Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1779

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Computer Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1779 An Evaluation of Neural Network Efficacies for Image Recognition on Edge-AI Computer Vision Platform

Authors: Jie Zhao, Meng Su

Abstract:

Image recognition enables machine-like robotics to understand a scene and plays an important role in computer vision applications. Computer vision platforms as physical infrastructure, supporting Neural Networks for image recognition, are deterministic to leverage the performance of different Neural Networks. In this paper, three different computer vision platforms – edge AI (Jetson Nano, with 4GB), a standalone laptop (with RTX 3000s, using CUDA), and a web-based device (Google Colab, using GPU) are investigated. In the case study, four prominent neural network architectures (including AlexNet, VGG16, GoogleNet, and ResNet (34/50)), are deployed. By using public ImageNets (Cifar-10), our findings provide a nuanced perspective on optimizing image recognition tasks across Edge-AI platforms, offering guidance on selecting appropriate neural network structures to maximize performance under hardware constraints.

Keywords: AlexNet, VGG, GoogleNet, ResNet, ImageNet, Cifar-10, Edge AI, Jetson Nano, CUDA, GPU.

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1778 A Control Model for Improving Safety and Efficiency of Navigation System Based on Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Almutasim Billa A. Alanazi, Hal S. Tharp

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI), specifically Reinforcement Learning (RL), has proven helpful in many control path planning technologies by maximizing and enhancing their performance, such as navigation systems. Since it learns from experience by interacting with the environment to determine the optimal policy, the optimal policy takes the best action in a particular state, accounting for the long-term rewards. Most navigation systems focus primarily on "arriving faster," overlooking safety and efficiency while estimating the optimum path, as safety and efficiency are essential factors when planning for a long-distance journey. This paper represents an RL control model that proposes a control mechanism for improving navigation systems. Also, the model could be applied to other control path planning applications because it is adjustable and can accept different properties and parameters. However, the navigation system application has been taken as a case and evaluation study for the proposed model. The model utilized a Q-learning algorithm for training and updating the policy. It allows the agent to analyze the quality of an action made in the environment to maximize rewards. The model gives the ability to update rewards regularly based on safety and efficiency assessments, allowing the policy to consider the desired safety and efficiency benefits while making decisions, which improves the quality of the decisions taken for path planning compared to the conventional RL approaches.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, control system, navigation systems, reinforcement learning.

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1777 Development of Software Complex for Digitalization of Enterprise Activities

Authors: G. T. Balakayeva, K. K. Nurlybayeva, M. B. Zhanuzakov

Abstract:

In the proposed work, we have developed software and designed a software architecture for the implementation of enterprise business processes. The proposed software has a multi-level architecture using a domain-specific tool. The developed architecture is a guarantor of the availability, reliability and security of the system and the implementation of business processes, which are the basis for effective enterprise management. Automating business processes, automating the algorithmic stages of an enterprise, developing optimal algorithms for managing activities, controlling and monitoring, reducing risks and improving results help organizations achieve strategic goals quickly and efficiently. The software described in this article can connect to the corporate information system via two methods: a desktop client and a web client. With an appeal to the application server, the desktop client program connects to the information system on the company's work PCs over a local network. Outside the organization, the user can interact with the information system via a web browser, which acts as a web client and connects to a web server. The developed software consists of several integrated modules that share resources and interact with each other through an API. The following technology stack was used during development: Node js, React js, MongoDB, Ngnix, Cloud Technologies, Python.

Keywords: Algorithms, document processing, automation, integrated modules, software architecture, software design, information system.

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1776 Web Data Scraping Technology Using Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency to Enhance the Big Data Quality on Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Sangita Pokhrel, Nalinda Somasiri, Rebecca Jeyavadhanam, Swathi Ganesan

Abstract:

Tourism is a booming industry with huge future potential for global wealth and employment. There are countless data generated over social media sites every day, creating numerous opportunities to bring more insights to decision-makers. The integration of big data technology into the tourism industry will allow companies to conclude where their customers have been and what they like. This information can then be used by businesses, such as those in charge of managing visitor centres or hotels, etc., and the tourist can get a clear idea of places before visiting. The technical perspective of natural language is processed by analysing the sentiment features of online reviews from tourists, and we then supply an enhanced long short-term memory (LSTM) framework for sentiment feature extraction of travel reviews. We have constructed a web review database using a crawler and web scraping technique for experimental validation to evaluate the effectiveness of our methodology. The text form of sentences was first classified through VADER and RoBERTa model to get the polarity of the reviews. In this paper, we have conducted study methods for feature extraction, such as Count Vectorization and Term Frequency – Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) Vectorization and implemented Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier algorithm for the sentiment analysis to decide if the tourist’s attitude towards the destinations is positive, negative, or simply neutral based on the review text that they posted online. The results demonstrated that from the CNN algorithm, after pre-processing and cleaning the dataset, we received an accuracy of 96.12% for the positive and negative sentiment analysis.

Keywords: Counter vectorization, Convolutional Neural Network, Crawler, data technology, Long Short-Term Memory, LSTM, Web Scraping, sentiment analysis.

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1775 Determination of Water Pollution and Water Quality with Decision Trees

Authors: Çiğdem Bakır, Mecit Yüzkat

Abstract:

With the increasing emphasis on water quality worldwide, the search for and expanding the market for new and intelligent monitoring systems has increased. The current method is the laboratory process, where samples are taken from bodies of water, and tests are carried out in laboratories. This method is time-consuming, a waste of manpower and uneconomical. To solve this problem, we used machine learning methods to detect water pollution in our study. We created decision trees with the Orange3 software used in the study and tried to determine all the factors that cause water pollution. An automatic prediction model based on water quality was developed by taking many model inputs such as water temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and ammonia nitrogen with machine learning methods. The proposed approach consists of three stages: Preprocessing of the data used, feature detection and classification. We tried to determine the success of our study with different accuracy metrics and the results were presented comparatively. In addition, we achieved approximately 98% success with the decision tree.

Keywords: Decision tree, water quality, water pollution, machine learning.

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1774 Fast Short-Term Electrical Load Forecasting under High Meteorological Variability with a Multiple Equation Time Series Approach

Authors: Charline David, Alexandre Blondin Massé, Arnaud Zinflou

Abstract:

We present a multiple equation time series approach for the short-term load forecasting applied to the electrical power load consumption for the whole Quebec province, in Canada. More precisely, we take into account three meteorological variables — temperature, cloudiness and wind speed —, and we use meteorological measurements taken at different locations on the territory. Our final model shows an average MAPE score of 1.79% over an 8-years dataset.

Keywords: Short-term load forecasting, special days, time series, multiple equations, parallelization, clustering.

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1773 Quick Sequential Search Algorithm Used to Decode High-Frequency Matrices

Authors: Mohammed M. Siddeq, Mohammed H. Rasheed, Omar M. Salih, Marcos A. Rodrigues

Abstract:

This research proposes a data encoding and decoding method based on the Matrix Minimization algorithm. This algorithm is applied to high-frequency coefficients for compression/encoding. The algorithm starts by converting every three coefficients to a single value; this is accomplished based on three different keys. The decoding/decompression uses a search method called QSS (Quick Sequential Search) Decoding Algorithm presented in this research based on the sequential search to recover the exact coefficients. In the next step, the decoded data are saved in an auxiliary array. The basic idea behind the auxiliary array is to save all possible decoded coefficients; this is because another algorithm, such as conventional sequential search, could retrieve encoded/compressed data independently from the proposed algorithm. The experimental results showed that our proposed decoding algorithm retrieves original data faster than conventional sequential search algorithms.

Keywords: Matrix Minimization Algorithm, Decoding Sequential Search Algorithm, image compression, Discrete Cosine Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform.

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1772 Gaussian Particle Flow Bernoulli Filter for Single Target Tracking

Authors: Hyeongbok Kim, Lingling Zhao, Xiaohong Su, Junjie Wang

Abstract:

The Bernoulli filter is a precise Bayesian filter for single target tracking based on the random finite set theory. The standard Bernoulli filter often underestimates the number of the targets. This study proposes a Gaussian particle flow (GPF) Bernoulli filter employing particle flow to migrate particles from prior to posterior positions to improve the performance of the standard Bernoulli filter. By employing the particle flow filter, the computational speed of the Bernoulli filters is significantly improved. In addition, the GPF Bernoulli filter provides more accurate estimation compared with that of the standard Bernoulli filter. Simulation results confirm the improved tracking performance and computational speed in two- and three-dimensional scenarios compared with other algorithms.

Keywords: Bernoulli filter, particle filter, particle flow filter, random finite sets, target tracking.

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1771 Optimal Efficiency Control of Pulse Width Modulation - Inverter Fed Motor Pump Drive Using Neural Network

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, M. A. Badr, A. S. Elgendy, K. O. Shawky, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates an improved Loss Model Control (LMC) for a 3-phase induction motor (IM) driving pump load. Compared with other power loss reduction algorithms for IM, the presented one has the advantages of fast and smooth flux adaptation, high accuracy, and versatile implementation. The performance of LMC depends mainly on the accuracy of modeling the motor drive and losses. A loss-model for IM drive that considers the surplus power loss caused by inverter voltage harmonics using closed-form equations and also includes the magnetic saturation has been developed. Further, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller is synthesized and trained offline to determine the optimal flux level that achieves maximum drive efficiency. The drive’s voltage and speed control loops are connecting via the stator frequency to avoid the possibility of excessive magnetization. Besides, the resistance change due to temperature is considered by a first-order thermal model. The obtained thermal information enhances motor protection and control. These together have the potential of making the proposed algorithm reliable. Simulation and experimental studies are performed on 5.5 kW test motor using the proposed control method. The test results are provided and compared with the fixed flux operation to validate the effectiveness.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, efficiency optimization, induction motor, IM, Pulse Width Modulated, PWM, harmonic losses.

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1770 Stochastic Edge Based Anomaly Detection for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitions Systems: Considering the Zambian Power Grid

Authors: Lukumba Phiri, Simon Tembo, Kumbuso Joshua Nyoni

Abstract:

In Zambia, recent initiatives by various power operators like ZESCO, CEC, and consumers like the mines, to upgrade power systems into smart grids, target an even tighter integration with information technologies to enable the integration of renewable energy sources, local and bulk generation, and demand response. Thus, for the reliable operation of smart grids, its information infrastructure must be secure and reliable in the face of both failures and cyberattacks. Due to the nature of the systems, ICS/SCADA cybersecurity and governance face additional challenges compared to the corporate networks, and critical systems may be left exposed. There exist control frameworks internationally such as the NIST framework, however, they are generic and do not meet the domain-specific needs of the SCADA systems. Zambia is also lagging in cybersecurity awareness and adoption, and therefore there is a concern about securing ICS controlling key infrastructure critical to the Zambian economy as there are few known facts about the true posture. In this paper, we present a stochastic Edged-based Anomaly Detection for SCADA systems (SEADS) framework for threat modeling and risk assessment. SEADS enables the calculation of steady-steady probabilities that are further applied to establish metrics like system availability, maintainability, and reliability.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, SmartGrid, edge, maintainability, reliability, stochastic process.

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1769 Usage of Channel Coding Techniques for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Visible Light Communications Systems

Authors: P.L.D.N.M. de Silva, S.G. Edirisinghe, R. Weerasuriya

Abstract:

High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is a concern of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based Visible Light Communication (VLC) systems. Discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-s) OFDM is an alternative single carrier modulation scheme which would address this concern. Employing channel coding techniques is another mechanism to reduce the PAPR. In this study, the improvement which can be harnessed by hybridizing these two techniques for VLC system is being studied. Within the study, efficient techniques such as Hamming coding and Convolutional coding have been studied. Thus, we present the impact of the hybrid of DFT-s OFDM and Channel coding (Hamming coding and Convolutional coding) on PAPR in VLC systems, using MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: Convolutional Coding, Discrete Fourier Transform spread Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DFT-s OFDM), Hamming Coding, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Visible Light Communications (VLC).

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1768 Improvement of Ground Truth Data for Eye Location on Infrared Driver Recordings

Authors: Sorin Valcan, Mihail Găianu

Abstract:

Labeling is a very costly and time consuming process which aims to generate datasets for training neural networks in several functionalities and projects. For driver monitoring system projects, the need of labeled images has a significant impact on the budget and distribution of effort. This paper presents the modifications done to a ground truth data generation algorithm for 2D eyes location on infrared images with drivers in order to improve the quality of the data and performance of the trained neural networks. The algorithm restrictions become tougher which makes it more accurate but also less constant. The resulting dataset becomes smaller and shall not be altered by any kind of manual labels adjustment before being used in the neural networks training process. These changes resulted in a much better performance of the trained neural networks.

Keywords: Labeling automation, infrared camera, driver monitoring, eye detection, Convolutional Neural Networks.

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1767 Supervisory Control for Induction Machine with a Modified Star/Delta Switch in Fluid Transportation

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, K. O. Shawky, M. A. Badr, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

This paper proposes an intelligent, supervisory, hysteresis liquid-level control with three-state energy saving mode (ESM) for induction motor (IM) in fluid transportation system (FTS) including storage tank. The IM pump drive comprises a modified star/delta switch and hydromantic coupler. Three-state ESM is defined, along with the normal running, and named analog to the computer’s ESMs as follows: Sleeping mode in which the motor runs at no load with delta stator connection, hibernate mode in which the motor runs at no load with a star connection, and motor shutdown is the third energy saver mode. Considering the motor’s thermal capacity used (TCU) and grid-compatible tariff structure, a logic flow-chart is synthesized to select the motor state at no-load for best energetic cost reduction. Fuzzy-logic (FL) based availability assessment is designed and deployed on cloud, in order to provide mobilized service for the star/delta switch and highly reliable contactors. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN) state estimator, based on the recurrent architecture, is constructed and learned in order to provide fault-tolerant capability for the supervisory controller. Sequential test of Wald is used for sensor fault detection. Theoretical analysis, preliminary experimental testing and computer simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control system in terms of reliability, power quality and operational cost reduction with a motivation of power factor correction.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, ANN, Contactor Health Assessment, Energy Saving Mode, Induction Machine, IM, Supervisory Control, Fluid Transportation, Fuzzy Logic, FL, cloud computing, pumped storage.

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1766 Multi-Robotic Partial Disassembly Line Balancing with Robotic Efficiency Difference via HNSGA-II

Authors: Tao Yin, Zeqiang Zhang, Wei Liang, Yanqing Zeng, Yu Zhang

Abstract:

To accelerate the remanufacturing process of electronic waste products, this study designs a partial disassembly line with the multi-robotic station to effectively dispose of excessive wastes. The multi-robotic partial disassembly line is a technical upgrade to the existing manual disassembly line. Balancing optimization can make the disassembly line smoother and more efficient. For partial disassembly line balancing with the multi-robotic station (PDLBMRS), a mixed-integer programming model (MIPM) considering the robotic efficiency differences is established to minimize cycle time, energy consumption and hazard index and to calculate their optimal global values. Besides, an enhanced NSGA-II algorithm (HNSGA-II) is proposed to optimize PDLBMRS efficiently. Finally, MIPM and HNSGA-II are applied to an actual mixed disassembly case of two types of computers, the comparison of the results solved by GUROBI and HNSGA-II verifies the correctness of the model and excellent performance of the algorithm, and the obtained Pareto solution set provides multiple options for decision-makers.

Keywords: Waste disposal, disassembly line balancing, multi-robot station, robotic efficiency difference, HNSGA-II.

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1765 Face Recognition Using Principal Component Analysis, K-Means Clustering, and Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Zukisa Nante, Wang Zenghui

Abstract:

Face recognition is the problem of identifying or recognizing individuals in an image. This paper investigates a possible method to bring a solution to this problem. The method proposes an amalgamation of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), K-Means clustering, and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for a face recognition system. It is trained and evaluated using the ORL dataset. This dataset consists of 400 different faces with 40 classes of 10 face images per class. Firstly, PCA enabled the usage of a smaller network. This reduces the training time of the CNN. Thus, we get rid of the redundancy and preserve the variance with a smaller number of coefficients. Secondly, the K-Means clustering model is trained using the compressed PCA obtained data which select the K-Means clustering centers with better characteristics. Lastly, the K-Means characteristics or features are an initial value of the CNN and act as input data. The accuracy and the performance of the proposed method were tested in comparison to other Face Recognition (FR) techniques namely PCA, Support Vector Machine (SVM), as well as K-Nearest Neighbour (kNN). During experimentation, the accuracy and the performance of our suggested method after 90 epochs achieved the highest performance: 99% accuracy F1-Score, 99% precision, and 99% recall in 463.934 seconds. It outperformed the PCA that obtained 97% and KNN with 84% during the conducted experiments. Therefore, this method proved to be efficient in identifying faces in the images.

Keywords: Face recognition, Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Convolutional Neural Network, CNN, Rectified Linear Unit, ReLU, feature extraction.

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1764 Applying Biosensors’ Electromyography Signals through an Artificial Neural Network to Control a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mylena McCoggle, Shyra Wilson, Andrea Rivera, Rocio Alba-Flores, Valentin Soloiu

Abstract:

This work describes a system that uses electromyography (EMG) signals obtained from muscle sensors and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for signal classification and pattern recognition that is used to control a small unmanned aerial vehicle using specific arm movements. The main objective of this endeavor is the development of an intelligent interface that allows the user to control the flight of a drone beyond direct manual control. The sensor used were the MyoWare Muscle sensor which contains two EMG electrodes used to collect signals from the posterior (extensor) and anterior (flexor) forearm, and the bicep. The collection of the raw signals from each sensor was performed using an Arduino Uno. Data processing algorithms were developed with the purpose of classifying the signals generated by the arm’s muscles when performing specific movements, namely: flexing, resting, and motion of the arm. With these arm motions roll control of the drone was achieved. MATLAB software was utilized to condition the signals and prepare them for the classification. To generate the input vector for the ANN and perform the classification, the root mean square and the standard deviation were processed for the signals from each electrode. The neuromuscular information was trained using an ANN with a single 10 neurons hidden layer to categorize the four targets. The result of the classification shows that an accuracy of 97.5% was obtained. Afterwards, classification results are used to generate the appropriate control signals from the computer to the drone through a Wi-Fi network connection. These procedures were successfully tested, where the drone responded successfully in real time to the commanded inputs.

Keywords: Biosensors, electromyography, Artificial Neural Network, Arduino, drone flight control, machine learning.

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1763 Dielectric Recovery Characteristics of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breakers Operating with CO2 Mixture

Authors: Peng Lu, Branimir Radisavljevic, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti

Abstract:

CO₂-based gas mixtures exhibit huge potential as the interruption medium for replacing SF₆ in high voltage switchgears. In this paper, the recovery characteristics of dielectric strength of CO₂-O₂ mixture in the post arc phase after the current zero are presented. As representative examples, the dielectric recovery curves under conditions of different gas filling pressures and short-circuit current amplitudes are presented. A series of dielectric recovery measurements suggests that the dielectric recovery rate is proportional to the mass flux of the blowing gas, and the dielectric strength recovers faster in the case of lower short circuit currents.

Keywords: CO2 mixture, high voltage circuit breakers, dielectric recovery rate, short-circuit current, mass flux.

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1762 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering

Abstract:

Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is blended with glass fibers, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled fiber without sizing agent were identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste. 

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composite, recycling, short fiber composites

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1761 Mobile Robot Control by Von Neumann Computer

Authors: E. V. Larkin, T. A. Akimenko, A. V. Bogomolov, A. N. Privalov

Abstract:

The digital control system of mobile robots (MR) control is considered. It is shown that sequential interpretation of control algorithm operators, unfolding in physical time, suggests the occurrence of time delays between inputting data from sensors and outputting data to actuators. Another destabilizing control factor is presence of backlash in the joints of an actuator with an executive unit. Complex model of control system, which takes into account the dynamics of the MR, the dynamics of the digital controller and backlash in actuators, is worked out. The digital controller model is divided into two parts: the first part describes the control law embedded in the controller in the form of a control program that realizes a polling procedure when organizing transactions to sensors and actuators. The second part of the model describes the time delays that occur in the Von Neumann-type controller when processing data. To estimate time intervals, the algorithm is represented in the form of an ergodic semi-Markov process. For an ergodic semi-Markov process of common form, a method is proposed for estimation a wandering time from one arbitrary state to another arbitrary state. Example shows how the backlash and time delays affect the quality characteristics of the MR control system functioning.

Keywords: Mobile robot, backlash, control algorithm, Von Neumann controller, semi-Markov process, time delay.

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1760 Development of a Smart Liquid Level Controller

Authors: Adamu Mudi, Fawole Wahab Ibrahim, Abubakar Abba Kolo

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a microcontroller-based liquid level controller which identifies the various levels of a liquid, carries out certain actions and is capable of communicating with the human being and other devices through the GSM network. This project is useful in ensuring that a liquid is not wasted. It also contributes to the internet of things paradigm, which is the future of the internet. The method used in this work includes designing the circuit and simulating it. The circuit is then implemented on a solderless breadboard after which it is implemented on a strip board. A C++ computer program is developed and uploaded into the microcontroller. This program instructs the microcontroller on how to carry out its actions. In other to determine levels of the liquid, an ultrasonic wave is sent to the surface of the liquid similar to radar or the method for detecting the level of sea bed. Message is sent to the phone of the user similar to the way computers send messages to phones of GSM users. It is concluded that the routine of observing the levels of a liquid in a tank, refilling the tank when the liquid level is too low can be entirely handled by a programmable device without wastage of the liquid or bothering a human being with such tasks.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor, Internet of Things, IoT, SIM900 GSM Module.

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1759 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verifying Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: W. Louhichi, M.Berrima, N. Ben Rajeb Robbana

Abstract:

Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workloads. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on temporized and colored Petri nets (TdCPNs), for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets (PNs) modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in colored Petri nets (CPNs)tools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed PNs.

Keywords: Cloud computing, elasticity, elasticity controller, petri nets, scaling in, scaling out.

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1758 Blockchain in Saudi e-Government: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Haitham Assiri, Majed Eljazzar, Priyadarsi Nanda

Abstract:

The world is gradually entering the fourth industrial revolution. E-Government services are scaling government operations across the globe. However, as promising as an e-Government system would be, it is also susceptible to malicious attacks if not properly secured. In our study, we found that in Saudi Arabia, the e-Government website, Yesser, is vulnerable to external attacks. Obviously, this can lead to a breach of data integrity and privacy. In this paper, a systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to explore possible ways the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can take necessary measures to strengthen its e-Government system using blockchain. Blockchain is one of the emerging technologies shaping the world through its applications in finance, elections, healthcare, etc. It secures systems and brings more transparency. A total of 28 papers were selected for this SLR, and 19 of the papers significantly showed that blockchain could enhance the security and privacy of Saudi’s e-Government system. Other papers also concluded that blockchain is effective, albeit with the integration of other technologies like IoT, AI and big data. These papers have been analyzed to sieve out the findings and set the stage for future research into the subject.

Keywords: blockchain, data integrity, e-Government, security threats

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1757 A Low Power and High-Speed Conditional-Precharge Sense Amplifier Based Flip-Flop Using Single Ended Latch

Authors: Guo-Ming Sung, Naga Raju Naik R.

Abstract:

Paper presents a low power, high speed, sense-amplifier based flip-flop (SAFF). The flip-flop’s power con-sumption and delay are greatly reduced by employing a new conditionally precharge sense-amplifier stage and a single-ended latch stage. Glitch-free and contention-free latch operation is achieved by using a conditional cut-off strategy. The design uses fewer transistors, has a lower clock load, and has a simple structure, all of which contribute to a near-zero setup time. When compared to previous flip-flop structures proposed for similar input/output conditions, this design’s performance and overall PDP have improved. The post layout simulation of the circuit uses 2.91µW of power and has a delay of 65.82 ps. Overall, the power-delay product has seen some enhancements. Cadence Virtuoso Designing tool with CMOS 90nm technology are used for all designs.

Keywords: high-speed, low-power, flip-flop, sense-amplifier

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1756 Smartphone-Based Human Activity Recognition by Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Yanting Cao, Kazumitsu Nawata

Abstract:

As smartphones are continually upgrading, their software and hardware are getting smarter, so the smartphone-based human activity recognition will be described more refined, complex and detailed. In this context, we analyzed a set of experimental data, obtained by observing and measuring 30 volunteers with six activities of daily living (ADL). Due to the large sample size, especially a 561-feature vector with time and frequency domain variables, cleaning these intractable features and training a proper model become extremely challenging. After a series of feature selection and parameters adjustments, a well-performed SVM classifier has been trained. 

Keywords: smart sensors, human activity recognition, artificial intelligence, SVM

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1755 Energy Management System with Temperature Rise Prevention on Hybrid Ships

Authors: Asser S. Abdelwahab, Nabil H. Abbasy, Ragi A. Hamdy

Abstract:

Marine shipping has now become one of the major worldwide contributors to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid ships technology based on multiple energy sources has taken a great scope of research to get rid of ship emissions and cut down fuel expenses. Insufficiency between power generated and the demand load to withstand the transient behavior on ships during severe climate conditions will lead to a blackout. Thus, an efficient energy management system (EMS) is a mandatory scope for achieving higher system efficiency while enhancing the lifetime of the onboard storage systems is another salient EMS scope. Considering energy storage system conditions, both the battery state of charge (SOC) and temperature represent important parameters to prevent any malfunction of the storage system that eventually degrades the whole system. In this paper, a two battery packs ratio fuzzy logic control model is proposed. The overall aim is to control the charging/discharging current while including both the battery SOC and temperature in the energy management system. The full designs of the proposed controllers are described and simulated using Matlab. The results prove the successfulness of the proposed controller in stabilizing the system voltage during both loading and unloading while keeping the energy storage system in a healthy condition.

Keywords: energy storage system, fuzzy logic control, hybrid ship, thermal runaway

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1754 Design and Construction of an Impulse Current Generator for Lightning Strike Experiments

Authors: Kamran Yousefpour, Mojtaba Rostaghi-Chalaki, Jason Warden, David Wallace, Chanyeop Park

Abstract:

There has been a rising trend in using impulse current generators to investigate the lightning strike protection of materials including aluminum and composites in structures such as wind turbine blade and aircraft body. The focus of this research is to present an impulse current generator built in the High Voltage Lab at Mississippi State University. The generator is capable of producing component A and D of the natural lightning discharges in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard, which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The generator can supply lightning impulse energy up to 400 kJ with the capability of producing impulse currents with magnitudes greater than 200 kA. The electrical circuit and physical components of an improved impulse current generator are described and several lightning strike waveforms with different amplitudes is presented for comparing with the standard waveform. The results of this study contribute to the fundamental understanding the functionality of the impulse current generators and present an impulse current generator developed at the High Voltage Lab of Mississippi State University.

Keywords: impulse current generator, lightning, society of automotive engineers, capacitor

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1753 Slime Mould Optimization Algorithms for Optimal Distributed Generation Integration in Distribution Electrical Network

Authors: F. Fissou Amigue, S. Ndjakomo Essiane, S. Pérabi Ngoffé, G. Abessolo Ondoa, G. Mengata Mengounou, T. P. Nna Nna

Abstract:

This document proposes a method for determining the optimal point of integration of distributed generation (DG) in distribution grid. Slime mould optimization is applied to determine best node in case of one and two injection point. Problem has been modeled as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize joule loses and main constraint is to regulate voltage in each point. The proposed method has been implemented in MATLAB and applied in IEEE network 33 and 69 nodes. Comparing results obtained with other algorithms showed that slime mould optimization algorithms (SMOA) have the best reduction of power losses and good amelioration of voltage profile.

Keywords: Optimization, distributed generation, integration, slime mould algorithm.

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1752 A Convolutional Deep Neural Network Approach for Skin Cancer Detection Using Skin Lesion Images

Authors: Firas Gerges, Frank Y. Shih

Abstract:

Malignant Melanoma, known simply as Melanoma, is a type of skin cancer that appears as a mole on the skin. It is critical to detect this cancer at an early stage because it can spread across the body and may lead to the patient death. When detected early, Melanoma is curable. In this paper we propose a deep learning model (Convolutional Neural Networks) in order to automatically classify skin lesion images as Malignant or Benign. Images underwent certain pre-processing steps to diminish the effect of the normal skin region on the model. The result of the proposed model showed a significant improvement over previous work, achieving an accuracy of 97%.

Keywords: Deep learning, skin cancer, image processing, melanoma.

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1751 Study of Compatibility and Oxidation Stability of Vegetable Insulating Oils

Authors: Helena M. Wilhelm, Paulo O. Fernandes, Laís P. Dill, Kethlyn G. Moscon

Abstract:

The use of vegetable oil (or natural ester) as an insulating fluid in electrical transformers is a trend that aims to contribute to environmental preservation since it is biodegradable and non-toxic. Besides, vegetable oil has high flash and combustion points, being considered a fire safety fluid. However, vegetable oil is usually less stable towards oxidation than mineral oil. Both insulating fluids, mineral and vegetable oils, need to be tested periodically according to specific standards. Oxidation stability can be determined by the induction period measured by conductivity method (Rancimat) by monitoring the effectivity of oil’s antioxidant additives, a methodology already developed for food application and biodiesel but still not standardized for insulating fluids. Besides adequate oxidation stability, fluids must be compatible with transformer's construction materials under normal operating conditions to ensure that damage to the oil and parts of the transformer does not occur. ASTM standard and Brazilian normative differ in parameters evaluated, which reveals the need to regulate tests for each oil type. The aim of this study was to assess oxidation stability and compatibility of vegetable oils to suggest the best way to assure a viable performance of vegetable oil as transformer insulating fluid. The determination of the induction period for several vegetable insulating oils from the local market by using Rancimat was carried out according to BS EN 14112 standard, at different temperatures (110, 120, and 130 °C). Also, the compatibility of vegetable oil was assessed according to ASTM and ABNT NBR standards. The main results showed that the best temperature for use in the Rancimat test is 130 °C, which allows a better observation of conductivity change. The compatibility test results presented differences between vegetable and mineral oil standards that should be taken into account in oil testing since materials compatibility and oxidation stability are essential for equipment reliability.

Keywords: Compatibility, Rancimat, natural ester, vegetable oil.

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1750 Modelling of Multi-Agent Systems for the Scheduling of Multi-EV Charging from Power Limited Sources

Authors: Manan’Iarivo Rasolonjanahary, Chris Bingham, Nigel Schofield, Masoud Bazargan

Abstract:

This paper presents the research and application of model predictive scheduled charging of electric vehicles (EV) subject to limited available power resource. To focus on algorithm and operational characteristics, the EV interface to the source is modelled as a battery state equation during the charging operation. The researched methods allow for the priority scheduling of EV charging in a multi-vehicle regime and when subject to limited source power availability. Priority attribution for each connected EV is described. The validity of the developed methodology is shown through the simulation of different scenarios of charging operation of multiple connected EVs including non-scheduled and scheduled operation with various numbers of vehicles. Performance of the developed algorithms is also reported with the recommendation of the choice of suitable parameters.

Keywords: Model predictive control, non-scheduled, power limited sources, scheduled and stop-start battery charging.

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