Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7313

Search results for: indigenous agricultural knowledge

7313 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

Abstract:

Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

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7312 Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Pearl C. Akanwa, Oyemike Victor Benson

Abstract:

This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.

Keywords: library, indigenous knowledge, information centres, information professionals

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7311 A Strategic Communication Design Model for Indigenous Knowledge Management

Authors: Dilina Janadith Nawarathne

Abstract:

This article presents the initial development of a communication model (Model_isi) as the means of gathering, preserving and transferring indigenous knowledge in the field of knowledge management. The article first discusses the need for an appropriate complimentary model for indigenous knowledge management which differs from the existing methods and models. Then the paper suggests the newly developed model for indigenous knowledge management which generate as result of blending key aspects of different disciplines, which can be implemented as a complementary approach for the existing scientific method. The paper further presents the effectiveness of the developed method in reflecting upon a pilot demonstration carried out on selected indigenous communities of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge management, knowledge transferring, tacit knowledge, research model, asian centric philosophy

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7310 Indigenous Knowledge Management: Towards Identification of Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Emmanuel Uwazie Anyanwu, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ogbonna Isaac-Nnadimele

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical discourse that highlights the challenges associated with management of indigenous knowledge with reference to developing countries. Literature review and brainstorming were used to collect relevant data and draw inferences. The findings indicate that non-existence of indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), low level of partnership drive among library and information services providers, non-uniformity of format and content of indigenous knowledge, inadequate funding, and lack of access to ICTs, lack of indigenous people with indigenous expertise and hoarding of knowledge as challenges to indigenous knowledge management. The study is based on literature review and information gathered through brain storming with professional colleagues the geographic scope as developing countries. The study has birth several implication based on the findings made. Professionally, it has necessitated the need for formulating a viable indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), creating of collaborative network through partnership, and integration of ICTs to indigenous knowledge management practices by libraries in developing countries etc. The originality of this paper is revealed in its capability as serving as an eye opener to librarians on the need for preserving and managing indigenous knowledge in developing countries. It further unlocks the possibilities of exploring empirical based researches to substantiate the theoretical issues raised in this paper. The findings may be used by library managers to improve indigenous knowledge management (IKM).

Keywords: developing countries, ICTs, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7309 Use of Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) by Farmers for Selected Arable Crops Production in Ondo State

Authors: A. M. Omoare, E. O. Fakoya

Abstract:

This study sought to determine the use of indigenous knowledge for selected arable crops production in Ondo Sate. A multistage sampling method was used and 112 arable crops farmers were systematically selected. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that majority of the sampled farmers were male (75.90%). About 75% were married with children. Large proportion of them (62.61%) were within the ages of 30-49 years. Most of them have spent about 10 years in farming (58.92%). The highest raw scores of use of indigenous knowledge were found in planting on mound in yam production, use of native medicine and scare crow method in controlling birds in rice production, timely planting of locally developed resistant varieties in cassava production and soaking of maize seeds in water to determine their viability with raw scores of 313, 310, 305, 303, and 300 respectively, while the lowest raw scores was obtained in use of bell method in controlling birds in rice production with raw scores of 210. The findings established that proverbs (59.8%) and taboos (55.36%) were the most commonly used media in transmitting indigenous knowledge by arable crop farmers. The multiple regression analysis result revealed that age of the farmers and farming experience had a significant relationship with the use of indigenous knowledge of the farmers which gave R2 = 0.83 for semi log function form of equation which is the land equation. The policy implication is that indigenous knowledge should provide basis for designing modern technologies to enhance sustainable agricultural development.

Keywords: crop production, extent of use, indigenous knowledge, arable crops

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7308 Farmers’ Use of Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) for Selected Arable Crops Production in Ondo State

Authors: A. M. Omoare, E. O. Fakoya

Abstract:

This study sought to determine the use of indigenous knowledge for selected arable crops production in Ondo Sate. A multistage sampling method was used and 112 arable crops farmers were systematically selected. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that majority of the sampled farmers were male (75.90%) About 75% were married with children. Large proportion of them (62.61%) were within the ages of 30-49 years. Most of them have spent about 10 years in farming (58.92%). The highest raw scores of use of indigenous knowledge were found in planting on mound in yam production, use of native medicine and scare-crow method in controlling birds in rice production, timely planting of locally developed resistant varieties in cassava production and soaking of maize seeds in water to determine their viability with raw scores of 313, 310, 305, 303, and 300 respectively, while the lowest raw scores was obtained in use of bell method in controlling birds in rice production with raw scores of 210. The findings established that proverbs (59.8%) and taboos (55.36%) were the most commonly used media in transmitting indigenous knowledge by arable crop farmers. The multiple regression analysis result revealed that age of the farmers and farming experience had a significant relationship with the use of indigenous knowledge of the farmers which gave R2=0.83 for semi-log function form of equation which is the land equation. The policy implication is that indigenous knowledge should provide a basis for designing modern technologies to enhance sustainable agricultural development.

Keywords: Arable Crop Production, extent of use, indigenous knowledge, farming experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
7307 A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Integration in Agricultural Knowledge Management System Development

Authors: Dejen Alemu, Murray E. Jennex, Temtim Assefa

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy; however, the sector is dominated by smallholder farmers resulting in land fragmentation and suffering from low productivity. Due to these issues, much effort has been put into the transformation of the sector to bring about more sustainable rural economic development. Technological advancements have been applied for the betterment of farmers resulting in the design of tools that are potentially capable of supporting the agricultural sector; however, their use and relevance are still alien to the local rural communities. The notion of the creating, capturing and sharing of knowledge has also been repetitively raised by many international donor agencies to transform the sector, yet the most current approaches to knowledge dissemination focus on knowledge that originates from the western view of scientific rationality while overlooking the role of indigenous knowledge (IK). Therefore, in agricultural knowledge management system (KMS) development, the integration of IKS with scientific knowledge is a critical success factor. The present study aims to contribute in the discourse on how to best integrate scientific and IK in agricultural KMS development. The conceptual framework of the research is anchored in concepts drawn from the theory of situated learning in communities of practice (CoPs): knowledge brokering. Using the KMS development practices of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case area, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary and secondary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. As a result, concepts are identified for understanding the integration of the two major knowledge systems (i.e., indigenous and scientific knowledge) and participation of relevant stakeholders in particular the local farmers in agricultural KMS development through the roles of extension agent as a knowledge broker including crossing boundaries, in-between position, translation and interpretation, negotiation, and networking. The research shall have a theoretical contribution in addressing the incorporation of a variety of knowledge systems in agriculture and practically to provide insight for policy makers in agriculture regarding the importance of IK integration in agricultural KMS development and support marginalized small-scale farmers.

Keywords: communities of practice, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management system development, knowledge brokering

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7306 A Hybrid Curriculum: Privileging Indigenous knowledges Over Western knowledges In The School Curriculum In Kenya

Authors: Rose Mutuota

Abstract:

Western knowledge have influenced the Kenyan education system through colonisation and policies borrowed from the global North. Researchers argue that studies of education and systems based on Northernframeworks ignore the lived experiences of the global South. The history of colonization is one such example. In light of this, there is a need for schools to consider the lived experience of the Kenyan child and integrate Indigenous knowledge in the education system. The study reported here explored the possibility of creating a blended/hybrid curriculum that values Indigenous knowledge and practices but also selectively use side as from the global North. Acasestudyformat was employed. Teachers and principals in four schools were interviewed. The findings indicated that teachers and students brought indigenous knowledge to the classroom but were limited in their use by existing educational policies.AnotherfindingwasthatpoliciesborrowedfromtheglobalNorthdid not suit the context in the Southincountries with a history of colonization. There was the need for policymakers to ensure the policies borrowed from the North suit the Kenyan context. The recommendations included the deliberate and mandated use of indigenous knowledge in classrooms including indigenous languages for instruction, the use of locally available assets to support students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms, and the use of a hybrid curriculum that privileges indigenous knowledge over Westernknowledgesintheschoolcurriculum.

Keywords: global North, global South, inclusive educate indigenous knowledges

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7305 Indigenous Understandings of Climate Vulnerability in Chile: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Rosario Carmona

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss the importance of indigenous people participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Specifically, it analyses different understandings of climate vulnerability among diverse actors involved in climate change policies in Chile: indigenous people, state officials, and academics. These data were collected through participant observation and interviews conducted during October 2017 and January 2019 in Chile. Following Karen O’Brien, there are two types of vulnerability, outcome vulnerability and contextual vulnerability. How vulnerability to climate change is understood determines the approach, which actors are involved and which knowledge is considered to address it. Because climate change is a very complex phenomenon, it is necessary to transform the institutions and their responses. To do so, it is fundamental to consider these two perspectives and different types of knowledge, particularly those of the most vulnerable, such as indigenous people. For centuries and thanks to a long coexistence with the environment, indigenous societies have elaborated coping strategies, and some of them are already adapting to climate change. Indigenous people from Chile are not an exception. But, indigenous people tend to be excluded from decision-making processes. And indigenous knowledge is frequently seen as subjective and arbitrary in relation to science. Nevertheless, last years indigenous knowledge has gained particular relevance in the academic world, and indigenous actors are getting prominence in international negotiations. There are some mechanisms that promote their participation (e.g., Cancun safeguards, World Bank operational policies, REDD+), which are not absent from difficulties. And since 2016 parties are working on a Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform. This paper also explores the incidence of this process in Chile. Although there is progress in the participation of indigenous people, this participation responds to the operational policies of the funding agencies and not to a real commitment of the state with this sector. The State of Chile omits a review of the structure that promotes inequality and the exclusion of indigenous people. In this way, climate change policies could be configured as a new mechanism of coloniality that validates a single type of knowledge and leads to new territorial control strategies, which increases vulnerability.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, climate change, vulnerability, Chile

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7304 Implication to Environmental Education of Indigenous Knowledge and the Ecosystem of Upland Farmers in Aklan, Philippines

Authors: Emily Arangote

Abstract:

This paper defined the association between the indigenous knowledge, cultural practices and the ecosystem its implication to the environmental education to the farmers. Farmers recognize the need for sustainability of the ecosystem they inhabit. The cultural practices of farmers on use of indigenous pest control, use of insect-repellant plants, soil management practices that suppress diseases and harmful pests and conserve soil moisture are deemed to be ecologically-friendly. Indigenous plant materials that were more drought- and pest-resistant were grown. Crop rotation was implemented with various crop seeds to increase their disease resistance. Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization of soil and planting of appropriate crops, planting of appropriate and leguminous crops, alloting land as watershed, and preserving traditional palay seed varieties were found to be beneficial in preserving the environment. The study also found that indigenous knowledge about crops are still relevant and useful to the current generation. This ensured the sustainability of our environment and incumbent on policy makers and educators to support and preserve for generations yet to come.

Keywords: cultural practices, ecosystem, environmental education, indigenous knowledge

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7303 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel

Abstract:

Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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7302 The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in a Globalised World: A Case Study from the Peruvian Amazon

Authors: Anna Juliet Stephens

Abstract:

This research emphasises the importance of incorporating traditional ecological knowledge into Peru’s development plans, as a way to manage some of the more adverse impacts of globalisation which continue to impinge on one of the world’s most biodiverse regions. In doing so, it argues for a development strategy to be implemented in the Peruvian Amazon which prioritises local and indigenous rights, needs and perspectives.

Keywords: traditional ecological knowledge, peruvian amazon, globalisation, indigenous, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
7301 Agricultural Knowledge Management System Design, Use, and Consequence for Knowledge Sharing and Integration

Authors: Dejen Alemu, Murray E. Jennex, Temtim Assefa

Abstract:

This paper is investigated to understand the design, the use, and the consequence of Knowledge Management System (KMS) for knowledge systems sharing and integration. A KMS for knowledge systems sharing and integration is designed to meet the challenges raised by knowledge management researchers and practitioners: the technical, the human, and social factors. Agricultural KMS involves various members coming from different Communities of Practice (CoPs) who possess their own knowledge of multiple practices which need to be combined in the system development. However, the current development of the technology ignored the indigenous knowledge of the local communities, which is the key success factor for agriculture. This research employed the multi-methodological approach to KMS research in action research perspective which consists of four strategies: theory building, experimentation, observation, and system development. Using the KMS development practice of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case study, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participant observations. The Orlikowski's structuration model of technology has been used to understand the design, the use, and the consequence of the KMS. As a result, the research identified three basic components for the architecture of the shared KMS, namely, the people, the resources, and the implementation subsystems. The KMS were developed using web 2.0 tools to promote knowledge sharing and integration among diverse groups of users in a distributed environment. The use of a shared KMS allows users to access diverse knowledge from a number of users in different groups of participants, enhances the exchange of different forms of knowledge and experience, and creates high interaction and collaboration among participants. The consequences of a shared KMS on the social system includes, the elimination of hierarchical structure, enhance participation, collaboration, and negotiation among users from different CoPs having common interest, knowledge and skill development, integration of diverse knowledge resources, and the requirement of policy and guideline. The research contributes methodologically for the application of system development action research for understanding a conceptual framework for KMS development and use. The research have also theoretical contribution in extending structuration model of technology for the incorporation of variety of knowledge and practical implications to provide management understanding in developing strategies for the potential of web 2.0 tools for sharing and integration of indigenous knowledge.

Keywords: communities of practice, indigenous knowledge, participation, structuration model of technology, Web 2.0 tools

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7300 Integrating Indigenous Students’ Funds of Knowledge to Introduce Multiplication with a Picture Storybook

Authors: Murni Sianturi, Andreas Au Hurit

Abstract:

The low level of Indigenous Papuan students’ literacy and numeracy in Merauke Regency-Indonesia needs to be considered. The development of a learnable storybook with pictures related to their lives might raise their curiosity to read. This study aimed to design a storybook as a complementary resource for the third graders using Indigenous Malind cultural approaches by employing research and development methods. The product developed was a thematic-integrative picture storybook using funds of knowledge from Indigenous students. All the book contents depicted Indigenous students’ lives and were in line with the national curriculum syllabus, specifically representing one sub-theme−multiplication topic. Multiplication material of grade 3 was modified in the form of a story, and at the end of the reading, students were given several multiplication exercises. Based on the results of the evaluation from the expert team, it was found that the average score was in the excellent category. The students’ and teacher’s responses to the storybook were very positive. Students were thrilled when reading this book and also effortlessly understood the concept of multiplication. Therefore, this book might be used as a companion book to the main book and serve as introductory reading material for students prior to discussing multiplication material.

Keywords: a picture storybook, funds of knowledge, Indigenous elementary students, literacy, numeracy

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7299 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma

Abstract:

A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Bharias, indigenous, Madhya Pradesh, sexual performance, traditional medicine

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7298 Efficacy of Acquiring and Transferring of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge among Its Owners/Practitioners in uMhlathuze in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Nokwanda Charity Khanyile, Petros Dlamini

Abstract:

Background: Most of the population in Africa is still dependent on indigenous medicinal knowledge for treating and managing ailments. It is still not yet understood how this valuable knowledge is acquired and transferred from one generation to the next. Indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners who own the knowledge are consulted, but their knowledge is not known how they got it. Objectives: This study aims to assess the process of acquiring and transferring indigenous medicinal knowledge by traditional medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners in uMhlathuze Municipality in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was guided by four research objectives which were to: identify the types of traditional medicinal knowledge owners who possess this knowledge; establish the approach used by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers for acquiring medicinal knowledge; identify the process of transmission of medicinal knowledge by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers; and determine the challenges encountered in transferring the knowledge. Method: The study adopted a qualitative research approach, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify the study population. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with indigenous medicinal knowledge owners. Results: The findings suggested that uMhlathuze municipality had different types of indigenous medicinal knowledge owners who possess valuable knowledge. These are diviners (Izangoma), faith healers (Abathandazi), and herbalists (Izinyanga). The study demonstrated that indigenous medicinal knowledge is acquired in many different ways, including visions, dreams, and vigorous training. The study also revealed the acquired knowledge is transferred or shared with specially chosen children and trainees. Conclusion: The study concluded that this knowledge is gained through vigorous training, which requires the learner to be attentive and eager to learn. It was recommended that a study of this nature be conducted but at a broader level to enhance an informed conclusion and recommendations. Objectives: This study aims to assess the process of acquiring and transferring indigenous medicinal knowledge by traditional medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners in uMhlathuze Municipality, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was guided by four research objectives which were to: identify the types of traditional medicinal knowledge owners who possess this knowledge; establish the approach used by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers for acquiring medicinal knowledge; identify the process of transmission of medicinal knowledge by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers; and determine the challenges encountered in transferring the knowledge. Method: The study adopted a qualitative research approach and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify the study population. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with indigenous medicinal knowledge owners. Results: The findings suggested that uMhlathuze municipality had different types of indigenous medicinal knowledge owners who possess valuable knowledge. These are diviners (Izangoma), faith healers (Abathandazi), and herbalists (Izinyanga). The study demonstrated that indigenous medicinal knowledge is acquired in many different ways including visions, dreams, and vigorous training. The study also revealed the acquired knowledge is transferred or shared with specially chosen children and trainees. Conclusion: The study concluded that this knowledge is gotten through vigorous training which requires the learner to be attentive and eager to learn. It was recommended that a study of this nature be conducted but at a broader level to enhance an informed conclusion and recommendations.

Keywords: indigenous medicinal knowledge, indigenous knowledge, indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners, acquiring

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7297 Characteristics of an Indigenous Entrepreneur, in the Post-Apartheid South Africa

Authors: Ndivhuho Tshikovhi

Abstract:

The debate about indigenous people throughout the world has been necessitated by different circumstances that indigenous communities continue to suffer. Indigenous people of the world suffer chronic diseases, poor education, high unemployment and slow economic developments. This paper contributes to the continuous debate by studying the common elements of indigenous entrepreneur of the world and that of the South African indigenous entrepreneur. The research objective of this paper is to understand what constitute an indigenous status in the South African context as opposed to the indigenous people of the world. Furthermore, the study will explore the indigenous status through their entrepreneurial engagements. The paper will adopt a secondary data research method, by utilising the literature on indigenous entrepreneurship practice and theory of indigenous entrepreneurship. The implications of this paper is to bring about an African indigenous entrepreneurship debate rooted from the correct circumstances rather than generalised definitions. Recommendations for future research will be outlined, together with further readings on circumstantial evidence that necessitate indigenous entrepreneurs status in South Africa.

Keywords: indigenous entrepreneur, indigenous, entrepreneurship, indigenous people, entrepreneurship development

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7296 Indigenizing the Curriculum: Teaching at the Ifugao State University, Philippines

Authors: Nancy Ann P. Gonzales, Serafin L. Ngohayon

Abstract:

The Nurturing Indigenous Knowledge Experts (NIKE) among the young generation in Ifugao was a project in Ifugao, Philippines spearheaded by the Ifugao State University (IFSU) and was sponsored by the UNESCO Association in Japan. Through the project, he Ifugao Indigenous Knowledge Workbook was developed. It contains nine chapters. The workbook was pilot-tested to students who had IK classes. The descriptive survey method of research was used. A questionnaire was used to gather data from first year Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Political Science students. Frequency count, percentage and mean were computed. T-test was used to determine if there exists significant difference on knowledge gained before and after IK was taught to the students. Results revealed that the respondents have an increased level of IK in all the areas covered in the NIKE workbook after they enrolled in their classes. It is alarming to note that the students are knowledgeable about IK but they are not practicing it. However, according to the respondents, they will apply their IK through teaching after graduation.

Keywords: curriculum, elders, Indigenous knowledge, and students

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7295 Developing an Indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Program: A Three Universities Collaboration

Authors: Mishack Thiza Gumbo

Abstract:

The participatory action research study reported in this paper aims to explore indigenous mathematics, science, and technology to develop an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme ultimately. The study is based on an ongoing collaborative project between the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Departments of the University of South Africa, University of Botswana and Chinhoyi University of Technology. The study targets the Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s students and indigenous knowledge holders in these three contexts as research participants. They will be interviewed; documents of existing Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programmes will be analysed; mathematics, science and technology-related artefacts will also be collected and analysed. Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education are traditionally referred to as gateway subjects because the world economy revolves around them. Scores of scholars call for the indigenisation of research and methodologies so that research can suit and advance indigenous knowledge and sustainable development. There are ethnomathematics, ethnoscience and ethnotechnology which exist in indigenous contexts such as blacksmithing, woodcarving, textile-weaving and dyeing, but the current curricula and research in institutions of learning reflect the Western notions of these subjects. Indigenisation of the academic programmecontributes toward the decolonisation of education. Hence, the development of an indigenous Mathematics, Science and Technology Education Master’s Programme, which will be jointly offered by the three universities mentioned above, will contribute to the transformation of higher education in this sense.

Keywords: indigenous, mathematics, science, technology, master's program, universities, collaboration

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7294 Analyzing the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Indigenous Tourism on the Indigenous Communities: Case Study of the Nubian Community in Egypt

Authors: M. Makary

Abstract:

Indigenous tourism is nowadays one of the fastest growing sections of the tourism industry. Nevertheless, it does not yet receive attention on the agenda of public tourism policies in Egypt; however, there are various tourism initiatives in indigenous areas throughout the country mainly in the Nubia region, which located in Upper Egypt, where most of Egypt's indigenous Nubians are concentrated. Considering indigenous tourism can lead to both positive and negative impacts on the indigenous communities the main aim of this study is to analyze the socio-cultural and economic impacts of the indigenous tourism on the indigenous communities in Egypt: the case study of Nubians. Qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection were designed and applied in conducting this study. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and the observations are the main preliminary data collection techniques used in this study while, the secondary data were sourced from articles, statistics, dissertations, and websites. The research concludes that indigenous tourism offers a strong motivation to save the identity of the indigenous communities and to foster their economic development. However, it also has negative impacts on their society.

Keywords: indigenous tourism, sustainable tourism, Indigenous communities, Nubians

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7293 Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science Interface: Content Considerations for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

Authors: Mpofu Vongai, Vhurumuku Elaosi

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Many African countries, such as Zimbabwe and South Africa, have curricula reform agendas that include incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge and Nature of Science (NOS) into school Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. It is argued that at high school level, STEM learning, which incorporates understandings of indigenization science and NOS, has the potential to provide a strong foundation for a culturally embedded scientific knowledge essential for their advancement in Science and Technology. Globally, investment in STEM education is recognized as essential for economic development. For this reason, developing countries such as Zimbabwe and South Africa have been investing into training specialized teachers in natural sciences and technology. However, in many cases this training has been detached from the cultural realities and contexts of indigenous learners. For this reason, the STEM curricula reform has provided implementation challenges to teachers. An issue of major concern is the teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), which is essential for effective implementation of these STEM curricula. Well-developed Teacher PCK include an understanding of both the nature of indigenous knowledge (NOIK) and of NOS. This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the development of 3 South African and 3 Zimbabwean in-service teachers’ abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK as part of their PCK. A participatory action research design was utilized. The main focus was on capturing, determining and developing teachers STEM knowledge for integrating NOIK and NOS in science classrooms. Their use of indigenous games was used to determine how their subject knowledge for STEM and pedagogical abilities could be developed. Qualitative data were gathered through the use dialogues between the researchers and the in-service teachers, as well as interviewing the participating teachers. Analysis of the data provides a methodological window through which in-service teachers’ PCK can be STEMITIZED and their abilities to integrate NOS and NOIK developed. Implications are raised for developing teachers’ STEM education in universities and teacher training colleges.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, nature of science, pedagogical content knowledge, STEM education

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7292 The Influence of Knowledge Spillovers on High-Impact Firm Growth: A Comparison of Indigenous and Foreign Firms

Authors: Yazid Abdullahi Abubakar, Jay Mitra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with entrepreneurial high-impact firms, which are firms that generate ‘both’ disproportionate levels of employment and sales growth, and have high levels of innovative activity. It investigates differences in factors influencing high-impact growth between indigenous and foreign firms. The study is based on an analysis of data from United Kingdom (UK) Innovation Scoreboard on 865 firms, which were divided into high-impact firms (those achieving positive growth in both sales and employment) and low-impact firms (negative or no growth in sales or employment); in order to identifying the critical differences in regional, sectorial and size related factors that facilitate knowledge spillovers and high-impact growth between indigenous and foreign firms. The findings suggest that: 1) Firms’ access to regional knowledge spillovers (from businesses and higher education institutions) is more significantly associated with high-impact growth of UK firms in comparison to foreign firms, 2) Because high-tech sectors have greater use of knowledge spillovers (compared to low-tech sectors), high-tech sectors are more associated with high-impact growth, but the relationship is stronger for UK firms compared to foreign firms, 3) Because small firms have greater need for knowledge spillovers (relative to large firms), there is a negative relationship between firm size and high-impact growth, but the negative relationship is greater for UK firms in comparison to foreign firms.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, high-growth, indigenous firms, foreign firms, small firms, large firms

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7291 The Importance of Conserving Pre-Historical, Historical and Cultural Heritage and Its Tourist Exploitation

Authors: Diego Renan G. Tudela, Veruska C. Dutra, Mary Lucia Gomes Silveira de Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

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Tourism in the present is the largest industry in the world, being an important global activity that has grown a lot in recent times. In this context, the activity of cultural tourism is growing, being seen as an important source of knowledge and information enjoyed by visitors. This article aims to discuss the cultural tourism, archaeological records and indigenous communities and the importance of preserving these invaluable sources of information, focusing on the records of the first peoples inhabiting the South American and North American lands. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research. Archaeological records are an important source of knowledge and information. Indigenous ethnic tourism represents a rescue of the authenticity of indigenous traditional cultures and their relation to the natural habitat. Cultural and indigenous tourism activity requires long-term planning to make it a sustainable activity.

Keywords: tourism, culture, preservation, discussions

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7290 Understanding Indigenous Perspectives and Critical Knowledge in International Law

Authors: Radhika Jagtap

Abstract:

Contemporary scholarship in international legal theory is investigating new avenues of providing alternatives to dominant concepts. Indigenous peoples’ philosophies and perspectives developed through them provide a fertile ground to explore similar alternative ideas. This review paper evaluates the theorized accounts of indigenous scholarships which have contributed towards a rich body of knowledge generating alternative visions on dominant notions of ‘post coloniality’, ‘resistance’ and ‘globalization’. Further, it shall assess the relevance of such a project in shaping contemporary international legal thought. Traditional or classical international law has been opined to be highly influenced by the colonial and imperialist history which also left a mark on the way dominant discourses of resistance and globalization are read in mainstream international law. The paper shall first define what do we mean by indigenous philosophy and what kind of indigeneity is that inclusive of. Second, the paper defines the dominant discourse and then counters the same with the alternative indigenous perspective in the case of each concept that is in question. Finally, the paper shall conclude with certain theoretical findings – that the post coloniality, from indigenous perspective, lead to the further marginalization of indigeneity, especially in the third world; that human rights as the sole means of representing resistance in international law ends up making it a very state-centric discipline and last, that globalization from an indigenous, marginalised perspective is not as celebrated as it is in mainstream international law. Major scholarly works that shall be central to the discussion are those of Linda Tuiwahi Smith, Ella Shohat and David Harvey. The nature of the research shall be inductive and involve mostly theoretical review of scholarly works.

Keywords: indigenous, post colonial, globalization, perspectives

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7289 Teaching Vietnamese as the Official Language for Indigenous Preschool Children in Lai Chau, Vietnam: Exploring Teachers' Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Thao Thi Vu, Libby Lee-Hammond, Andrew McConney

Abstract:

In Vietnam, the Vietnamese language is normally used as the language of instruction. The dominance of this language places children who have a different first language such as Indigenous children at a disadvantage when commencing school. This study explores preschool teachers’ beliefs about second language acquisition in Lai Chau provinces where is typical of highland provinces of Vietnam and the proportion of Indigenous minority groups in high. Data were collected from surveys with both closed-end questions and opened-end questions. The participants in this study were more than 200 public preschool teachers who come from eight different districts in Lai Chau. An analysis of quantitative data survey is presented to indicate several practical implications, such as the connection between teachers’ knowledge background that gained from their pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding second language teaching for Indigenous children and their practice. It also explains some factors that influence teachers’ beliefs and perspective about Indigenous children and pedagogies in their classes.

Keywords: indigenous children, learning Vietnamese, preschool, teachers’ beliefs

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7288 (Re)connecting to the Spirit of the Language: Decolonizing from Eurocentric Indigenous Language Revitalization Methodologies

Authors: Lana Whiskeyjack, Kyle Napier

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The Spirit of the language embodies the motivation for indigenous people to connect with the indigenous language of their lineage. While the concept of the spirit of the language is often woven into the discussion by indigenous language revitalizationists, particularly those who are indigenous, there are few tangible terms in academic research conceptually actualizing the term. Through collaborative work with indigenous language speakers, elders, and learners, this research sets out to identify the spirit of the language, the catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language, and the sources of reconnection to the spirit of the language. This work fundamentally addresses the terms of engagement around collaboration with indigenous communities, itself inviting a decolonial approach to community outreach and individual relationships. As indigenous researchers, this means beginning, maintain, and closing this work in the ceremony while being transparent with community members in this work and related publishing throughout the project’s duration. Decolonizing this approach also requires maintaining explicit ongoing consent by the elders, knowledge keepers, and community members when handling their ancestral and indigenous knowledge. The handling of this knowledge is regarded in this work as stewardship, both in the handling of digital materials and the handling of ancestral Indigenous knowledge. This work observes recorded conversations in both nêhiyawêwin and English, resulting from 10 semi-structured interviews with fluent nêhiyawêwin speakers as well as three structured dialogue circles with fluent and emerging speakers. The words were transcribed by a speaker fluent in both nêhiyawêwin and English. The results of those interviews were categorized thematically to conceptually actualize the spirit of the language, catalysts of disconnection to thespirit of the language, and community voices methods of reconnection to the spirit of the language. Results of these interviews vastly determine that the spirit of the language is drawn from the land. Although nêhiyawêwin is the focus of this work, Indigenous languages are by nature inherently related to the land. This is further reaffirmed by the Indigenous language learners and speakers who expressed having ancestries and lineages from multiple Indigenous communities. Several other key differences embody this spirit of the language, which include ceremony and spirituality, as well as the semantic worldviews tied to polysynthetic verb-oriented morphophonemics most often found in indigenous languages — and of focus, nêhiyawêwin. The catalysts of disconnection to the spirit of the language are those whose histories have severed connections between Indigenous Peoples and the spirit of their languages or those that have affected relationships with the land, ceremony, and ways of thinking. Results of this research and its literature review have determined the three most ubiquitously damaging interdependent factors, which are catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language as colonization, capitalism, and Christianity. As voiced by the Indigenous language learners, this work necessitates addressing means to reconnect to the spirit of the language. Interviewees mentioned that the process of reconnection involves a whole relationship with the land, the practice of reciprocal-relational methodologies for language learning, and indigenous-protected and -governed learning. This work concludes in support of those reconnection methodologies.

Keywords: indigenous language acquisition, indigenous language reclamation, indigenous language revitalization, nêhiyawêwin, spirit of the language

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7287 Designing Disaster Resilience Research in Partnership with an Indigenous Community

Authors: Suzanne Phibbs, Christine Kenney, Robyn Richardson

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The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction called for the inclusion of indigenous people in the design and implementation of all hazard policies, plans, and standards. Ensuring that indigenous knowledge practices were included alongside scientific knowledge about disaster risk was also a key priority. Indigenous communities have specific knowledge about climate and natural hazard risk that has been developed over an extended period of time. However, research within indigenous communities can be fraught with issues such as power imbalances between the researcher and researched, the privileging of researcher agendas over community aspirations, as well as appropriation and/or inappropriate use of indigenous knowledge. This paper documents the process of working alongside a Māori community to develop a successful community-led research project. Research Design: This case study documents the development of a qualitative community-led participatory project. The community research project utilizes a kaupapa Māori research methodology which draws upon Māori research principles and concepts in order to generate knowledge about Māori resilience. The research addresses a significant gap in the disaster research literature relating to indigenous knowledge about collective hazard mitigation practices as well as resilience in rurally isolated indigenous communities. The research was designed in partnership with the Ngāti Raukawa Northern Marae Collective as well as Ngā Wairiki Ngāti Apa (a group of Māori sub-tribes who are located in the same region) and will be conducted by Māori researchers utilizing Māori values and cultural practices. The research project aims and objectives, for example, are based on themes that were identified as important to the Māori community research partners. The research methodology and methods were also negotiated with and approved by the community. Kaumātua (Māori elders) provided cultural and ethical guidance over the proposed research process and will continue to provide oversight over the conduct of the research. Purposive participant recruitment will be facilitated with support from local Māori community research partners, utilizing collective marae networks and snowballing methods. It is envisaged that Māori participants’ knowledge, experiences and views will be explored using face-to-face communication research methods such as workshops, focus groups and/or semi-structured interviews. Interviews or focus groups may be held in English and/or Te Reo (Māori language) to enhance knowledge capture. Analysis, knowledge dissemination, and co-authorship of publications will be negotiated with the Māori community research partners. Māori knowledge shared during the research will constitute participants’ intellectual property. New knowledge, theory, frameworks, and practices developed by the research will be co-owned by Māori, the researchers, and the host academic institution. Conclusion: An emphasis on indigenous knowledge systems within the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction risks the appropriation and misuse of indigenous experiences of disaster risk identification, mitigation, and response. The research protocol underpinning this project provides an exemplar of collaborative partnership in the development and implementation of an indigenous project that has relevance to policymakers, academic researchers, other regions with indigenous communities and/or local disaster risk reduction knowledge practices.

Keywords: community resilience, indigenous disaster risk reduction, Maori, research methods

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7286 Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices of Indigenous Adolescents on Dog Associated Zoonotic Infections

Authors: Fairuz Fadzilah Rahim

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Introduction: Indigenous adolescents are at higher risk of dog associated zoonotic infections (DAZI) as they live closely with free-roaming dogs and have limited access to veterinary care. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of health education interventions towards knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices (KAP) of adolescents on DAZI. Methods: This one-group pre-and post-intervention study in 5 months period was conducted among Jahai adolescents aged 12 years and above. Jahai is one of the three major tribes of indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia. Health education intervention programs using posters, slide presentations, comics, video clips, and discussion on DAZI were employed. Repeated measures of within-subjects analysis were used to identify the pre- and post- KAP of the adolescents. Results: There were 54 adolescents participated in this study with a mean age of 15.72 (SD: 2.49) and equal proportions of males (50%) and females (50%). Among the adolescents, 22.2% were married, 5.6% were illiterate, and 44.4% not continuing education at the time of data collection. The majority of them keep dogs as pets (64.8%), and few used dogs for hunting (11.1%). There was significant increase in mean scores of knowledge (F = 40.92, p < 0.001) and attitudes (F = 6.43, p = 0.014) of the adolescents. However, the preventive practices towards DAZI showed non-significant improvement on the intervention. Conclusions: The health education intervention programs showed to be effective in improving the attitudes and practices related to dog associated zoonotic infections. Emphasis on sustained health education programs is important to foster good health and wellbeing of the indigenous community.

Keywords: adolescent health, dog associated infection, zoonotic, KAP, indigenous

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7285 Role of Indigenous Peoples in Climate Change

Authors: Neelam Kadyan, Pratima Ranga, Yogender

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Indigenous people are the One who are affected by the climate change the most, although there have contributed little to its causes. This is largely a result of their historic dependence on local biological diversity, ecosystem services and cultural landscapes as a source of their sustenance and well-being. Comprising only four percent of the world’s population they utilize 22 percent of the world’s land surface. Despite their high exposure-sensitivity indigenous peoples and local communities are actively responding to changing climatic conditions and have demonstrated their resourcefulness and resilience in the face of climate change. Traditional Indigenous territories encompass up to 22 percent of the world’s land surface and they coincide with areas that hold 80 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Also, the greatest diversity of indigenous groups coincides with the world’s largest tropical forest wilderness areas in the Americas (including Amazon), Africa, and Asia, and 11 percent of world forest lands are legally owned by Indigenous Peoples and communities. This convergence of biodiversity-significant areas and indigenous territories presents an enormous opportunity to expand efforts to conserve biodiversity beyond parks, which tend to benefit from most of the funding for biodiversity conservation. Tapping on Ancestral Knowledge Indigenous Peoples are carriers of ancestral knowledge and wisdom about this biodiversity. Their effective participation in biodiversity conservation programs as experts in protecting and managing biodiversity and natural resources would result in more comprehensive and cost effective conservation and management of biodiversity worldwide. Addressing the Climate Change Agenda Indigenous Peoples has played a key role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The territories of indigenous groups who have been given the rights to their lands have been better conserved than the adjacent lands (i.e., Brazil, Colombia, Nicaragua, etc.). Preserving large extensions of forests would not only support the climate change objectives, but it would respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples and conserve biodiversity as well. A climate change agenda fully involving Indigenous Peoples has many more benefits than if only government and/or the private sector are involved. Indigenous peoples are some of the most vulnerable groups to the negative effects of climate change. Also, they are a source of knowledge to the many solutions that will be needed to avoid or ameliorate those effects. For example, ancestral territories often provide excellent examples of a landscape design that can resist the negatives effects of climate change. Over the millennia, Indigenous Peoples have developed adaptation models to climate change. They have also developed genetic varieties of medicinal and useful plants and animal breeds with a wider natural range of resistance to climatic and ecological variability.

Keywords: ancestral knowledge, cost effective conservation, management, indigenous peoples, climate change

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7284 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto

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Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law

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