Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6773

Search results for: western scientific agricultural practices

6773 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

Abstract:

Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

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6772 The Impact of Host Country Effects on Transferring HRM Practices from Western Headquarters to Ukrainian Subsidiaries

Authors: Olga Novitskaya

Abstract:

The emerging markets of post-USSR countries have attracted Western multinational companies; however, weak institutions and unstable host country environments have hindered the implementation of successful management practices. The Ukrainian market, in light of recent events, is particularly interesting to study for its compatibility with Western businesses. This paper focuses on factors that can facilitate or inhibit the transfer of human resource management practices from Western headquarters to Ukrainian subsidiaries. To explain the national context’s effects better, a business systems approach has been applied to a qualitative study of 16 wholly owned Western subsidiaries, dissecting the reasons for a weak integration of Western practices in Ukraine. Results show that underdeveloped institutions have forced companies to develop additional practices that compensate for national weaknesses, as well as to adjust to a constantly changing environment. Flexibility and local responsiveness were observed as vital for success in Ukraine.

Keywords: human resource management, Ukraine, business system, multinational companies, HR practices

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6771 A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Integration in Agricultural Knowledge Management System Development

Authors: Dejen Alemu, Murray E. Jennex, Temtim Assefa

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy; however, the sector is dominated by smallholder farmers resulting in land fragmentation and suffering from low productivity. Due to these issues, much effort has been put into the transformation of the sector to bring about more sustainable rural economic development. Technological advancements have been applied for the betterment of farmers resulting in the design of tools that are potentially capable of supporting the agricultural sector; however, their use and relevance are still alien to the local rural communities. The notion of the creating, capturing and sharing of knowledge has also been repetitively raised by many international donor agencies to transform the sector, yet the most current approaches to knowledge dissemination focus on knowledge that originates from the western view of scientific rationality while overlooking the role of indigenous knowledge (IK). Therefore, in agricultural knowledge management system (KMS) development, the integration of IKS with scientific knowledge is a critical success factor. The present study aims to contribute in the discourse on how to best integrate scientific and IK in agricultural KMS development. The conceptual framework of the research is anchored in concepts drawn from the theory of situated learning in communities of practice (CoPs): knowledge brokering. Using the KMS development practices of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case area, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary and secondary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. As a result, concepts are identified for understanding the integration of the two major knowledge systems (i.e., indigenous and scientific knowledge) and participation of relevant stakeholders in particular the local farmers in agricultural KMS development through the roles of extension agent as a knowledge broker including crossing boundaries, in-between position, translation and interpretation, negotiation, and networking. The research shall have a theoretical contribution in addressing the incorporation of a variety of knowledge systems in agriculture and practically to provide insight for policy makers in agriculture regarding the importance of IK integration in agricultural KMS development and support marginalized small-scale farmers.

Keywords: communities of practice, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management system development, knowledge brokering

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6770 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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6769 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Recommended for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Western Ghats, India

Authors: Mukesh Lal Das, Muthukumar Muthuchamy

Abstract:

Climate change Adaptation strategy (AS) is a scientific approach to dealing with the impacts of climate change (CC). Efforts are being made to contain the global emission of greenhouse gas within threshold limits, thereby limiting the rise of global temperature to an optimal level. Global Climate change is a spontaneous process; therefore, reversing the damage would take decades. The climate change adaptation strategy recommended by various stakeholders could be a key to resilience for biodiversity. The Indian Government has constituted the panel to synthesize the climate change action report at the federal and state levels. This review scavenged the published literature on the Western Ghats hotspots. And highlight the adaptation strategy recommended by diverse scientific actors to conserve biodiversity. It also reviews the grey literature adopted by state and federal governments and its effectiveness in mitigating the impacts on biodiversity. We have narrowed the scope of interest to the state action report by 6 Indian states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which host Western Ghats global biodiversity hotspot. Western Ghats(WGs) act as the water tower to the peninsular part of India, and its extensive watershed caters to the water demand of the Industry sector, Agriculture and urban community. Conservation of WGs is the key to the prosperity of Peninsular India. The global scientific community suggested more than 600+ Climate change adaptation strategies for the policymakers, stakeholders, and other state actors to take proactive actions. The preliminary analysis of the federal and the state action plan on climate change in the wake of CC indicate inadequacy in motion as per recommended scientific adaptation strategies. Tamil Nadu and Kerala state constitute nine effective adaptation strategies out of the 40+ recommended for Western Ghats conservation. And other four states' adaptation strategies are deficient, confusing and vague. Western Ghats' resilience capacity will soon or might have reached its threshold, and the frequency of severe drought and flash floods might upsurge manifold in the decades to come. The lack of a clear roadmap to climate change adaptation strategies in the federal and state action stirred us to identify the gap and address it by offering a holistic approach to WGs biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: adaptation strategy, biodiversity conservation, climate change, resilience, Western Ghats

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6768 Maize Farmers’ Perception of Sharp Practices among Agro-Input Dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State

Authors: Ademola A. Ladele, Peace I. Aburime

Abstract:

Fake and substandard agricultural inputs pose a serious stumbling block to farm productivity and subsequently improved livelihood. There is, therefore, a need to pave ways for sustainable agriculture and self-sufficiency in food production by proffering solutions to this challenge. Maize farmers' perception of sharp practices among agro-input dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone in Oyo state was therefore investigated. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select registered maize farmers in the Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP). A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the perception of sharp practices and the effects of sharp practices. A total of seventy-five maize farmers were interviewed. A focus group discussion was organized to identify ways of curbing sharp practices to complement the survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Forms of sharp practices indicated were sales of expired fertilizers, expired pesticides, expired herbicides, underweight fertilizers, adulterated fertilizers, adulterated herbicides, packs containing broken seeds, infested seeds, lack of truth in labeling/wrong labels, manipulation of measuring scales, and false declaration of hecterages covered by tractor operators. The majority had unfavorable perception of agro-input dealers on sharp practices. A significant relationship was observed between respondents’ level of education and their perception of sharp practices. There were no significant relationships between respondents’ sex, marital status and religion, and their perception of sharp practices. A significant correlation exists between the forms of sharp practices and the perceived effect on agricultural production. It is concluded that the perceived effect of sharp practices was critical and the endemic culture of sharp practices prevailed in agro-input in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone. A standard regulatory system that will certify and monitor the quality of inputs should be put in place.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agro-input dealers, maize farmers, sharp practices

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6767 Standard and Processing of Photodegradable Polyethylene

Authors: Nurul-Akidah M. Yusak, Rahmah Mohamed, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz

Abstract:

The introduction of degradable plastic materials into agricultural sectors has represented a promising alternative to promote green agriculture and environmental friendly of modern farming practices. Major challenges of developing degradable agricultural films are to identify the most feasible types of degradation mechanisms, composition of degradable polymers and related processing techniques. The incorrect choice of degradable mechanisms to be applied during the degradation process will cause premature losses of mechanical performance and strength. In order to achieve controlled process of agricultural film degradation, the compositions of degradable agricultural film also important in order to stimulate degradation reaction at required interval of time and to achieve sustainability of the modern agricultural practices. A set of photodegradable polyethylene based agricultural film was developed and produced, following the selective optimization of processing parameters of the agricultural film manufacturing system. Example of agricultural films application for oil palm seedlings cultivation is presented.

Keywords: photodegradable polyethylene, plasticulture, processing schemes

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6766 Usurping the Potency of African Cultural Heritage via Western Civilization: A Major Bane on the Development of Nigerian Educational System

Authors: U. Obaje Gabriel

Abstract:

The overwhelming and intimidating presence of western civilization over our traditional edifice is rather sad and distressful. A careful observation of our prevailing situation would reveal to anyone what mess westernization has done to our cultural values and norms. Corruption, frivolity and moral decadence which are major hallmarks of this foreign ideology are seriously ravaging our society in general and our educational system in particular. The current trends in our schools are those of cultism, nudity in dressing, exam malpractices, corruption and general moral decadence. Against the background of these unwholesome practices in our schools, this paper intends to show the need for us to go back to our roots and harmonize the veritable aspects of our rich cultural heritage with those equally good aspects of western civilization. We believe that when this is done effectively, a very potent indigenous system of education will surely emerge, thereby solving the teething problem of fallen standard in our educational system.

Keywords: heritage, educational development, western civilization, performing arts studies

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6765 Becoming a Shakti: An Analysis of Western Women's Experiences of Tantra Practices

Authors: Caroline Jones

Abstract:

Research over the last decade suggests that there have been distinct changes in both women’s sexual behaviour and attitudes towards female sexuality in the UK. Areas such as discussing sex, participating in sexual activity outside of traditional monogamous relationships, and engaging in boudoir photography have all been explored by researchers. Women’s participation in tantric practices, however, is a relatively unexplored area of sexuality, despite an increasing number of Tantra schools opening in the UK. Tantra is a practice in which women are considered to have a higher consciousness than men, where the sexual role of women is deemed to be very different to a traditional Western sexually passive role. This research looks at this area, and is based on in-depth, semi-structured, thematically analysed interviews with women who have participated in tantric workshops and/or retreats across the country. The interviews investigate why women engage with such practices, what they feel they gain from the experience, and how shifting notions of appropriate sexual roles for women impact on their sexuality and life generally. While Tantra is still a minority activity in the UK, the findings shed light on not only these areas but also on women’s constructions of their sexuality, their relationships with their bodies and sexualities, and ways in which they express and engage with changing notions of female sexuality.

Keywords: sexuality, Tantra, gender, Shakti

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6764 Key Performance Indicators of Cold Supply Chain Practices in Agriculture Sector: Empirical Study on the Egyptian Export Companies

Authors: Ahmed Barakat, Nourhan A. Saad, Mahmoud Hammad

Abstract:

Tracking and monitoring agricultural products, cold chain activities, and transportation in real-time can effectively ensure both the quality and safety of agricultural products, as well as reduce overall logistics costs. Effective supply chain practices are one of the main requirements for enhancing agricultural business in Egypt. Cold chain is among the best practices for the storage and transportation of perishable goods and has potential within the agricultural sector in Egypt. This practice has the scope of reducing the wastage of food and increasing the profitability with a reduction in costs. Even though it has several implementation challenges for the farmers, traders, and people involved in the entire supply chain, it has highlighted better benefits for all and for the export of goods for the economic progression for Egypt. The aim of this paper is to explore cold supply chain practices for the agriculture sector in Egypt, to enhance the export performance of fresh goods. In this context, this study attempts to explore those aspects of the performance of cold supply chain practices that can enhance the functioning of the agriculture sector in Egypt from the perspective of export companies (traders) and farmers. Based on the empirical results obtained by data collection from the farmers and traders, the study argues that there is a significant association between cold supply chain practices and enhancement of the agriculture value chain. The paper thus highlights the contribution of the study with final conclusions and limitations with scope for future research.

Keywords: agriculture sector, cold chain management, export companies, non-traded goods, supply chain management

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6763 Influence of Human Resource Management Practices on Agricultural Employees’ Behavior

Authors: B. G. Abiona, O. E. Fapojuwo, T. Akinlawon

Abstract:

This study assessed the influence of human resource management practices on agricultural employees’ behavior. Data were collected from 75 randomly selected respondents using a well-structured questionnaire. The mean age of the employees’ was 43.2 years. Major human resource management practices that influence employees behaviors were: In-service training are given to employees on a regular basis (average value of x=3.44), management reward employees who are committed to their job (average value of x =3.41) and reward are designed to encourage wide participation and activity (average value of x=3.41). Also, major employees’ behavior include: Managers and employees’ wants to create better job performance (average value of x=3.13) and administrator provides praise and recognition for effective performance and show appreciation for special effort (average value of x=3.05). Major factors affecting employees’ behavior were: inadequate training (average value of x=2.93), inadequate local and international training (average value of x=2.87), inadequate grants for training programmes (average value of x= 2.81). A significant relationship was found between gender (χ2 = 37.204, P<0.05), educational qualification (χ2 = 59.093, P<0.05), income (r =0.122, P<0.05) and human resource management practices (r = 0.573, P< 0.05) of the respondents and employees’ behavior. Management should encourage employees who are committed to their job through awards and recognition.

Keywords: human resources management, agricultural employees, behaviour research institutes, Nigeria

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6762 Encounter of Muslim World with Western Social Sciences: Reception, Indigenization, Islamization

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Panahi

Abstract:

Modern social sciences developed in Western Europe, and from there, it disseminated to the rest of the world, including Muslim World. Within the hierarchical world social science system that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, the West occupied the center, and the Third and Muslim Worlds fell into its periphery. Many social scientists, especially sociologists, in the Third and Muslim World since the 1970s have criticized this worldwide unequal division of scientific labor and have called for the development of independent/indigenous social sciences relevant to their own social conditions. Based on the conceptual framework of the World Social Science System, this paper studied the encounter of Muslim social scientists/sociologists with the Western social sciences. Using inductive thematic content analysis as the method of research, the author analyzed 32 purposefully selected articles from among over 500 collected articles from the 1970s to 2018 and categorized the obtained themes. The findings revealed three main types of encounters: reception, indigenization, and Islamization. ‘Reception’ refers to the encounter of those Muslim social scientists who embrace the positivist approach and believe that Western social sciences are valid and applicable worldwide, including the Muslim World. ‘Indigenization’ refers to the approach of those Muslim social scientists who, along with many critical Third World social scientists, reject the universality of Western social sciences and call for the development of indigenous social sciences. ‘Islamization’ refers to the position of those religious Muslim social scientists who believe that Muslim nations should Islamize social sciences based on the Islamic value and knowledge systems, in order to attain viable social sciences and free themselves from Western domination. Discussing these encounters, their supporters and opponents, the paper concludes that despite various efforts, none of the two alternatives to the Western social sciences have been able to replace it so far.

Keywords: indigenization, Islamization, Muslim world, social sciences, world social science system

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6761 Analysis of Atomic Models in High School Physics Textbooks

Authors: Meng-Fei Cheng, Wei Fneg

Abstract:

New Taiwan high school standards emphasize employing scientific models and modeling practices in physics learning. However, to our knowledge. Few studies address how scientific models and modeling are approached in current science teaching, and they do not examine the views of scientific models portrayed in the textbooks. To explore the views of scientific models and modeling in textbooks, this study investigated the atomic unit in different textbook versions as an example and provided suggestions for modeling curriculum. This study adopted a quantitative analysis of qualitative data in the atomic units of four mainstream version of Taiwan high school physics textbooks. The models were further analyzed using five dimensions of the views of scientific models (nature of models, multiple models, purpose of the models, testing models, and changing models); each dimension had three levels (low, medium, high). Descriptive statistics were employed to compare the frequency of describing the five dimensions of the views of scientific models in the atomic unit to understand the emphasis of the views and to compare the frequency of the eight scientific models’ use to investigate the atomic model that was used most often in the textbooks. Descriptive statistics were further utilized to investigate the average levels of the five dimensions of the views of scientific models to examine whether the textbooks views were close to the scientific view. The average level of the five dimensions of the eight atomic models were also compared to examine whether the views of the eight atomic models were close to the scientific views. The results revealed the following three major findings from the atomic unit. (1) Among the five dimensions of the views of scientific models, the most portrayed dimension was the 'purpose of models,' and the least portrayed dimension was 'multiple models.' The most diverse view was the 'purpose of models,' and the most sophisticated scientific view was the 'nature of models.' The least sophisticated scientific view was 'multiple models.' (2) Among the eight atomic models, the most mentioned model was the atomic nucleus model, and the least mentioned model was the three states of matter. (3) Among the correlations between the five dimensions, the dimension of 'testing models' was highly related to the dimension of 'changing models.' In short, this study examined the views of scientific models based on the atomic units of physics textbooks to identify the emphasized and disregarded views in the textbooks. The findings suggest how future textbooks and curriculum can provide a thorough view of scientific models to enhance students' model-based learning.

Keywords: atomic models, textbooks, science education, scientific model

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6760 Challenges of Integrating Islamic Education with Contemporary Secular System in Igaland, Kogi State Of Nigeria

Authors: Yunusa Odiba

Abstract:

Islam, from its root is a divine religion and it does not exercise anything except within the scope of its divinity-its culture, tradition morality, and the like. The damage done to the legacies, traditions, culture, morality, viability, continued existence and relevance of the Islamic religious way of life by the prevalent western secular education system in the Muslim world has become a thing of interest to many scholars especially, the Muslim scholars, hence, advocating the integration of Islamic education with the western circular educational system. The aim is to produce a new generation of dedicated Muslims whose education has prepared them for the challenges of contemporary materialistic circulation alongside real Islamic knowledge. This paper, however, examines the process of integrating Islamic schools with the contemporary western based schools that would under-take the unification which should function as basic organ of Muslim ideological revivalism, cultural retention, identity formation, socio-economic development, and scientific and ecological inventiveness.

Keywords: challenges, integrating, Islamic education, secular system, Igalaland

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6759 Identification of Coauthors in Scientific Database

Authors: Thiago M. R Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improving the understanding of how does the process of collaboration between researchers and also to understand how the evolution of scientific production of researchers or research groups occurs. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task given the high computational cost of the methods commonly used. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaboration in large data base of curriculum researchers. The proposed method has low computational cost with satisfactory results, proving to be an interesting alternative for the modeling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks.

Keywords: extraction, data integration, information retrieval, scientific collaboration

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6758 Sustainability Adoption Barriers in Small and Mid-size Enterprises (SEMs)

Authors: L.Vaz, L. Ferreira, R. Aparício, J. Pedro, M. Franco

Abstract:

This article concerns a qualitative analysis, through an interview, regarding “Sustainability Adoption Barriers in SMEs.” To begin with, the article provides a state-of-the-art overview through fifty-seven articles initially extracted from the Scopus database. The articles were analyzed, and four main clusters emerged in the literature: 1) sustainability and small and medium-sized companies; 2) sustainable business models; 3) sustainability practices adoption procedures, and 4) adoption difficulties on sustainability practices. Utilizing interviews as a methodology, the article seeks to strengthen knowledge regarding sustainability practices, their barriers and the sustainable procedures adopted by SMEs in a Portuguese context. The results demonstrate that the literature agrees with this case study, where there are numerous sustainable practices, yet, due to financial, political, cultural, and technological factors, barriers emerge in the adoption process. By comparing the literature findings with the conducted interviews of interior Portuguese SMEs, this article develops a contribution to the scientific community through a captivating, intuitive and motivating way.

Keywords: barriers, practices, business model, green

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6757 Climate Change: A Critical Analysis on the Relationship between Science and Policy

Authors: Paraskevi Liosatou

Abstract:

Climate change is considered to be of global concern being amplified by the fact that by its nature, cannot be spatially limited. This fact makes necessary the intergovernmental decision-making procedures. In the intergovernmental level, the institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change develop efforts, methods, and practices in order to plan and suggest climate mitigation and adaptation measures. These measures are based on specific scientific findings and methods making clear the strong connection between science and policy. In particular, these scientific recommendations offer a series of practices, methods, and choices mitigating the problem by aiming at the indirect mitigation of the causes and the factors amplifying climate change. Moreover, modern production and economic context do not take into consideration the social, political, environmental and spatial dimensions of the problem. This work studies the decision-making process working in international and European level. In this context, this work considers the policy tools that have been implemented by various intergovernmental organizations. The methodology followed is based mainly on the critical study of standards and process concerning the connections and cooperation between science and policy as well as considering the skeptic debates developed. The finding of this work focuses on the links between science and policy developed by the institutional and scientific mechanisms concerning climate change mitigation. It also analyses the dimensions and the factors of the science-policy framework; in this way, it points out the causes that maintain skepticism in current scientific circles.

Keywords: climate change, climate change mitigation, climate change skepticism, IPCC, skepticism

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6756 An Analysis of the Contemporary Western Academic Works in the Genre of Quranic Studies: a Case Study of Encyclopaedia of the Quran

Authors: Iffat Batool

Abstract:

An extensive body of literature produced by the contemporary Western academia is an indication of their grave interest in the field of Qur’ānic studies. What increases its significance is the writings of the western scholars that underscore the element of objectivity and impartiality in the recent western academic works on the Qur’ān. Moreover, the participation of some Muslim scholars in the western academia is also highlighted by western thinkers to ensure the objectivity of western Qur’ānic scholarship. More specifically, with the publication of ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān by Brill’ the western academia seems to assign these elements to this work vigorously. Being the foremost work of its nature, ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān’ has attracted the academicians from across the world yet, with multiple receptions. The present study aims at locating the status of this work in the recent Western scholarship and its contribution towards the subject of Qur’ānic Studies. Through a critical analysis of articles, various features of this work are highlighted. This work concludes that although Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān presents wide-ranging and extensive study, yet, it lacks a perfect, rigorous and thorough scholarship of the Qur’ān. Besides, this work argues that because of the marginal contribution of Muslim researchers, the majority conclusions of this anthology are in contrast to the traditional Muslim standpoint

Keywords: academic, encyclopeadia, objectivity, quran

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6755 Tempo-Spatial Pattern of Progress and Disparity in Child Health in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Gudakesh Yadav

Abstract:

Uttar Pradesh is one of the poorest performing states of India in terms of child health. Using data from the three round of NFHS and two rounds of DLHS, this paper attempts to examine tempo-spatial change in child health and care practices in Uttar Pradesh and its regions. Rate-ratio, CI, multivariate, and decomposition analysis has been used for the study. Findings demonstrate that child health care practices have improved over the time in all regions of the state. However; western and southern region registered the lowest progress in child immunization. Nevertheless, there is no decline in prevalence of diarrhea and ARI over the period, and it remains critically high in the western and southern region. These regions also poorly performed in giving ORS, diarrhoea and ARI treatment. Public health services are least preferred for diarrhoea and ARI treatment. Results from decomposition analysis reveal that rural area, mother’s illiteracy and wealth contributed highest to the low utilization of the child health care practices consistently over the period of time. The study calls for targeted intervention for vulnerable children to accelerate child health care service utilization. Poor performing regions should be targeted and routinely monitored on poor child health indicators.

Keywords: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), decomposition, diarrhea, inequality, immunization

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6754 Introducing Thermodynamic Variables through Scientific Inquiry for Engineering Students

Authors: Paola Utreras, Yazmina Olmos, Loreto Sanhueza

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This work shows how the learning of physics is enriched with scientific inquiry practices, achieving learning that results in the use of higher-level cognitive skills. The activities, which were carried out with students of the 3rd semester of the courses of the Faculty of Sciences of the Engineering of the Austral University of Chile, focused on the understanding of the nature of the thermodynamic variables and how they relate to each other. This, through the analysis of atmospheric data obtained in the meteorological station Miraflores, located on the campus. The proposed activities consisted of the elaboration of time series, linear analysis of variables, as well as the analysis of frequencies and periods. From their results, the students reached conclusions associated with the nature of the thermodynamic variables studied and the relationships between them, to finally make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards. It is observed that introducing topics that are close to them, interesting and which affect their daily lives allows a better understanding of the subjects, which is reflected in higher levels of approval and motivation for the subject.

Keywords: basic sciences, inquiry-based learning, scientific inquiry, thermodynamics

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6753 Reviewing Soil Erosion in Greece

Authors: Paschalis Koutalakis, George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Konstantinos Ioannou

Abstract:

Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, scientific publications related to soil erosion studies in Greece were reviewed and categorized. To accomplish this, the online search engine of Scopus was used. The key words were “soil”, “erosion” and “Greece.” An analysis of the published articles was conducted at three levels: i) type of publication, ii) chronologic and iii) thematic. A hundred and ten publications published in scientific journals were reviewed. The results showed that the awareness regarding the soil erosion in Greece has increased only in the last decades. The publications covered a wide range of thematic categories such as the type of studied areas, the physical phenomena that trigger and influence the soil erosion, the negative anthropogenic impacts on them, the assessment tools that were used in order to examine the threat and the proper management. The analysis of these articles was significant and necessary in order to find the scientific gaps of soil erosion studies in Greece and help enhance the sustainability of soil management in the future.

Keywords: climate change, agricultural sustainability, environmental sustainability, soil management

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6752 Westernization of Islamic Culture, A Historical Analysis

Authors: Saidalavi Kannattippadi

Abstract:

It is a culture based study on revealing how the indebtedness of the west belongs to the moral and scientific culture of Islam, even to such a way to be said there was no room for renaissance and the enlightment of the west without the active intervention of the Islamic culture in thoughts and activities of the European thinkers. The study focuses on the exact causes that led the west to the renaissance and goes through analyzing each of historical evidences for confirming the continuous cultural assimilations that occurred between east and west, through transmissions of knowledge, translations of unique treatises, study trips and so on. The west had deeply influenced by the thought and culture of Islam after having a long bitter experience from the blind rituals and customs introduced by the church and was expecting for a movement that can raise them upwards from the bankruptcy of morality and spirituality. The sequence of crusades and voyages of thinkers from west to eastern wards made the western people aware of the best culture ever found in the world as in name of Islam and they become ready to assimilate its notable cultural values and to borrow its cultural achievements. The west had two types of influences from the Islam; moral and scientific. the uprooting of untouchablitlity and racism from western society and their accepting the ideologies of equality and fraternity are moral influence and the innumerable inventions and discoveries found in modern science and technology are the scientific influences. Without the frantic efforts of Muslims in translating, modifying and commenting the science and philosophy of the Greek the west would not have even a chance to peep to the cultural values of the Greek. Here the Muslims are the guides and channels through which the west got educated and well cultured. The study also briefly sheds light on the cultural achievements of Muslims in material science, human science, etc.

Keywords: cultural assimilation, culture and civilization, indebtedness, Muslim world, west, translation, transmission

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6751 Operation '1 Household Dry Toilet for Planting 20 Fruit Trees and/or Acacias on Cropland': Strategy for Promoting Adoption of Well-Managed Agroforestry Systems and Prevent Streaming and Soil Erosion

Authors: Stanis Koko Nyalongomo, Benjamin Mputela Bankanza, Moise Kisempa Mahungudi

Abstract:

Several areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience serious problems of streaming and soil erosion. Erosion leads to degradation of soil health, and the three main causative factors of similar importance are deforestation, overgrazing, and land agricultural mismanagement. Degradation of soil health leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂), and other greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural productivity low, and sanitation-related diseases are a concern of a majority of DRC rural people -whose main livelihoods are conventional smallholder agriculture- due to degradation of agricultural soil health and prevalence of inappropriate sanitation in rural areas. Land management practices that increase soil carbon stocks on agricultural lands with practices including conservation agriculture and agroforestry do not only limit CO₂ emissions but also help prevent erosion while enhancing soil health and productivity. Promotion to adopt sustainable land management practices, especially conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices, is a necessity. This needs to be accompanied by incentives. Methods that incite smallholders to adopt practices that increase carbon stocks in agricultural lands and enhance soil health and productivity for social, economic, and environmental benefits, and give them the ability to get and use household dry toilets -included activities to inform and raise smallholder households awareness on the conversion of croplands to well-managed agroforestry systems through planting at least 20 fruit trees and/or acacias, soil carbon and practices that sequester it in soil and ecological sanitation; and offer smallholders technique and material supports and incentives under the form of dry toilets constructed for free for well-managed agroforestry implementation- were carried out to address problems of soil erosion as well as agricultural productivity and sanitation-related diseases. In 2018 and 2019, 19 of 23 targeted smallholder households expressed their satisfaction and converted their croplands to agroforestry through planting 374 trees, and each gotten 1 dry toilet constructed for free. Their neighbors expressed a willingness to participate in the project. Conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices offers many advantages to both farmers and the environment. The strategy of offering smallholders incentives for soil-friendly agricultural practices, especially well-managed agroforestry, is one of the solutions to prevent soil erosion. DRC rural people whose majority are smallholder households, need to be able to get and use dry toilets. So, dry toilets could be offered like incentives for well-managed agroforestry practices. Given the many advantages agroforestry and dry toilet can offer, recommendations are made for funding organizations to support such projects that promote the adoption of soil health practices.

Keywords: agroforestry, croplands, soil carbon, soil health

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6750 Preliminary Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Farmland Soils of Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: W. M. Buba, J. G. Nangbes, J. P. Butven

Abstract:

This research was undertaken to evolve community based awareness on the arsenic contamination from agricultural practices in Communities of Bokkos local government area. Contaminated farmland soil samples were collected from the surface for tailings and at various depths (50, 100, 150 cm intervals) in eight holes drilled in each farm at different locations using hand auger. A total of sixty- four (64) soil samples were collected from eight (8) different communities. A standard titrimetric method was applied for the determination of arsenic. It was found that the average concentration of arsenic in the surface soil (0-150cm) for the entire study areas was 0.0525mg/kg with range 0.0425 -0.0601mg/kg which is well above the recommended the soil to plant concentration guideline range of 2.3 – 4.3 x10-4 mg/kg value. This indicates that the arsenic concentration in the study areas does pose health risk for agricultural practices via potential bioaccumulation in plant food crops. However, some risks measures could follow the arsenic occurrence through direct exposure such as those resulting from the inhalation, oral or dermal intake of arsenic during agricultural practices and in the course of stay on the contaminated soil.

Keywords: agrochemicals, arsenic, bokkos, contamination, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6749 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

Abstract:

Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach

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6748 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major

Abstract:

Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
6747 The Use of Fertilizers in the Context of Agricultural Extension

Authors: Ahmed Altalb

Abstract:

Fertilizers are natural materials, or industrial contain nutrients, which help to improve soil fertility and is considered (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) is important elements for the growth of crops properly. Fertilization is necessary in order to improve the quality of agricultural products and the recovery in agricultural activities. The use of organic fertilizers and chemical lead to reduce the loss of nutrients in agricultural soils, and this leads to an increase in the production of agricultural crops. Fertilizers are one of the key factors in the increase of agricultural production as well as other factors such as irrigation and improved seeds and Prevention and others; the fertilizers will continue to be a cornerstone of the agriculture in order to produce the food to feed of world population. The use of fertilizers has become commonplace today, especially the chemical fertilizers for the development of agricultural production, due to the provision of nutrients for plants and in high concentrations and easily dissolves in water and ease of use. The choose the right type of fertilizer depends on the soil type and the type of crop. In this subject, find the relationship between the agricultural extension and the optimal use of fertilizers. The extension plays the important role in the advise and educate of farmers in how they optimal use the fertilizers in a scientific way. This article aims to identify the concept the fertilizers. Identify the role of fertilizers in increasing the agricultural production, identify the role of agricultural extension in the optimal use of fertilizers and rural development.

Keywords: agricultural, extension, fertilizers, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
6746 An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Death Practices and Rituals of the Isneg People in Apayao

Authors: Ivy Angelique Malit, Marion Nicole Dela Vega, Marjorie Mae Mendoza

Abstract:

Death practices and rituals of the Philippines is rich with facts about our history mostly on our beliefs of the afterlife before the arrival of the western culture which is still being practiced by the indigenous people of the Philippines. The death practices and rituals are acts of showing the inner thoughts, and feelings towards the person who died. The meanings behind those practices and rituals become the reason why the indigenous people still treasure these death practices and rituals as a part of their culture. This study seeks to know the experiences of the death practices and rituals of one of the Indigenous groups in Apayao, the Isnegs and the meaning of those experiences. The researchers aimed to look at it on a psychological lens. In which the researchers aim (1) to know their experiences of their death practices from the perspective of their thoughts, feelings and actions, and (2) to seek the meaning behind their death rituals. The design used in the research is a qualitative design and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The participants were gathered by using purposive sampling. The researchers gathered the data from a form of a semi-structured interview with guide questions. The researchers used Thematic Analysis to analyze the verbatim transcriptions from the interview. The experiences of death practices and rituals of the Isneg people have been presented in the aspects of their thoughts, feelings and behavior. The experiences were presented with 7 superordinate themes namely, (1) Refusal of Reality (2) Feelings of mixed emotions (3) Oblivious Acts of the participants (4) Conflict with self and culture (5) Negative thinking of the participants (6) Process of Acceptance (8) Act of Love. The make meaning behind the death practices and rituals of the Isneg people have been presented with 2 superordinate themes, (1) Act of Respect and (2) Act of Loyalty. The results of the research show that the experiences and meaning behind their death practices and burials were being based more by their own beliefs. In their culture, which has been passed through by their ancestors and becomes the foundation of their beliefs and their newly found religion which was introduced by the travelling missionaries. Doing those death practices and rituals is their way to show their affections, like respect and loyalty towards the person who died.

Keywords: death practices, interpretative phenomenological analysis, isneg people, rituals, theory of grieving

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
6745 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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6744 Design and Implementation of Agricultural Machinery Equipment Scheduling Platform Based On Case-Based Reasoning

Authors: Wen Li, Zhengyu Bai, Qi Zhang

Abstract:

The demand for smart scheduling platform in agriculture, particularly in the scheduling process of machinery equipment, is high. With the continuous development of agricultural machinery equipment technology, a large number of agricultural machinery equipment and agricultural machinery cooperative service organizations continue to appear in China. The large area of cultivated land and a large number of agricultural activities in the central and western regions of China have made the demand for smart and efficient agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platforms more intense. In this study, we design and implement a platform for agricultural machinery equipment scheduling to allocate agricultural machinery equipment resources reasonably. With agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform taken as the research object, we discuss its research significance and value, use the service blueprint technology to analyze and characterize the agricultural machinery equipment schedule workflow, the network analytic method to obtain the demand platform function requirements, and divide the platform functions through the platform function division diagram. Simultaneously, based on the case-based reasoning (CBR) algorithm, the equipment scheduling module of the agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform is realized; finally, a design scheme of the agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform architecture is provided, and the visualization interface of the platform is established via VB programming language. It provides design ideas and theoretical support for the construction of a modern agricultural equipment information scheduling platform.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, service blueprint, system design, ANP, VB programming language

Procedia PDF Downloads 59