Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: supercritical CO2

103 Effect of Sub Supercritical CO2 Processing on Microflora and Shelf Life Tempe

Authors: M. Kustyawati, F. Pratama, D. Saputra, A. Wijaya


Tempe composes of not only molds but also bacteria and yeasts. The structure of microorganisms needs to be in balance number in order the tempe to be an acceptable quality for an extended time. Sub supercritical carbon dioxide can be a promising preservation method for tempe as it induces microbial inactivation avoiding alterations of its quality attributes. Fresh tempe were processed using supercritical and sub supercritical CO2 for a defined holding times, then the growth ability of molds and bacteria were analyzed. The results showed that the supercritical CO2 processing for 5 minutes reduced the number of bacteria and molds to 0.30 log cycle and 1.17 log cycles, respectively. In addition, sub supercritical CO2 processing for 20 minutes had fungicidal effect against mold tempe; whereas, the sub supercritical CO2 for 10 minutes had reducing effect against bacteria tempe, and had fungistatic affect against mold tempe. It suggested that sub-supercritical CO2 processing for 10 min could be useful alternative technique for preservation of tempe.

Keywords: tempe, sub supercritical CO2, fungistatic effect, preservation

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102 Pinch Analysis of Triple Pressure Reheat Supercritical Combined Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Sui Yan Wong, Keat Ping Yeoh, Chi Wai Hui


In this study, supercritical steam is introduced to Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) in an attempt to further optimize energy recovery. Subcritical steam is commonly used in the CCPP, operating at maximum pressures around 150-160 bar. Supercritical steam is an alternative to increase heat recovery during vaporization period of water. The idea of improvement using supercritical steam is further examined with the use of exergy, pinch analysis and Aspen Plus simulation.

Keywords: exergy, pinch, combined cycle power plant, supercritical steam

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
101 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun


The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.

Keywords: experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime

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100 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri


Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol

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99 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati


There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid-supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well-predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: supercritical fluids, solubility, solid, PC-SAFT EoS, genetic algorithm

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98 Counter-Current Extraction of Fish Oil and Toxic Elements from Fish Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Parvaneh Hajeb, Shahram Shakibazadeh, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker


High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to develop a method to extract oil from fish wastes with the least toxic elements contamination. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to detoxify fish oils from toxic elements. The SFE unit used consisted of an intelligent HPLC pump equipped with a cooling jacket to deliver CO2. The freeze-dried fish waste sample was extracted by heating in a column oven. Under supercritical conditions, the oil dissolved in CO2 was separated from the supercritical phase using pressure reduction. The SFE parameters (pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to extract the highest levels of toxic elements. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil can be reduced using supercritical CO2 at optimum pressure 40 MPa, temperature 61 ºC, CO2 flow rate 3.8 MPa, and extraction time 4.25 hr. There were significant reductions in the mercury (98.2%), cadmium (98.9%), arsenic (96%), and lead contents (99.2%) of the fish oil. The fish oil extracted using this method contained elements at levels that were much lower than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g. The reduction of toxic elements using the SFE method was more efficient than that of the conventional methods due to the high selectivity of supercritical CO2 for non-polar compounds.

Keywords: food safety, toxic elements, fish oil, supercritical carbon dioxide

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97 Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Extraction of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Supercritical Fluids from Tropaeolum majus L. Leaves

Authors: Espinoza S. Clara, Gamarra Q. Flor, Marianela F. Ramos Quispe S. Miguel, Flores R. Omar


Tropaeolum majus L. is a native plant to South and Central America, used since ancient times by our ancestors to combat different diseases. Glucotropaeolonin is one of its main components, which when hydrolyzed, forms benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) that promotes cellular apoptosis (programmed cell death in cancer cells). Therefore, the present research aims to evaluate the effect of the pressure and temperature of BIT extraction by supercritical CO2 from Tropaeolum majus L. The extraction was carried out in a supercritical fluid extractor equipment Speed SFE BASIC Brand: Poly science, the leaves of Tropaeolum majus L. were ground for one hour and lyophilized until obtaining a humidity of 6%. The extraction with supercritical CO2 was carried out with pressures of 200 bar and 300 bar, temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, obtained by the conjugation of these six treatments. BIT was identified by thin layer chromatography using 98% BIT as the standard, and as the mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane (4:2). Subsequently, BIT quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of oleoresin by supercritical CO2 extraction was obtained pressure 300 bar and temperature at 60°C; and the higher content of BIT at pressure 200 bar and 70°C for 30 minutes to obtain 113.615 ± 0.03 mg BIT/100 g dry matter was obtained.

Keywords: solvent extraction, Tropaeolum majus L., supercritical fluids, benzyl isothiocyanate

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96 The Gasification of Acetone via Partial Oxidation in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Kai-Ting Hsieh


Organic solvents find various applications in many industrial sectors and laboratories as dilution solvents, dispersion solvents, cleaners and even lubricants. Millions of tons of Spent Organic Solvents (SOS) are generated each year worldwide, prompting the need for more efficient, cleaner and safer methods for the treatment and resource recovery of SOS. As a result, acetone, selected as a model compound for SOS, was gasified in supercritical water to assess the feasibility of resource recovery of SOS by means of supercritical water processes. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product is mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4. The effects of three major operating parameters, the reaction temperature, from 673 to 773K, the dosage of oxidizing agent, from 0.3 to 0.5 stoichiometric oxygen, and the concentration of acetone in the feed, 0.1 and 0.2M, on the product gas composition, yield and heating value were evaluated with the water density fixed at about 0.188g/ml.

Keywords: acetone, gasification, SCW, supercritical water

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95 Preparation of Polylactide Nanoparticles by Supercritical Fluid Technology

Authors: Jakub Zágora, Daniela Plachá, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Sylva Holešová, Roman Gábor, Alexandra Muñoz Bonilla, Marta Fernández García


The development of new antimicrobial materials that are not toxic to higher living organisms is a major challenge today. Newly developed materials can have high application potential in biomedicine, coatings, packaging, etc. A combination of commonly used biopolymer polylactide with cationic polymers seems to be very successful in the fight against antimicrobial resistance [1].PLA will play a key role in fulfilling the intention set out in the New Deal announced by the EU commission, as it is a bioplastic that is easily degradable, recyclable, and mass-produced. Also, the development of 3D printing in the context of this initiative, and the actual use of PLA as one of the main materials used for this printing, make the technology around the preparation and modification of PLA quite logical. Moreover, theenvironmentally friendly and energy saving technology like supercritical fluid process (SFP) will be used for their preparation. In a first approach, polylactide nano- and microparticles and structures were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction. The RESS (rapid expansion supercritical fluid solution) method is easier to optimize and shows better particle size control. On the contrary, a highly porous structure was obtained using the SAS (supercritical antisolvent) method. In a second part, the antimicrobial biobased polymer was introduced by SFP.

Keywords: polylactide, antimicrobial polymers, supercritical fluid technology, micronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
94 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng


Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

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93 Glycerol-Free Biodiesel Synthesis from Crude Mahua (Madhuca indica) Oil under Supercritical Methyl Acetate Using CO2 as a Co-Solvent

Authors: Antaram Sarve, Mahesh Varma, Shriram Sonawane


Conventional route of producing biodiesel with alcohol produces glycerol as side product which leads to oversupply and devaluation in the world market. Supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) has been proven to convert triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and triacetin, which is a valuable biodiesel additive as side product rather than glycerol. However, due to the low reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate on triglycerides, high reaction conditions are required to obtained maximum yields. The present study describes the renewable approach for the production of biodiesel from low-cost, high acid value mahua oil under supercritical methyl acetate condition using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a co-solvent. CO2 was employed to decrease high reaction conditions required for supercritical methyl acetate transesterification. The influence of process parameters such as temperature, oil to methyl acetate molar ratio, reaction time, and the CO2 pressure was evaluated. The properties of biodiesel produced were found to be superior compared to conventional biodiesel method. Furthermore, SCMA has a high tolerance towards free fatty acids (FFAs) which is crucial to allow the utilization of inexpensive waste oils as a biodiesel feedstock.

Keywords: supercritical methyl acetate, CO2, biodiesel, fuel properties

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92 Evaluation of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as Mosquito Repellent Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Assisted Process

Authors: Chia-Yu Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chih-Jer Lin


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), grown in tropical and subtropical regions over the world, has many potential uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and flavor, and agriculture industries. In this study, because of its affinity to human body and friendliness to the environment, lemongrass extract was prepared from different processes to evaluate its effectiveness as mosquito repellent. Moreover, the supercritical fluid extraction method has been widely used as an effective and environmental friendly process in the preparation of a variety of compounds. Thus, both the extracts from lemongrass by the conventional hydrodistillation method and the supercritical CO₂ assisted method were compared. The effects of pressure, temperature and time duration on the supercritical CO₂ extraction were also investigated. The compositions of different extracts were examined using mass spectrometer. As for the experiment of mosquito repellence, the extract was placed inside a mosquito trap along with syrup. The mosquito counts in each trap with extracts prepared from different processes were employed in the quantitative evaluation. It was found that the extract from the supercritical CO₂ assisted process contained higher citronellol content than the conventional hydrodistillation method. The extract with higher citronellol content also demonstrated more effective as a mosquito repellent.

Keywords: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, mosquito repellent

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91 The Effect of Supercritical Fluid on the Extraction Efficiency of Heavy Metal from Soil

Authors: Haifa El-Sadi, Maria Elektorowicz, Reed Rushing, Ammar Badawieh, Asif Chaudry


Clay soils have particular properties that affect the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In clay soils, electro-kinetic transport of heavy metals has been carried out. The transport of these metals is predicated on maintaining a low pH throughout the cell, which, in turn, keeps the metals in the pore water phase where they are accessible to electro-kinetic transport. Supercritical fluid extraction and acid digestion were used for the analysis of heavy metals concentrations after the completion of electro-kinetic experimentation. Supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) extraction is a new technique used to extract the heavy metal (lead, nickel, calcium and potassium) from clayey soil. The comparison between supercritical extraction and acid digestion of different metals was carried out. Supercritical fluid extraction, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modifier, proved to be efficient and a safer technique than acid digestion technique in extracting metals from clayey soil. Mixing time of soil with EDTA before extracting heavy metals from clayey soil was investigated. The optimum and most practical shaking time for the extraction of lead, nickel, calcium and potassium was two hours.

Keywords: clay soil, heavy metals, supercritical fluid extraction, acid digestion

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90 Evaluation of Non-Staggered Body-Fitted Grid Based Solution Method in Application to Supercritical Fluid Flows

Authors: Suresh Sahu, Abhijeet M. Vaidya, Naresh K. Maheshwari


The efforts to understand the heat transfer behavior of supercritical water in supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) are ongoing worldwide to fulfill the future energy demand. The higher thermal efficiency of these reactors compared to a conventional nuclear reactor is one of the driving forces for attracting the attention of nuclear scientists. In this work, a solution procedure has been described for solving supercritical fluid flow problems in complex geometries. The solution procedure is based on non-staggered grid. All governing equations are discretized by finite volume method (FVM) in curvilinear coordinate system. Convective terms are discretized by first-order upwind scheme and central difference approximation has been used to discretize the diffusive parts. k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function has been employed. SIMPLE solution procedure has been implemented for the curvilinear coordinate system. Based on this solution method, 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been developed. In order to demonstrate the capability of this CFD code in supercritical fluid flows, heat transfer to supercritical water in circular tubes has been considered as a test problem. Results obtained by code have been compared with experimental results reported in literature.

Keywords: curvilinear coordinate, body-fitted mesh, momentum interpolation, non-staggered grid, supercritical fluids

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89 Critical Parameters of a Square-Well Fluid

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Leslie V. Woodcock


We report extensive molecular dynamics (MD) computational investigations into the thermodynamic description of supercritical properties for a model fluid that is the simplest realistic representation of atoms or molecules. The pair potential is a hard-sphere repulsion of diameter σ with a very short attraction of length λσ. When λ = 1.005 the range is so short that the model atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular dimers, trimers …etc. up to large clusters, or droplets, of many adhesive-sphere atoms are unambiguously defined. This then defines percolation transitions at the molecular level that bound the existence of gas and liquid phases at supercritical temperatures, and which define the existence of a supercritical mesophase. Both liquid and gas phases are seen to terminate at the loci of percolation transitions, and below a second characteristic temperature (Tc2) are separated by the supercritical mesophase. An analysis of the distribution of clusters in gas, meso- and liquid phases confirms the colloidal nature of this mesophase. The general phase behaviour is compared with both experimental properties of the water-steam supercritical region and also with formally exact cluster theory of Mayer and Mayer. Both are found to be consistent with the present findings that in this system the supercritical mesophase narrows in density with increasing T > Tc and terminates at a higher Tc2 at a confluence of the primary percolation loci. The expended plot of the MD data points in the mesophase of 7 critical and supercritical isotherms in highlight this narrowing in density of the linear-slope region of the mesophase as temperature is increased above the critical. This linearity in the mesophase implies the existence of a linear combination rule between gas and liquid which is an extension of the Lever rule in the subcritical region, and can be used to obtain critical parameters without resorting to experimental data in the two-phase region. Using this combination rule, the calculated critical parameters Tc = 0.2007 and Pc = 0.0278 are found be agree with the values found by of Largo and coworkers. The properties of this supercritical mesophase are shown to be consistent with an alternative description of the phenomenon of critical opalescence seen in the supercritical region of both molecular and colloidal-protein supercritical fluids.

Keywords: critical opalescence, supercritical, square-well, percolation transition, critical parameters.

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88 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus


The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction, yield, optimization

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87 Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Ni-Cr and Zr Alloys in Supercritical Water Reactors

Authors: Igor Svishchev, Kashif Choudhry


Progress in advanced energy technologies is not feasible without understanding how engineering materials perform under extreme environmental conditions. The corrosion behaviour of Fe-Ni-Cr and Zr alloys has been systematically examined under high-temperature and supercritical water flow conditions. The changes in elemental release rate and dissolved gas concentration provide valuable insights into the mechanism of passivation by forming oxide films. A non-intrusive method for monitoring the extent of surface oxidation based on hydrogen release rate has been developed. This approach can be used for the on-line monitoring corrosion behavior of reactor materials without the need to interrupt the flow and remove corrosion coupons. Surface catalysed thermochemical reactions may generate sufficient hydrogen to have an effect on the accumulation of oxidizing species generated by radiolytic processes in the heat transport systems of the supercritical water cooled nuclear reactor.

Keywords: high-temperature corrosion, non-intrusive monitoring, reactor materials, supercritical water

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
86 Nature of a Supercritical Mesophase

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Leslie V. Woodcock


It has been reported that at temperatures above the critical there is no “continuity of liquid and gas”, as originally hypothesized by van der Waals. Rather, both gas and liquid phases, with characteristic properties as such, extend to supercritical temperatures. Each phase is bounded by the locus of a percolation transition, i.e. a higher-order thermodynamic phase change associated with percolation of gas clusters in a large void, or liquid interstitial vacancies in a large cluster. Between these two-phase bounds, it is reported there exists a mesophase that resembles an otherwise homogeneous dispersion of gas micro-bubbles in liquid (foam) and a dispersion of liquid micro-droplets in gas (mist). Such a colloidal-like state of a pure one-component fluid represents a hitherto unchartered equilibrium state of matter besides pure solid, liquid or gas. Here we provide compelling evidence, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, for the existence of this supercritical mesophase and its colloidal nature. We report preliminary results of computer simulations for a model fluid using a simplistic representation of atoms or molecules, i.e. a hard-core repulsion with an attraction so short that the atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular clusters, and hence percolation transitions, are unambiguously defined. Graphics of color-coded clusters show colloidal characteristics of the supercritical mesophase.

Keywords: critical phenomena, mesophase, supercritical, square-well, critical parameters

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85 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

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84 Performance of CO₂/N₂ Foam in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Mohamed Hassan, Rahul Gajbhiye


The high mobility and gravity override of CO₂ gas can be minimized by generating the CO₂ foam with the aid of surfactant. However, CO₂ is unable to generate the foam/stable foam above its supercritical point (1100 psi, 31°C). These difficulties with CO₂ foam is overcome by adding N₂ in small fraction to enhance the foam generation of CO₂ at supercritical conditions. This study shows how the addition of small quantity of N₂ helps in generating the CO₂ foam and performance of the CO₂/N₂ mixture foam in enhanced oil recovery. To investigate the performance of CO₂/N₂ foam, core-flooding experiments were conducted at elevated pressure and temperature condition (higher than supercritical CO₂ - 50°C and 1500 psi) in sandstone cores. Fluorosurfactant (FS-51) was used as a foaming agent, and n-decane was used as model oil in all the experiments. The selection of foam quality and N₂ fraction was optimized based on foam generation and stability tests. Every gas or foam flooding was preceded by seawater injection to simulate the behavior in the reservoir. The results from the core-flood experiments showed that the CO₂ and CO₂/N₂ foam flooding recovered an additional 34-40% of Original Initial Oil in Place (OIIP) indicating that foam flooding succeeded in producing more oil than pure CO₂ gas injection processes. Additionally, the performance CO₂/N₂ foam injection was better than CO₂ foam injection.

Keywords: CO₂/N₂ foam, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), supercritical CO₂, sweep efficiency

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83 A Comparative Study on Supercritical C02 and Water as Working Fluids in a Heterogeneous Geothermal Reservoir

Authors: Musa D. Aliyu, Ouahid Harireche, Colin D. Hills


The incapability of supercritical C02 to transport and dissolve mineral species from the geothermal reservoir to the fracture apertures and other important parameters in heat mining makes it an attractive substance for Heat extraction from hot dry rock. In other words, the thermodynamic efficiency of hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs also increases if supercritical C02 is circulated at excess temperatures of 3740C without the drawbacks connected with silica dissolution. Studies have shown that circulation of supercritical C02 in homogenous geothermal reservoirs is quite encouraging; in comparison to that of the water. This paper aims at investigating the aforementioned processes in the case of the heterogeneous geothermal reservoir located at the Soultz site (France). The MultiPhysics finite element package COMSOL with an interface of coupling different processes encountered in the geothermal reservoir stimulation is used. A fully coupled numerical model is developed to study the thermal and hydraulic processes in order to predict the long-term operation of the basic reservoir parameters that give optimum energy production. The results reveal that the temperature of the SCC02 at the production outlet is higher than that of water in long-term stimulation; as the temperature is an essential ingredient in rating the energy production. It is also observed that the mass flow rate of the SCC02 is far more favourable compared to that of water.

Keywords: FEM, HDR, heterogeneous reservoir, stimulation, supercritical C02

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82 Extraction of M. paradisiaca L. Inflorescences Using Compressed Propane

Authors: Michele C. Mesomo, Madeline de Souza Correa, Roberta L. Kruger, Luis R. S. Kanda, Marcos L. Corazza


Natural extracts of plants have been used for many years for different purposes and recently they have been screened for their potential use as alternative remedies and food preservatives. Inflorescences of M. paradisiaca L., also known as the heart of the banana, have great economic interest due to its fruit. All parts of the banana are used for many different purposes, including use in folk medicine. The use of extraction via supercritical technology has grown in recent years, though it is still necessary to obtain experimental information for the construction of industrial plants. This work reports the extraction of Musa paradisiaca L. using compressed propane as solvent. The effects of the supercritical extraction conditions, pressure and temperature on the yield were evaluated. The raw material, inflorescences banana, was dried at 313.15 K and milled. The particle size used for the packaging of the extraction cell was 12 mesh (23.5%), 16 mesh (23.5%), 32 mesh (34.5%), 48 mesh (18.5%). The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit at pressures of 3.0 MPa, 6.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa and at 308.15 K, 323.15 K and 338.15 K. The operating conditions tested achieved a maximum yield of 2.94 wt% for the CO2 extraction at 10.0 MPa and 338.15 K, higher pressure and temperature. The lower yield, 2.29 wt%, was obtained in the condition of lower pressure and higher temperature. Temperature presented significant and positive effect on the extraction yield with supercritical CO2, while pressure had no effect on the yield. The overall extraction curves showed typical behavior obtained for the supercritical extraction procedure and and reached a constant extraction rate of about 80 to 100 min. The largest amount of extract was obtained at the beginning of the process, within 10 to 60 min.

Keywords: banana, natural products, supercritical extraction, temperature

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81 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad


Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

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80 Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process

Authors: Yousef Bakhbakhi


Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.

Keywords: particle formation, particle size and size distribution, PCA, supercritical carbon dioxide

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79 Scale-Up Process for Phyllanthus niruri Enriched Extract by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Authors: Norsyamimi Hassim, Masturah Markom


Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been known as a sustainable and safe extraction technique for plant extraction due to the minimal usage of organic solvent. In this study, a scale-up process for the selected herbal plant (Phyllanthus niruri) was investigated by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) with food-grade (ethanol-water) cosolvent. The quantification of excess ethanol content in the final dry extracts was conducted to determine the safety of enriched extracts. The extraction yields obtained by scale-up SFE unit were not much different compared to the predicted extraction yields with an error of 2.92%. For component contents, the scale-up extracts showed comparable quality with laboratory-scale experiments. The final dry extract showed that the excess ethanol content was 1.56% g/g extract. The fish embryo toxicity test (FETT) on the zebrafish embryos showed no toxicity effects by the extract, where the LD50 value was found to be 505.71 µg/mL. Thus, it has been proven that SFE with food-grade cosolvent is a safe extraction technique for the production of bioactive compounds from P. niruri.

Keywords: scale-up, supercritical fluid extraction, enriched extract, toxicity, ethanol content

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78 Nickel Electroplating in Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Bath under Different Agitations

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kun-Hsien Lee, Bor-Wei Wang


The process of post-supercritical CO2 electroplating uses the electrolyte solution after being mixed with supercritical CO2 and released to atmospheric pressure. It utilizes the microbubbles that form when oversaturated CO2 in the electrolyte returns to gaseous state, which gives the similar effect of pulsed electroplating. Under atmospheric pressure, the CO2 bubbles gradually diffuse. Therefore, the introduction of ultrasound and/or other agitation can potentially excite the CO2 microbubbles to achieve an electroplated surface of even higher quality. In this study, during the electroplating process, three different modes of agitation: magnetic stirrer agitation, ultrasonic agitation and a combined mode (magnetic + ultrasonic) were applied, respectively, in order to obtain an optimal surface morphology and mechanical properties for the electroplated Ni coating. It is found that the combined agitation mode at a current density of 40 A/dm2 achieved the smallest grain size, lower surface roughness, and produced an electroplated Ni layer that achieved hardness of 320 HV, much higher when compared with conventional method, which were usually in the range of 160 to 300 HV. However, at the same time, the electroplating with combined agitation developed a higher internal stress of 320 MPa due to the lower current efficiency of the process and finer grain in the coating. Moreover, a new control methodology for tailoring the coating’s mechanical property through its thickness was demonstrated by the timely introduction of ultrasonic agitation during the electroplating process with post supercritical CO2 mixed electrolyte.

Keywords: nickel electroplating, micro-bubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide, ultrasonic agitation

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77 Tuning Cubic Equations of State for Supercritical Water Applications

Authors: Shyh Ming Chern


Cubic equations of state (EoS), popular due to their simple mathematical form, ease of use, semi-theoretical nature and, reasonable accuracy are normally fitted to vapor-liquid equilibrium P-v-T data. As a result, They often show poor accuracy in the region near and above the critical point. In this study, the performance of the renowned Peng-Robinson (PR) and Patel-Teja (PT) EoS’s around the critical area has been examined against the P-v-T data of water. Both of them display large deviations at critical point. For instance, PR-EoS exhibits discrepancies as high as 47% for the specific volume, 28% for the enthalpy departure and 43% for the entropy departure at critical point. It is shown that incorporating P-v-T data of the supercritical region into the retuning of a cubic EoS can improve its performance above the critical point dramatically. Adopting a retuned acentric factor of 0.5491 instead of its genuine value of 0.344 for water in PR-EoS and a new F of 0.8854 instead of its original value of 0.6898 for water in PT-EoS reduces the discrepancies to about one third or less.

Keywords: equation of state, EoS, supercritical water, SCW

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76 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Bao Kha Nguyen, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover


Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model, waste heat recovery

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75 Aerogel Fabrication Via Modified Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) Process - Needle Valve Pressure Release

Authors: Haibo Zhao, Thomas Andre, Katherine Avery, Alper Kiziltas, Deborah Mielewski


Silica aerogels were fabricated through a modified rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) process. The silica aerogels were made using a tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor and then placed in a hot press and brought to the supercritical point of the solvent, ethanol. In order to control the pressure release without a pressure controller, a needle valve was used. The resulting aerogels were then characterized for their physical and chemical properties and compared to silica aerogels created using similar methods. The aerogels fabricated using this modified RSCE method were found to have similar properties to those in other papers using the unmodified RSCE method. Silica aerogel infused glass blanket composite, graphene reinforced silica aerogel composite were also successfully fabricated by this new method. The modified RSCE process and system is a prototype for better gas outflow control with a lower cost of equipment setup. Potentially, this process could be evolved to a continuous low-cost high-volume production process to meet automotive requirements.

Keywords: aerogel, automotive, rapid supercritical extraction process, low cost production

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74 Subcritical and Supercritical Water Gasification of Xylose

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Te-Hsiu Tang


Hemicellulose is one of the major constituents of all plant cell walls, making up 15-25% of dry wood. It is a biopolymer from many different sugar monomers, including pentoses, like xylose, and hexoses, like mannose. In an effort to gasify real biomass in subcritical and supercritical water in a single process, it is necessary to understand the gasification of hemicellulose, in addition to cellulose and lignin, in subcritical and supercritical water. In the present study, xylose is chosen as the model compound for hemicellulose, since it has the largest amount in most hardwoods. Xylose is gasified in subcritical and supercritical water for the production of higher-valued gaseous products. Experiments were conducted with a 16-ml autoclave batch-type reactor. Hydrogen peroxide is adopted as the oxidant in an attempt to promote the gasification yield. The major operating parameters for the gasification include reaction temperature (400 - 600°C), reaction pressure (5 - 25 MPa), the concentration of xylose (0.05 and 0.30 M), and level of oxidant added (0 and 0.25 chemical oxygen demand). 102 experimental runs were completed out of 46 different set of experimental conditions. Product gases were analyzed with a GC-TCD and determined to be mainly composed of H₂ (10 – 74 mol. %), CO (1 – 56 mol. %), CH₄ (1 – 27 mol. %), CO₂ (10 – 50 mol. %), and C₂H₆ (0 – 8 mol. %). It has been found that the gas yield (amount of gas produced per gram of xylose gasified), higher heating value (HHV) of the dry product gas, and energy yield (energy stored in the product gas divided by the energy stored in xylose) all increase significantly with rising temperature and moderately with reducing pressure. The overall best operating condition occurred at 873 K and 10 MPa, with a gas yield of 54 mmol/g of xylose, a gas HHV of 440 kJ/mol, and an energy yield of 1.3. A seemingly unreasonably energy yield of greater than unity resulted from the external heating employed in the experiments to drive the gasification process. It is concluded that xylose can be completely gasified in subcritical and supercritical water under proper operating conditions. The addition of oxidant does not promote the gasification of xylose.

Keywords: gasification, subcritical water, supercritical water, xylose

Procedia PDF Downloads 158