development of their products and services. However, while the technical aspects are virtually easier to arrange, many software development processes lack more support on project management issues. When adopting such processes, an organization needs to apply good project management skills along with technical views provided by those models. This research proposes the definition of a new model that integrates the concepts of PMBOK and those available on the OPEN metamodel, helping not only process integration but also building the steps towards a more comprehensive and automatable model.

Keywords: OPEN metamodel, PMBOK metamodel, Project Management, Software Process

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