Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 888

Search results for: maize farmers

888 Drivers of Adoption Intensity of Certified Maize Varieties in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria: A Triple Hurdle Model Approach

Authors: Kalat P. Duniya


A number of technologies expected to increase maize productivity have been introduced by several research programs at national and international level. To this end, the study sought to identify the factors influencing adoption intensity of certified maize varieties. The data used were obtained from a sample household survey of 406 maize farmers, conducted in the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria through multistage stratified sampling, structured questionnaire. A triple hurdle model was adopted to estimate the determinants of adoption intensity; considering awareness, adoption, and intensity as three separate stages. The result showed that the drivers of farmers’ awareness, adoption, and intensity of usage may not necessarily be the same, and where they are, not of the same magnitude and direction. However, factors which were found to be statistically significant were age, education, membership of association and frequency of extension advice. In addition, awareness and adoption of the technologies were likely to be increased with male respondents. Farmers that were members of either community organizations or cooperative organizations had a higher tendency of being aware and adopting certified maize seed varieties. It was also discovered that though some of the farmers were fully aware of the existence of some certified maize varieties, majority lacked detailed knowledge and technical know-how. There is a need for creation of awareness through an excellent trained extension and restructuring of the educational sector to improve on the adoption process as well as improve maize productivity in the country.

Keywords: adoption, awareness, maize farmers, Nigeria, regression

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887 Development of a Cost Effective Two Wheel Tractor Mounted Mobile Maize Sheller for Small Farmers in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Israil Hossain, T. P. Tiwari, Ashrafuzzaman Gulandaz, Nusrat Jahan


Two-wheel tractor (power tiller) is a common tillage tool in Bangladesh agriculture for easy access in fragmented land with affordable price of small farmers. Traditional maize sheller needs to be carried from place to place by hooking with two-wheel tractor (2WT) and set up again for shelling operation which takes longer time for preparation of maize shelling. The mobile maize sheller eliminates the transportation problem and can start shelling operation instantly any place as it is attached together with 2WT. It is counterclockwise rotating cylinder, axial flow type sheller, and grain separated with a frictional force between spike tooth and concave. The maize sheller is attached with nuts and bolts in front of the engine base of 2WT. The operating power of the sheller comes from the fly wheel of the engine of the tractor through ‘V” belt pulley arrangement. The average shelling capacity of the mobile sheller is 2.0 t/hr, broken kernel 2.2%, and shelling efficiency 97%. The average maize shelling cost is Tk. 0.22/kg and traditional custom hire rate is Tk.1.0/kg, respectively (1 US$=Tk.78.0). The service provider of the 2WT can transport the mobile maize sheller long distance in operator’s seating position. The manufacturers started the fabrication of mobile maize sheller. This mobile maize sheller is also compatible for the other countries where 2WT is available for farming operation.

Keywords: cost effective, mobile maize sheller, maize shelling capacity, small farmers, two wheel tractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
886 Assessment of Pull Mechanism at Enhancing Maize Farmers’ Utilisation of Aflasafe Bio-Control Measures in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Jonathan A. Akinwale, Ibukun J. Agotola


There is a need to rethink how technology is being disseminated to end users in order to ensure wide adoption and utilisation. Aflasafe bio-control was developed to combat aflatoxin in maize to ensure food safety for the end users. This study was designed to assess how the pull mechanism is enhancing the utilisation of this proven technology among maize farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study determines the awareness of farmers on Aflasafe, sources of purchase of Aflasafe, incentives towards the usage of Aflasafe, constraints to farmers’ utilisation and factors influencing farmers’ utilisation of Aflasafe bio-control measures. Respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were collected from respondents through interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics (means, frequencies, and percentages) and inferential statistics (Pearson Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis). The result showed that 89% of the farmers indicated implementers as the outlet for the purchase of Aflasafe. Also, premium payment and provision of technical assistance were the highly ranked incentives to the utilisation of Aflasafe among the farmers. The study also revealed that the major constraints face by respondents were low access to credit facility, inadequate sources of purchase, and lack of storage facilities. A little above half (54%) of the farmers were found to have fully utilized Aflasafe in maize production. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between incentives and utilisation of Aflasafe (r-value=0.274; p ≤ 0.01). The result of the regression analysis indicated maize production experience (β=0.572), output (β=0.531), years of formal education (β=0.404) and household size (β=0.391) as the leading factors influencing farmers utilisation of Aflasafe bio-control in maize production. The study, therefore, recommends that governments and non-governmental organisations should be interested in making Aflasafe available to the maize farmers either through loan provision or price subsidy.

Keywords: Aflasafe bio-control, maize production, production incentives, pull mechanism, utilisation

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885 Gendered Perceptions in Maize Supply Chains: Evidence from Uganda

Authors: Anusha De, Bjorn Van Campenhout


Faced with imperfect information, economic actors use judgment and perceptions in decision-making. Inaccurate perceptions or false beliefs may result in inefficient value chains, and systematic bias in perceptions may affect inclusiveness. In this paper, perceptions in Ugandan maize supply chains are studied. A random sample of maize farmers where they were asked to rate other value chain actors—agro-input dealers, assembly traders and maize millers—on a set of important attributes such as service quality, price competitiveness, ease of access, and overall reputation. These other value chain actors are tracked and asked to assess themselves on the same attributes. It is observed that input dealers, traders and millers assess themselves more favorably than farmers do. Zooming in on heterogeneity in perceptions related to gender, it is evident that women rate higher than men. The sex of the actor being rated does not affect the rating.

Keywords: gender, input dealers, maize supply chain, perceptions, processors

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884 Design and Construction of a Maize Dehusking Machine for Small and Medium-Scale Farmers

Authors: Francis Ojo Ologunagba, Monday Olatunbosun Ale, Lewis A. Olutayo


The economic successes of commercial development of agricultural product processing depend upon the adaptability of each processing stage to mechanization. In maize processing, one of its post-harvest operations that is still facing a major challenge is dehusking. Therefore, a maize dehusking machine that could replace the prevalent traditional method of dehusking maize in developing countries, especially Nigeria was designed, constructed and tested at the Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo. The basic features of the machine are feeding unit (hopper), housing frame, dehusking unit, drive mechanism and discharge outlets. The machine was tested with maize of 50mm average diameter at 13% moisture content and 2.5mm machine roller clearance. Test results showed appreciable performance with the dehusking efficiency of 92% and throughput capacity of 200 Kg/hr at a machine speed of 400rpm. The estimated production cost of the machine at the time of construction is forty-five thousand, one hundred and eighty nairas (₦45,180) excluding the cost of the electric motor. It is therefore recommended for small and medium-scale maize farmers and processors in Nigeria.

Keywords: construction, dehusking, design, efficiency, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
883 Adaptation of Extra Early Maize 'Zea Mays L.' Varieties for Climate Change Mitigation in South Western Nigeria

Authors: Akinwumi Omotayo, Badu-B Apraku, Joseph Olobasola, Petra Abdul Saghir, Yinka Sobowale


In southwestern Nigeria, climate change has led to loss of at least two months of rainfall. Consequently, only one cycle of maize can now be grown because of the shorter duration of rainy season as against two cycles in the past. The Early and Extra-early maturing varieties of maize were originally developed for the semi-arid and arid zones of West and Central Africa where there are seasonal challenges of water threatening optimum performance of the traditional maize grown, which are commonly late in maturity (115 to 120 days). The early varieties of maize mature in 90 to 95 days; while the Extra-Early maize varieties reach physiological maturity in less than 90 days. It was broadly hypothesized that the extra early varieties of maize could mitigate the effects of climate change in southwestern Nigeria with higher levels of rainfall by reinstating the original two cycles of rain-fed maize crop. Trials were therefore carried out in southwestern Nigeria on the possibility of adapting the extra early maize to mitigate the effects of climate change. The trial was the Mother/Baby design. The mother trial involves the evaluation of extra-early varieties following ideal recommendations and closely supervised centrally at the University research farm and the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs). This requires farmers to observe and evaluate the technology and the management regime meant to precede the second stage of evaluation at several satellite farmers field managed by selected farmers. The Baby Trial is expected to provide a realistic assessment of the technology by farmers in their own environment. A stratified selection of thirty farmers for the Baby Trial ensured appropriate representation across the different categories of the farming population by age and gender. Data from the trials indicate that extra early maize can be grown in two cycles rain fed in south west Nigeria and a third and fourth cycle could be obtained with irrigation. However the long duration varieties outyielded the extra early maize in both the mother and baby trials. When harvested green, the extra early maize served as source of food between March and May when there was scarcity of food. This represents a major advantage. The study recommends that further work needs to be done to improve the yield of extra early maize to encourage farmers to adopt.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, extra early, maize varieties, mitigation

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882 Diversifying from Petroleum Products to Arable Farming as Source of Revenue Generation in Nigeria: A Case Study of Ondo West Local Government

Authors: A. S. Akinbani


Overdependence on petroleum is causing set back in Nigeria economy. Field survey was carried out to assess the profitability and production of selected arable crops in six selected towns and villages of Ondo southwestern. Data were collected from 240 arable crop farmers with the aid of both primary and secondary data. Data were collected with the use of oral interview and structured questionnaires. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Forty farmers were randomly selected to give a total number of 240 respondents. 84 farmers interviewed had no formal education, 72 had primary education, 50 farmers attained secondary education while 38 attained beyond secondary education. The majority of the farmers hold less than 10 acres of land. The data collected from the field showed that 192 farmers practiced mixed cropping which includes mixtures of yam, cowpea, cocoyam, vegetable, cassava and maize while only 48 farmers practiced monocropping. Among the sampled farmers, 93% agreed that arable production is profitable while 7% disagreed. The findings show that managerial practices that conserve the soil fertility and reduce labor cost such as planting of leguminous crops and herbicide application instead of using hand held hoe for weeding should be encouraged. All the respondents agreed that yam, cowpea, cocoyam, sweet potato, rice, maize and vegetable production will solve the problem of hunger and increase standard of living compared with petroleum product that Nigeria relied on as means of livelihood.

Keywords: farmers, arable crop, cocoyam, respondents, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
881 Modelling Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Genetically Modified Maize in Kenya

Authors: Ezrah Kipkirui Tonui, George Otieno Orwa


A survey of 138 farmers was conducted in Rift valley, Kenya, in November and December 2013 in three counties (Uasin-gishu, Elgeyo-marakwet, and Tranzoia) to determine public knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) maize. Above two third (70%) of the respondents had knowledge of GM maize, mostly those educated and male. Female was found to be having low knowledge on GM maize. Public acknowledged the technology’s potential positive impacts, with more than 90% willing to adopt and more than 98% willing to buy GM seedlings at any given price. A small percentage less than 3% were of a negative opinion about willing to buy and adopt GM seeds. We conclude that GM technology has a role to play in food security in Kenya. However, the public needs more information about the technology, which can be provided through established sources of information and training. Finally, public knowledge and attitude on GM maize should be studied on a regular basis, and the survey population broadened to 47 counties.

Keywords: public, knowledge, attitudes, GM maize, Kenya

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880 The Impact of Improved Grain Storage Technology on Marketing Behaviour and Livelihoods of Maize Farmers: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Ethiopia

Authors: Betelhem M. Negede, Maarten Voors, Hugo De Groote, Bart Minten


Farmers in Ethiopia produce most of their own food during one agricultural season per year. Therefore, they need to use on-farm storage technologies to bridge the lean season and benefit from price arbitrage. Maize stored using traditional storage bags offer no protection from insects and molds, leading to high storage losses. In Ethiopia access to and use of modern storage technologies are still limited, restraining farmers to benefit from local maize price fluctuations. We used a randomized controlled trial among 871 maize farmers to evaluate the impacts of Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, also known as hermetic bags, on storage losses, and especially on behavioral changes with respect to consumption, marketing, and income among maize farmers in Ethiopia. This study builds upon the limited previous experimental research that has tried to understand farmers’ grain storage and post-harvest losses and identify mechanisms behind the persistence of these challenges. Our main hypothesis is that access to PICS bags allows farmers to increase production, storage and maize income. Also delay the length of maize storage, reduce maize post-harvest losses and improve their food security. Our results show that even though farmers received only three PICS bags that represent 10percent of their total maize stored, they delay their length of maize storage for sales by two weeks. However, we find no treatment effect on maize income, suggesting that the arbitrage of two weeks is too small. Also, we do not find any reduction in storage losses due to farmers’ reaction by selling early and by using cheap and readily available but potentially harmful storage chemicals. Looking at the heterogeneity treatment effects between the treatment variable and highland and lowland villages, we find a decrease in the percentage of maize stored by 4 percent in the highland villages. This confirms that location specific factors, such as agro-ecology and proximity to markets are important factors that influence whether and how much of the harvest a farmer stores. These findings highlight the benefits of hermetic storage bags, by allowing farmers to make inter-temporal arbitrage and by reducing potential health risks from storage chemicals. The main policy recommendation that emanates from our study is that postharvest losses reduction throughout the whole value chain is an important pathway to food and income security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, future storage loss interventions with hermetic storage technologies should take into account the agro-ecology of the study area and quantify storage losses beyond farmers self-reported losses, such as the count and weigh method. Finally, studies on hermetic storage technologies indicate positive impacts on post-harvest losses and in improving food security, but the adoption and use of these technologies is currently still low in SSA. Therefore, future works on the scaling up of hermetic bags, should consider reasons why farmers only use PICS bags to store grains for consumption, which is usually related to a safety-first approach or due to lack of incentives (higher price from maize not treated with chemicals), and no grain quality check.

Keywords: arbitrage, PICS hermetic bags, post-harvest storage loss, RCT

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879 Farmers Willingness to Pay for Irrigated Maize Production in Rural Kenya

Authors: Dennis Otieno, Lilian Kirimi Nicholas Odhiambo, Hillary Bii


Kenya is considered to be a middle level income country and usuaaly does not meet household food security needs especially in North and South eastern parts. Approximately half of the population is living under the poverty line (www, CIA 1, 2012). Agriculture is the largest sector in the country, employing 80% of the population. These are thereby directly dependent on the sufficiency of outputs received. This makes efficient, easy-accessible and cheap agricultural practices an important matter in order to improve food security. Maize is the prime staple food commodity in Kenya and represents a substantial share of people’s nutritional intake. This study is the result of questionnaire based interviews, Key informant and focus group discussion involving 220 small scale maize farmers Kenyan. The study was located to two separated areas; Lower Kuja, Bunyala, Nandi, Lower Nzoia, Perkerra, Mwea Bura, Hola and Galana Kulalu in Kenya. The questionnaire captured the farmers’ use and perceived importance of the use irrigation services and irrigated maize production. Viability was evaluated using the four indices which were all positive with NPV giving positive cash flows in less than 21 years at most for one season output. The mean willingness to pay was found to be KES 3082 and willingness to pay increased with increase in irrigation premiums. The economic value of water was found to be greater than the willingness to pay implying that irrigated maize production is sustainable. Farmers stated that viability was influenced by high output levels, good produce quality, crop of choice, availability of sufficient water and enforcement the last two factors had a positive influence while the other had negative effect on the viability of irrigated maize. A regression was made over the correlation between the willingness to pay for irrigated maize production using scheme and plot level factors. Farmers that already use other inputs such as animal manure, hired labor and chemical fertilizer should also have a demand for improved seeds according to Liebig's law of minimum and expansion path theory. The regression showed that premiums, and high yields have a positive effect on willingness to pay while produce quality, efficient fertilizer use, and crop season have a negative effect.

Keywords: maize, food security, profits, sustainability, willingness to pay

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878 Effect of Tillage Practices and Planting Patterns on Growth and Yield of Maize (Zee Maize)

Authors: O. R. Obalowu, F. B. Akande, T. P Abegunrin


Maize (Zea may) is mostly grown and consumed by Nigeria farmers using different tillage practices which have a great effect on its growth and yield. In order to maximize output, there is need to recommend a suitable tillage practice for crop production which will increase the growth and yield of maize. This study investigated the effect of tillage practices and planting pattern on the growth and yield of maize. The experiment was arranged in a 4x3x3 Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) layout, with four tillage practices consisting of no-tillage (NT), disc ploughing only (Ponly), disc ploughing followed by harrowing (PH), and disc ploughing, harrowing then ridging (PHR). Three planting patterns which include; 65 x 75, 75 x 75 and 85 x 75 cm spacing within and between the rows respectively, were randomly applied on the plots. All treatments were replicated three times. Data which consist of plant height, stem girth, leaf area and weight of maize per plots were taken and recorded. Data gathered were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in the Minitab Software Package. The result shows that PHR under the third planting pattern has the highest growth rate (216.50 cm) while NT under the first planting pattern has the lowest mean value of growth rate (115.60 cm). Also, Ponly under the first planting pattern gives a better maize yield (19.45 kg) when compared with other tillage practices while NT under first planting pattern recorded the least yield of maize (9.40 kg). In conclusion, considering soil and weather conditions of the research area, plough only under the first planting pattern (65 x 75 cm) is the best alternative for the production of the Swan maize variety.

Keywords: tillage practice, planting pattern, disc ploughing, harrowing, ridging

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877 The Effect of Multi-Stakeholder Extension Services towards Crop Choice and Farmer's Income, the Case of the Arc High Value Crop Programme

Authors: Joseph Sello Kau, Elias Mashayamombe, Brian Washington Madinkana, Cynthia Ngwane


This paper presents the results for the statistical (stepwise linear regression and multiple regression) analyses, carried out on a number of crops in order to evaluate how the decision for crop choice affect the level of farm income generated by the farmers participating in the High Value Crop production (referred to as the HVC). The goal of the HVC is to encourage farmers cultivate fruit crops. The farmers received planting material from different extension agencies, together with other complementary packages such as fertilizer, garden tools, water tanks etc. During the surveys, it was discovered that a significant number of farmers were cultivating traditional crops even when their plot sizes were small. Traditional crops are competing for resources with high value crops. The results of the analyses show that farmers cultivating fruit crops, maize and potatoes were generating high income than those cultivating spinach and cabbage. High farm income is associated with plot size, access to social grants and gender. Choice for a crop is influenced by the availability of planting material and the market potential for the crop. Extension agencies providing the planting materials stand a good chance of having farmers follow their directives. As a recommendation, for the farmers to cultivate more of the HVCs, the ARC must intensify provision of fruit trees.

Keywords: farm income, nature of extension services, type of crops cultivated, fruit crops, cabbage, maize, potato and spinach

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876 Maize Farmers’ Perception of Sharp Practices among Agro-Input Dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State

Authors: Ademola A. Ladele, Peace I. Aburime


Fake and substandard agricultural inputs pose a serious stumbling block to farm productivity and subsequently improved livelihood. There is, therefore, a need to pave ways for sustainable agriculture and self-sufficiency in food production by proffering solutions to this challenge. Maize farmers' perception of sharp practices among agro-input dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone in Oyo state was therefore investigated. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select registered maize farmers in the Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP). A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the perception of sharp practices and the effects of sharp practices. A total of seventy-five maize farmers were interviewed. A focus group discussion was organized to identify ways of curbing sharp practices to complement the survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Forms of sharp practices indicated were sales of expired fertilizers, expired pesticides, expired herbicides, underweight fertilizers, adulterated fertilizers, adulterated herbicides, packs containing broken seeds, infested seeds, lack of truth in labeling/wrong labels, manipulation of measuring scales, and false declaration of hecterages covered by tractor operators. The majority had unfavorable perception of agro-input dealers on sharp practices. A significant relationship was observed between respondents’ level of education and their perception of sharp practices. There were no significant relationships between respondents’ sex, marital status and religion, and their perception of sharp practices. A significant correlation exists between the forms of sharp practices and the perceived effect on agricultural production. It is concluded that the perceived effect of sharp practices was critical and the endemic culture of sharp practices prevailed in agro-input in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone. A standard regulatory system that will certify and monitor the quality of inputs should be put in place.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agro-input dealers, maize farmers, sharp practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
875 Perceived Impact of Climate Change on the Livelihood of Arable Crop Farmers in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Olugbenga Fakoya


The study examined the perceived impact of climate change on the livelihood of arable crop farmers in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 80 arable crop farmers in the study area. Data collected were analyzed using percentages, frequencies and Chi square analysis. The result showed that 63.8 percent of the respondents were male while 55.0 percent were married. Less than half (30.0 percent) of the respondents were between the age bracket of 41-50 years and 50.0 percent had 6-10 household size. Furthermore, majority (40.0 percent) of the arable crop farmers farmed on an inherited land and 51.3 percent had 2-3 hectares of land. Majority (38.8 percent) of the farmers intercrop maize with cassava and maize with yam. Various strategies adapted to reduce the effect of climate change on their crop and livelihood include: crop rotation (53.8 percent), planting of leguminous crop (35.0 percent), application of organic fertilizers (45.0 percent), mulching (56.3 percent) and by planting drought resistance crops (46.5 percent). Reported among the effects of climate change on crop and farmers’ livelihood were: discoloration of crop leave (63.8 percent), increase infestation of pests and diseases (58.8 percent) and reduction of crop yield (60.0 percent). Chi- square analysis showed significant relationship between impact of climate change on arable crop production and thus famers’ livelihood. It was concluded from the study that climate change is an impinging factor that seriously affect arable crop production and hence farmers’ livelihood despite coping strategies to minimize its effect. It was however recommended that Agricultural policies and practices that could minimize or eliminate its effect should be seriously enacted to boost production and increase farmers’ livelihood.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

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874 Cultivation of Stenocereus Spp. as an Option to Reduce Crop Loss Problems in High Marginalization States in Mexico

Authors: Abraham Castro-Alvarez, Luisaldo Sandate-Flores, Roberto Parra-Saldivar


The losing of crops during the whole production process is a problem that is affecting farmers in the whole world, as climate change affects the weather behavior. Stenocereus spp. is a tropical, exotic and endemic columnar cacti, it produces a colored and expensive fruit known how “pitaya”. The quality and value of the fruit, these species represent an attractive option for economical development in arid and semi-arid regions. This fruits are produced in Mexico, mainly in 4 regions, Mixteca Oaxaca-Puebla, Michoacan, Sinaloa-Sonora, Jalisco-Zacatecas. Pitaya can be an option to try mixed crop in this states due to the resistance to hard weather conditions. And also because of the marginalization problems that exist in these townships. As defined by the Population National Council it consists in the absence of development opportunities and the lack of capacity to get them. According to an analysis done in EsriPress ArcGis 10.1 the potential area in the country is almost the half of the territory being the total area of Mexico 1,965,249 km2 and the area with potential to produce pitaya 960,527 km2. This area covers part of the most affected townships that also have a few options of maize varieties making even harder the production of maize and exposing farmers to crop losing if conditions are good enough. Making pitaya a good option for these farmers to have an economic backup in their productions.

Keywords: maize, pitaya, rain fed, Stenocereus

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873 Influence of Agroforestry Trees Leafy Biomass and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate of Maize

Authors: A. B. Alarape, O. D. Aba


The use of legume tree pruning as mulch in agroforestry system is a common practice to maintain soil organic matter and improve soil fertility in the tropics. The study was conducted to determine the influence of agroforestry trees leafy biomass and nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth rate and relative growth rate of maize. The experiments were laid out as 3 x 4 x 2 factorial in a split-split plot design with three replicates. Control, biomass species (Parkia biglobosa and Albizia lebbeck) as main plots were considered, rates of nitrogen considered include (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha⁻¹) as sub-plots, and maize varieties (DMR-ESR-7 and 2009 EVAT) were used as sub-sub plots. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Incorporation of leafy biomass was significant in 2015 on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), while nitrogen application was significant on Crop Growth Rate (CGR). 2009 EVAT had higher CGR in 2015 at 4-6 and 6-8 WAP. Incorporation of Albizia leaves enhanced the growth of maize than Parkia leaves. Farmers are, therefore, encouraged to use Albizia leaves as mulch to enrich their soil for maize production and most especially, in case of availability of inorganic fertilizers. Though, production of maize with biomass and application of 120 kg N ha⁻¹ will bring better growth of maize.

Keywords: agroforestry trees, fertilizer, growth, incorporation, leafy biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
872 Land Suitability Analysis for Maize Production in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Using GIS Techniques

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatayo, Tope-Ajayi Opeyemi


Maize constitutes a major agrarian production for use by the vast population but despite its economic importance, it has not been produced to meet the economic needs of the country. Achieving optimum yield in maize can meaningfully be supported by land suitability analysis in order to guarantee self-sufficiency for future production optimization. This study examines land suitability for maize production through the analysis of the physic-chemical variations in soil properties over space using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Physic-chemical parameters of importance selected include slope, landuse, and physical and chemical properties of the soil. Landsat imagery was used to categorize the landuse, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) generated the slope and soil samples were analyzed for its physical and chemical components. Suitability was categorized into highly, moderately and marginally suitable based on Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) classification using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique of GIS. This result can be used by small scale farmers for efficient decision making in the allocation of land for maize production.

Keywords: AHP, GIS, MCE, suitability, Zea mays

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871 Effects of Particle Sizes of Maize Flour on the Quality of Traditional Maize Snack, Kokoro

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola


The effects of particle sizes of maize flour on the quality of traditional maize snack (Kokoro) were investigated. Maize flour of different sieve mesh sizes of 1.00mm, 1.9 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.68 mm and 2.0 mm was used to produce Kokoro. The samples were analysed for protein, fat, moisture content, crude fibre, ash and sensory evaluation. The various mixture obtained were separately processed into snacks following essential traditional method of production. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that Kokoro of sample 546 using 1.0mm mesh sieve size was the most preferred and sample 513 using 2.00 was least preferred. The result revealed that the more the maize was well blended the more acceptable the product is to the consumer.

Keywords: particle sizes, maize flour, quality, Kokoro

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870 Crop Losses, Produce Storage and Food Security, the Nexus: Attaining Sustainable Maize Production in Nigeria

Authors: Charles Iledun Oyewole, Harira Shuaib


While fulfilling the food security of an increasing population like Nigeria remains a major global concern, more than one-third of crop harvested is lost or wasted during harvesting or in postharvest operations. Reducing the harvest and postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food production and high food import bill, which has had debilitating effects on the country’s economy. One of the goals of Nigeria’s agricultural development policy is to ensure that, the nation produces enough food and be less dependent on importation so as to ensure adequate and affordable food for all. Maize could fill the food gap in Nigeria’s effort to beat hunger and food insecurity. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. Maize grains constitute primary source of food for large percentage of the Nigerian populace, thus a considerable waste of this valuable food pre and post-harvest constitutes such a major agricultural bottleneck; that the reduction of pre and post-harvest losses is now a common food security strategy. In surveys conducted, as much as 60% maize outputs can be lost on the field and during the storage stage due to technical inefficiency. Field losses due to rodent damage alone can account for between 10% - 60% grain losses depending on the location. While the use of scientific storage methods can reduce losses below 2% in storage, timely harvesting of crop can check losses on the fields resulting from rodent damage or pest infestation. A push for increased crop production must be complemented by available and affordable post-harvest technologies that will reduce losses on farmers’ fields as well as in storage.

Keywords: government policy, maize, population increase, storage, sustainable food production, yield, yield losses

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869 Role of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants in Chlorophyll A and B Content

Authors: F. Garousi, S. Veres, É. Bódi, S. Várallyay, B. Kovács


Extracting and determining chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a and b) in green leaves are the procedures based on the solvent extraction of pigments in samples using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se( IV)) and selenate (Se( VI)) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of chlorophyll a and b for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se( IV) and Se( VI) were not effective on maize plants’ chlorophyll a and b significantly although high level of 3 Se( IV) had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se( VI) samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se( VI) concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, chlorophyll a and b

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868 Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on Maize (Zea Mays) Yield in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Takele Nemomsa, Girma Mamo, Tesfaye Balemi


Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or variance of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. In Ethiopia; Maize production in relation to climate change at regional and sub- regional scales have not been studied in detail. Thus, this study was aimed to analyse the impact of climate change on maize yield in Ambo Districts, Central Ethiopia. To this effect, weather data, soil data and maize experimental data for Arganne hybrid were used. APSIM software was used to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) yield to different agronomic management practices using current and future (2020s–2080s) climate data. The climate change projections data which were downscaled using SDSM were used as input of climate data for the impact analysis. Compared to agronomic practices the impact of climate change on Arganne in Central Ethiopia is minute. However, within 2020s-2080s in Ambo area; the yield of Arganne hybrid is projected to reduce by 1.06% to 2.02%, and in 2050s it is projected to reduce by 1.56 While in 2080s; it is projected to increase by 1.03% to 2.07%. Thus, to adapt to the changing climate; farmers should consider increasing plant density and fertilizer rate per hectare.

Keywords: APSIM, downscaling, response, SDSM

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867 Investigation of Influence of Maize Stover Components and Urea Treatment on Dry Matter Digestibility and Fermentation Kinetics Using in vitro Gas Techniques

Authors: Anon Paserakung, Chaloemphon Muangyen, Suban Foiklang, Yanin Opatpatanakit


Improving nutritive values and digestibility of maize stover is an alternative way to increase their utilization in ruminant and reduce air pollution from open burning of maize stover in the northern Thailand. The present study, 2x3 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of maize stover components (whole and upper stover; cut above 5th node). Urea treatment at levels 0, 3, and 6% DM on dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics of maize stover using in vitro gas production. After 21 days of urea treatment, results illustrated that there was no interaction between maize stover components and urea treatment on 48h in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). IVDMD was unaffected by maize stover components (P > 0.05), average IVDMD was 55%. However, using whole maize stover gave higher cumulative gas and gas kinetic parameters than those of upper stover (P<0.05). Treating maize stover by ensiling with urea resulted in a significant linear increase in IVDMD (P<0.05). IVDMD increased from 42.6% to 53.9% when increased urea concentration from 0 to 3% and maximum IVDMD (65.1%) was observed when maize stover was ensiled with 6% urea. Maize stover treated with urea at levels of 0, 3, and 6% linearly increased cumulative gas production at 96h (31.1 vs 50.5 and 59.1 ml, respectively) and all gas kinetic parameters excepted the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (P<0.50). The results indicate that maize stover treated with 6% urea enhance in vitro dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics. This study provides a practical approach to increasing utilization of maize stover in feeding ruminant animals.

Keywords: maize stover, urea treatment, ruminant feed, gas production

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866 Brevicoryne brassicae Compatibility with Maize in Multiple Cropping System

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar


Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid feeds on cabbage and Brassica sp. as preferred host. Brassica plants usually ripen when maize starts growing in multiple cropping systems. Experiment was conducted to observe suitability of B. brassicae by rearing it on maize as host. In a tritrophic eco-system, predator coccinellids can be found in the fields of brassica and maize. This experiment emphasized on issue of aphids growing incidence in a cropping system. Brassica is sown and harvested earlier than maize and is attacked by aphids, while maize is also attacked by aphids. Five mortality tests were conducted of B. brassicae fed on maize. Out of five mortality tests, 3 tests were conducted using 1st instar, while in two mortality tests, 2nd instars of aphids were used. Mortality tests revealed that first instar mortality was quite high on the second day, while in second instar larvae mortality was delayed up to third to the fourth day. These experiments reveal that aphids can use maize as substitute host at later instars as compared to young ones. These experiments can be foundation for studying further crop-insect interaction and sampling techniques used for this purpose.

Keywords: host suitability, B. brassicae, maize, tritrophic interaction

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865 A Review on the Vulnerability of Rural-Small Scale Farmers to Insect Pest Attacks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Nolitha L. Skenjana, Bongani P. Kubheka, Maxwell A. Poswal


The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is characterized by subsistence farming, which is mostly distributed in the rural areas of the province. It is estimated that cereal crops such as maize and sorghum, and vegetables such as cabbage are grown in more than 400.000 rural households, with maize being the most dominant crop. However, compared to commercial agriculture, small-scale farmers receive minimal support from research and development, limited technology transfer on the latest production practices and systems and have poor production infrastructure and equipment. Similarly, there is limited farmers' appreciation on best practices in insect pest management and control. The paper presents findings from the primary literature and personal observations on insect pest management practices of small-scale farmers in the province. Inferences from literature and personal experiences in the production areas have led to a number of deductions regarding the level of exposure and extent of vulnerability. Farmers' pest management practices, which included not controlling at all though there is a pest problem, resulted in their crop stands to be more vulnerable to pest attacks. This became more evident with the recent brown locust, African armyworm, and Fall armyworm outbreaks, and with the incidences of opportunistic phytophagous insects previously collected on wild hosts only, found causing serious damages on crops. In most of these occurrences, damage to crops resulted in low or no yield. Improvements on farmers' reaction and response to pest problems were only observed in areas where focused awareness campaigns and trainings on specific pests and their management techniques were done. This then calls for a concerted effort from all role players in the sphere of small-scale crop production, to train and equip farmers with relevant skills, and provide them with information on affordable and climate-smart strategies and technologies in order to create a state of preparedness. This is necessary for the prevention of substantial crop losses that may exacerbate food insecurity in the province.

Keywords: Eastern Cape Province, small-scale farmers, insect pest management, vulnerability

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864 Value-Added Tax Exemptions and Farm-Level Productivity: The Case of Rice, Millet, and Maize in Senegal

Authors: Awa Diouf


Since 2004, inputs specific to the agricultural sector have been exempt from VAT in Senegal. This paper measures, using the Naatal Mbay survey, the impact of this reform on agricultural productivity. The survey covers a sample of 3,122 rice, millet and maize farms for the 2016 crop year. The regressions show that tax incentives are ineffective in improving partial productivity of the land factor: the higher the share of the value of exemptions in the higher the production costs, the less productive the operation. The negative effect of the exemptions on productivity is accentuated for the most intensive agricultural area: the Senegal River Delta, and the most intensive crop: irrigated rice. This relationship could stem from a decrease in allocative efficiency: farmers have overinvested in the most accessible inputs. The loose budget constraint syndrome, therefore, explains this result: farmers who benefit more from exemptions reduce their managerial effort. The results suggest a removal of the VAT exemptions applied to finished products and agricultural inputs for a better efficiency of this tax, which typically taxes final consumption and should be neutral for the producer.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agricultural taxation, Senegal, tax incentives

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863 Identification of a Novel Maize Dehydration-Responsive Gene with a Potential Role in Improving Maize Drought Tolerance

Authors: Kyle Phillips, Ndiko Ludidi


Global climate change has resulted in altered rainfall patterns, which has resulted in annual losses in maize crop yields due to drought. Therefore it is important to produce maize cultivars that are more drought-tolerant, which is not an easily accomplished task as plants have a plethora of physical and biochemical adaptation methods. One such mechanism is the drought-induced expression of enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins which assist plants to resist the effects of drought on their growth and development. One of these proteins is AtRD22 which has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using an in silico approach, a maize protein with 48% sequence homology to AtRD22 has been identified. This protein appears to be localized in the extracellular matrix, similarly to AtRD22. Promoter analysis of the encoding gene reveals cis-acting elements suggestive of induction of the gene’s expression by abscisic acid (ABA). Semi-quantitative transcriptomic analysis of the putative maize RD22 has revealed an increase in transcript levels after the exposure to drought. Current work elucidates the effect of up-regulation and silencing of the maize RD22 gene on the tolerance of maize to drought. The potential role of the maize RD22 gene in maize drought tolerance can be used as a tool to improve food security.

Keywords: abscisic acid, drought-responsive cis-acting elements, maize drought tolerance, RD22

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862 Optimized Cropping Calendar and Land Suitability for Maize through GIS and Crop Modelling

Authors: Marilyn S. Painagan, Willie Jones B. Saliling


This paper reports an optimized cropping calendar and land suitability for maize in North Cotabato derived from modeling crop productivity over time and space. Using Quantum GIS, eight representative soil types and 0.3o x 0.3o climate grids shapefiles were intersected to form thirty two pedoclimatic zones within the boundaries of the province. Surveys were done to ascertain crop performance and phenological properties on field. Based on these surveys, crop parameters were calibrated specific for a variety of maize. Soil properties and climatic data (daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures) from pedoclimatic zones were loaded to the FAO Aquacrop Water Productivity Model along with the crop properties from field surveys to simulate yield from 1980 to 2010. The average yield per month was computed to come up with the month of planting having the highest and lowest probable yield in a year assuming that all lands were planted with maize. The yield attributes were visualized in the Quantum GIS environment. The study revealed that optimal cropping patterns varied across North Cotabato. Highest probable yield (8000 kg/ha) can be obtained when maize is planted on May and September (sandy clay-loam soils) in the northern part of the province while the lowest probable yield (1000 kg/ha) can be obtained when maize is planted on January, February and March (clay loam soils) at the northern part of the province. Yields are simulated on the basis of varieties currently planted by farmers of North Cotabato. The resulting maps suggest where and when maize is most suitable to achieve high yields. There is a need to ground truth and validate the cropping calendar on field.

Keywords: aquacrop, quantum GIS, maize, cropping calendar, water productivity

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861 Implementation of Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture in the Central Province of Zambia

Authors: G. Chipili, J. Msuya


The Central Province of Zambia contains the majority of the nation’s malnourished children, despite being the most productive province in terms of Agriculture. Most studies in the province have not paid attention to the linkages between agriculture performance and nutrition outcomes of the population. In light of this knowledge gap, this study focused on the linkage between nutrition and agriculture. In 2010 the Ministry of Agriculture in the Central Province while working with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education started a pilot project in Kapiri-Mponshi on Orange-fleshed Sweet Potatoes and Orange Maize and educating farmers on the importance of crop diversity. The study assessed the extent to which the small scale farmers are implementing the best practices of nutrition-sensitive agriculture in the Central Province. This study sought to determine the association of crop diversity and nutritional status of children aged 6-59 months in Kapiri-Mposhi district in the Central Province of Zambia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A total of 365 households were randomly sampled and the nutritional status of one child from each household assessed using anthropometric measurements. A total of 100 children were included in the study. Up to 21% of the children were stunted; 2% were wasted; and 9% underweight. There was a significant relationship between crops grown in households (ground nuts, maize and mangoes) and Z-scores for stunting (HAZ) and underweight (WAZ) (p< 0.05). This study has established that farmers may not diversify if they have high market demands on the staple.

Keywords: agriculture, crop diversity, children, nutrition

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860 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: F. Garousi, Sz. Veres, É. Bódi, Sz. Várallyay, B. Kovács


Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (SeIV) and selenate (SeVI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of SeIV and SeVI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 SeIV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about SeVI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered SeVI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area

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859 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 616