Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Chin-Heng Tien

36 Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Additional Loci for Myopia

Authors: Qiao Fan, Xiaobo Guo, Junxian Zhu, Xiaohu Ding, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Mingguang He, Heping Zhang, Xueqin Wang


A systematic, simultaneous analysis of multiple phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) draws a great attention to integrate the signals from single phenotypes with increased power. However, lacking an interpretable and efficient multivariate GWAS analysis impede the application of such approach. In this study, we propose to decompose the multivariate model into a series of simple univariate models. This transformation illuminates what exactly the individual trait contributes to the significant signals from the multivariate analyses. By employing our approach in the analysis of three myopia-related endophenotypes from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SIMES), we identify novel candidate loci which were successfully validated in an independent Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES).

Keywords: GWAS multivariate, multiple traits, myopia, association

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35 A Study on Marble Based Geopolymer Mortar / Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Tai-Tien Wang


The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes as the raw material to fabricate geopolymer green mortar / concrete. Experiment results show that using marble to make geopolymer mortar and concrete, the compressive strength after 28 days curing can reach 35 MPa and 25 MPa, respectively. The characteristics of marble-based geopolymer green mortar and concrete will keep testing for a long term in order to understand the effect parameters. The study is based on resource recovery and recycling. Its basic characteristics are low consumption, low carbon dioxide emission and high efficiency that meet the international tendency 'Circular Economy.' By comparing with Portland cement mortar and concrete, production 1 ton of marble-based geopolymer mortar and concrete, they can be saved around 50.3% and 49.6% carbon dioxide emission, respectively. Production 1 m3 of marble-based geopolymer concrete costs about 62 USD that cheaper than that of traditional Portland concrete. It is proved that the marble-based geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development.

Keywords: marble, geopolymer, geopolymer concrete, CO₂ emission

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34 The Role of Metallic Mordant in Natural Dyeing Process: Experimental and Quantum Study on Color Fastness

Authors: Bo-Gaun Chen, Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ching Chiang, Kuo-Hsing Lee, Chia-Chen Ho, Chin-Ping Huang, Chin-Heng Tien


It is known that the natural dyeing of cloth results moderate color, but with poor color fastness. This study points out the correlation between the macroscopic color fastness of natural dye to the cotton fiber and the microscopic binding energy of dye molecule to the cellulose. With the additive metallic mordant, the new-formed coordination bond bridges the dye to the fiber surface and thus affects the color fastness as well as the color appearance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation is therefore used to explore the most possible mechanism during the dyeing process. Finally, the experimental results reflect the strong effect of three different metal ions on the natural dyeing clothes.

Keywords: binding energy, color fastness, density functional theory (DFT), natural dyeing, metallic mordant

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33 Mentees’ Agency in Practicum: A Qualitative Study of Two Teacher Education Programs in Vietnam

Authors: Tien Nguyen


The relationship between mentors and mentees in teaching practicum has received the attention of researchers and been widely investigated. Mentors’ authority and power have captured a large and growing body of the literature in the field of teaching practicum. This article revisits mentor-mentee relationship and shifts the focus to mentees’ agency in planning and delivering lessons, an area which has been under-researched. Drawing on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and Harré’s Positioning Theory, this qualitative study examines how mentees responded to mentors’ instructions in practicum. Interviews and classroom observations were conducted with 20 participants including both mentors and mentees across two English language teacher education programs in two different geographical locations in Vietnam. The result indicates that regardless of the similarities and/or differences of the programs, mentees’ agency varied in accordance with their identities in specific contexts. Specifically, mentees follow or resist to mentors’ feedback and instruction in revising their lesson plans and delivery these lessons, depending on their professional identities and institutional conditions. This study contributes to the importance of supporting the agency of mentees in teacher education.

Keywords: mentors, mentees, relationship, agency, professional identity, teacher education

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32 Rice Blessing Ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam: The Relation of Southeast Asia

Authors: Patthida Bunchavalit, Saharot Kittimahacharoen


The objective of this article is to compare rice blessing ceremony between Thailand and Vietnam. Both countries are located in Southeast Asia where agriculture is the main occupation. As a result of the study, it is found that the rice blessing ceremony of Thai and Vietnamese societies have differences and similarities. A person leading the ceremony is a person who has the highest position in the country. For Thailand, it is the king or royal family member while for Vietnam, it is the president. In Thailand, the ceremony began in Ayutthaya period which derived from Buddhism and Brahmanism ideology. It is annually organized in the beginning of raining season. In Vietnam, it is annually organized in the beginning of spring. The first time it occurred was in Tien Le Monarchy period of Thien Phuc era deriving from Chinese ideology. The differences are ideas, believes, objectives and details of the ceremony. It is, in Thailand, to boost farmer’s morale and to predict the fertility of crops in each year. Additionally, there is a prediction using royal cows. Meanwhile, in Vietnam the purpose is to worship god of weather for seasonal rain and productive harvesting. Therefore, it is presumed that the rice blessing ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam somewhat have similarities in spite of having different origin but are on the same basis of belief.

Keywords: agriculture, ceremony, culture, Thailand, Vietnam

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31 A Theoretical Analysis on the Controversial Issue of Teaching Professional in the Institutionalized Perspective

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang, Q. Zhou


For structural-functionalism, one set of the common traits of traditional professionals, such as medical practitioners and engineers, can be viewed as the criteria for evaluating whether a given occupation has the right of claiming its professional status or not. Under the influence of this professionalism, teaching practitioners have devoted themselves to acquiring this right as evidenced by the fact that initial training has been extended to even the level of postgraduate. However, for interactionalists, professionalism adopts a predetermined assumption so that it ignores the dynamic nature of social development, which is able to regulate the professional status of a given occupation. Such an interactive approach highlights the concept of professionalization. Furthermore, Marxists argue that structural-functionalists have ignored the impact of proletarianization on the white collar. While professionals gradually lose their control over their practices, the title of profession functions as a self-regulated icon that prevents them from collaborating with the working class and, in turn, creates the ideology of de-politicization sustaining the interests of the ruling class. This article adopts a theoretical analysis on these contradictory arguments. It argues that these criticisms neglect the influence of the institutionalized value system on social operation, which is the core element in sustaining the notion of the profession.

Keywords: teaching profession, professionalism, professionalization, proletarianialization, institutionalized value system

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30 Lycopene and β-Carotene Variation among Genetically Diverse Momordica cochinchinensis

Authors: Dilani Wimalasiri, Robert Brkljaca, Sylvia Urban, Terrence Piva, Tien Huynh


Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) is used as food and traditional medicine in South East Asia and is commonly known as Red Gac. The fruit aril consists 70 times higher lycopene and 10 times higher β-carotene than all known fruits and vegetables. Despite its nutritional value there is little information available on its genetic variation and its influence on nutritional value. In this study; genetic and nutritional variation (lycopene and β-carotene) was investigated among 47 M. cochinchinensis samples collected from Australia, Thailand and Vietnam using molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR) and HPLC, respectively. UPGMA based cluster analysis of genetic data grouped Northern and Central Vietnam samples together but were separated from Australia, Thailand and Southern Vietnam samples. The concentration of lycopene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Central Vietnam (p<0.05) and the concentration of β-carotene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Northern Vietnam (p<0.05) indicating the existence of best varieties. This study provides vital information in genetic diversity and facilitates the selection and breeding for nutritious M. cochinchinensis varieties.

Keywords: momordica cochinchinensis, lycopene, beta carotene, genetic diversity

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29 Change of Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiency on Non-Diabetes Patients after Distal Pancreatectomy: A Nationwide Database Study

Authors: Jin-Ming Wu, Te-Wei Ho, Yu-Wen Tien


Background: The aim of this population-based study was to determine the occurrence of diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiencies (EPI) on non-diabetes subjects receiving distal pancreatectomy (DP). Method: A nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2010 was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Among 3264 DP patients, we identified 1410 non-diabetes and 966 non-diabetes non-EPI. Results. Of 1410 non-diabetes DP subjects, 312 patients (22.1%) developed newly-diagnosed diabetes after PD. On a multiple logistic regression model, co-morbid hyperlipidemia (odds ratio, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.362–2.763; P < 0.001) and pancreatitis (odds ratio, 2.428; 95% CI, 1.889–3.121; P < 0.001) significantly contributed to higher incidences of diabetes after DP. Moreover, 380 subjects (39.3%) developed EPI, and pancreatic cancer is the statistically significant risk factor (odds ratio, 4.663; 95% CI, 2.108–6.085; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The patients with co-morbid hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis had higher rates of newly-diagnosed diabetes after DP, moreover, pancreatic cancer subjects had higher rates of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after DP. The clinicians should be alert to follow up glucose metabolism and clinical symptoms of fat intolerance for DP patients.

Keywords: distal pancreatectomy, National database, diabetes, exocrine insufficiency

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28 Methods of Interpolating Temperature and Rainfall Distribution in Northern Vietnam

Authors: Thanh Van Hoang, Tien Yin Chou, Yao Min Fang, Yi Min Huang, Xuan Linh Nguyen


Reliable information on the spatial distribution of annual rainfall and temperature is essential in research projects relating to urban and regional planning. This research presents results of a classification of temperature and rainfall in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam based on measurements from seven meteorological stations (Ha Nam, Hung Yen, Lang, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Phu Lien, Thai Binh) in the river basin over a thirty-years period from 1982-2011. The average accumulated rainfall trends in the delta are analysed and form the basis of research essential to weather and climate forecasting. This study employs interpolation based on the Kriging Method for daily rainfall (min and max) and daily temperature (min and max) in order to improve the understanding of sources of variation and uncertainly in these important meteorological parameters. To the Kriging method, the results will show the different models and the different parameters based on the various precipitation series. The results provide a useful reference to assist decision makers in developing smart agriculture strategies for the Red River Delta in Vietnam.

Keywords: spatial interpolation method, ArcGIS, temperature variability, rainfall variability, Red River Delta, Vietnam

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27 A Comparative Study on Software Patent: The Meaning of 'Use' in Direct Infringement

Authors: Tien Wei Daniel Hwang


The computer program inventors, particularly in Fintech, are unwilling to apply for patents in Taiwan after 2014. Passing the ‘statutory subject matter eligibility’ test and becoming the system patent are not the only cause to the reduction in the number of application. Taiwanese court needs to resolve whether the defendants had ‘used’ that software patent in patent direct infringement suit. Both 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) and article 58 paragraph 2 of Taiwan Patent Law don’t define the meaning of ‘use’ in the statutes. Centillion Data Sys., LLC v. Qwest Commc’ns Int’l, Inc. reconsidered the meaning of ‘use’ in system patent infringement, and held that ‘a party must put the invention into service, i.e., control the system as a whole and obtain benefit from it.’ In Taiwan, Intellectual Property Office, Ministry of Economic Affairs, has explained that ‘using’ the patent is ‘achieving the technical effect of the patent.’ Nonetheless, this definition is too broad to apply to not only the software patent but also the traditional patent. To supply the friendly environment for Fintech corporations, this article aims to let Taiwanese court realize why and how United States District Court, S.D. Indiana, Indianapolis Division and United States Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit defined the meaning of ‘use’ in 35 U.S.C. § 271(a). However, this definition is so lax and confuses many defendants in United States. Accordingly, this article indicates the elements in Taiwan Patent Law are different with 35 U.S.C. § 271(a), so Taiwanese court can follow the interpretation of ‘use’ in Centillion Data case without the same obstacle.

Keywords: direct infringement, FinTech, software patent, use

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26 Magnetocaloric Effect in Ho₂O₃ Nanopowder at Cryogenic Temperature

Authors: K. P. Shinde, M. V. Tien, H. Lin, H.-R. Park, S.-C.Yu, K. C. Chung, D.-H. Kim


Magnetic refrigeration provides an attractive alternative cooling technology due to its potential advantages such as high cooling efficiency, environmental friendliness, low noise, and compactness over the conventional cooling techniques based on gas compression. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) occurs by changes in entropy (ΔS) and temperature (ΔT) under external magnetic fields. We have been focused on identifying materials with large MCE in two temperature regimes, not only room temperature but also at cryogenic temperature for specific technological applications, such as space science and liquefaction of hydrogen in fuel industry. To date, the commonly used materials for cryogenic refrigeration are based on hydrated salts. In the present work, we report giant MCE in rare earth Ho2O3 nanopowder at cryogenic temperature. HoN nanoparticles with average size of 30 nm were prepared by using plasma arc discharge method with gas composition of N2/H2 (80%/20%). The prepared HoN was sintered in air atmosphere at 1200 oC for 24 hrs to convert it into oxide. Structural and morphological properties were studied by XRD and SEM. XRD confirms the pure phase and cubic crystal structure of Ho2O3 without any impurity within error range. It has been discovered that Holmium oxide exhibits giant MCE at low temperature without magnetic hysteresis loss with the second-order antiferromagnetic phase transition with Néels temperature around 2 K. The maximum entropy change was found to be 25.2 J/kgK at an applied field of 6 T.

Keywords: magnetocaloric effect, Ho₂O₃, magnetic entropy change, nanopowder

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25 Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Single Medical Center Experience in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chih Wang, Chia-Yu Lai, Hsiao-Tien Liu, Yi-Ju Chen, Shao-Bin Cheng


Liver transplant has been one of the curative treatment options for hepatocellular carcinomaunder certain oncological conditions. Two of the most validated criteria are from Milan in1996 and USCF in 2001, suggesting number and size limits of tumor without vascularinvasion or distant metastasis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing livertransplant between August 2003 and December 2020 in our institute. Clinical andpathological characteristic, survival outcome, and recurrent pattern were analysed.UCSF criteria was applied for living donor transplantation, and Milan criteria was applied for deceased donor transplantation. Of 180 total patients, 52 cases(28.8%) with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, including26 living donor(LD) and 26 deceased donor(DD) liver transplant. Complete pathologicalremission was significantly more in the DD group(p=0.009). Pathological reports showed that30.8% of DD group exceeded Milan criteria, and 19.2% of LD group exceeded UCSFcriteria.After a median follow-up of 52.2 months, the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year overall survival was 87.6%, 74.1%, and 71.8%, respectively.Meanwhile, progression-free survival was 93.1%, 85.7%, and 81.6% for 1, 3, and 5-year, respectively, similar to that in Mazzaferro et al, 1996. We concluded that Liver transplant could be applied cautiously in expanded criteria for patent withhepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: liver transplant, milan criteria, UCSF criteria, living donor transplantation, deceased donor transplantation

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24 Modeling and Benchmarking the Thermal Energy Performance of Palm Oil Production Plant

Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen


Thermal energy consumption in palm oil production plant comprises mainly of steam, hot water and hot air. In most efficient plants, hot water and air are generated from the steam supply system. Research has shown that thermal energy utilize in palm oil production plants is about 70 percent of the total energy consumption of the plant. In order to manage the plants’ energy efficiently, the energy systems are modelled and optimized. This paper aimed to present the model of steam supply systems of a typical palm oil production plant in Ghana. The models include exergy and energy models of steam boiler, steam turbine and the palm oil mill. The paper further simulates the virtual plant model to obtain the thermal energy performance of the plant under study. The simulation results show that, under normal operating condition, the boiler energy performance is considerably below the expected level as a result of several factors including intermittent biomass fuel supply, significant moisture content of the biomass fuel and significant heat losses. The total thermal energy performance of the virtual plant is set as a baseline. The study finally recommends number of energy efficiency measures to improve the plant’s energy performance.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, exergy and energy models, energy performance benchmark

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23 Study on an Integrated Real-Time Sensor in Droplet-Based Microfluidics

Authors: Tien-Li Chang, Huang-Chi Huang, Zhao-Chi Chen, Wun-Yi Chen


The droplet-based microfluidic are used as micro-reactors for chemical and biological assays. Hence, the precise addition of reagents into the droplets is essential for this function in the scope of lab-on-a-chip applications. To obtain the characteristics (size, velocity, pressure, and frequency of production) of droplets, this study describes an integrated on-chip method of real-time signal detection. By controlling and manipulating the fluids, the flow behavior can be obtained in the droplet-based microfluidics. The detection method is used a type of infrared sensor. Through the varieties of droplets in the microfluidic devices, the real-time conditions of velocity and pressure are gained from the sensors. Here the microfluidic devices are fabricated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To measure the droplets, the signal acquisition of sensor and LabVIEW program control must be established in the microchannel devices. The devices can generate the different size droplets where the flow rate of oil phase is fixed 30 μl/hr and the flow rates of water phase range are from 20 μl/hr to 80 μl/hr. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensors are able to measure the time difference of droplets under the different velocity at the voltage from 0 V to 2 V. Consequently, the droplets are measured the fastest speed of 1.6 mm/s and related flow behaviors that can be helpful to develop and integrate the practical microfluidic applications.

Keywords: microfluidic, droplets, sensors, single detection

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22 Morphological Characteristics and Development of the Estuary Area of Lam River, Vietnam

Authors: Hai Nguyen Tien


On the basis of the structure of alluvial sediments explained by echo sounding data and remote sensing images, the following results can be given: The estuary of Lam river (from Ben Thuy bridge to Cua Hoi) is divided into 3 channel (location is calculated according to the river bank on the Nghe An province) : i) channel I (from Ben Thuy bridge to Hung Hoa) is the branching river; ii) channel II (from Hung Hoa to Nghi Thai is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Ha Tinh province; iii) channel III, from Nghi Thai to Cua Hoi is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Nghe An province. This estuary area is formed in the period from after the sea level dropped below 0m (current water level) to the present: i) Chanel II developed moving towards Ha Tinh provnce; ii) Chanel III developed moving towards Nghe An province; iii) In chanel I, a second river branch is formed because the flow of river cuts through the Hong Lam- Hong Nhat mudflat, at the same time creating an island. Morphological characteristics of the estuary area of Lam River are the main result of erosion and deposition activities corresponding to two water levels: low water level below 0 m and water level 0 m (current water level). Characteristics of the sediment layers on the riverbed in the estuary can be used to determine the sea levels in Late Holocene–Present.

Keywords: Lam River, development, Cua Hoi, river morphology

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21 Benchmarking Energy Challenges in Palm Oil Production Industry in Ghana

Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen


The current energy crisis in Ghana has affected significant number of industries which have direct impact on the country’s economy. Amongst the affected industries are palm oil production industries even though the impact is less as compared to fully relied national grid industries. Most of the large and medium palm oil production industries are partially grid reliance, however, the unavailability and the high cost palm biomass poses huge challenge. This paper aimed to identify and analyse the energy challenges associated with the palm oil production industries in Ghana. The study is conducted on the nine largest palm oil production plants in Ghana. Data is obtained by the use of questionnaire and observation. Since the study aimed to compare the respective energy challenges associated with nine industrial plants under study and establish a benchmark that represents a common problem of all the nine plants under study, the study uses percentile analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as the statistical tools to validate the benchmark. The results indicate that lack of sustainability of palm biomass supply chain is the key energy challenge in the palm oil production industries in Ghana. Other problems include intermittent power supply from the grid and the low boiler efficiency due to outmoded conversion technology of the boilers. The result also demonstrates that there are statistically significant differences between the technologies in different age groups in relation to technology conversion efficiency.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, energy challenges, energy benchmark

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20 Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mosquito Cells to Survive Dengue 2 Virus Infection

Authors: Jiun-Nan Hou, Tien-Huang Chen, Wei-June Chen


Dengue viruses (DENVs) are naturally transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors. Mosquito cells usually survive DENV infection, allowing infected mosquitoes to retain an active status for virus transmission. In this study, we found that DENV2 virus infection in mosquito cells causes the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signal pathway, leading to shutdown of global protein translation in infected cells which was apparently regulated by the PERK signal pathway. According to observation in this study, the PERK signal pathway in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells alleviates ER stress, and reduces initiator and effector caspases, as well as the apoptosis rate via shutdown of cellular proteins. In fact, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ) by the PERK signal pathway may impair recruitment of ribosomes that bind to the mRNA 5’-cap structure, resulting in an inhibitory effect on canonical cap-dependent cellular protein translation. The resultant pro-survival “byproduct” of infected mosquito cells is undoubtedly advantageous for viral replication. This finding provides insights into elucidating the PERK-mediated modulating web that is actively involved in dynamic protein synthesis, cell survival, and viral replication in mosquito cells.

Keywords: cap-dependent protein translation, dengue virus, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mosquito cells, PERK signal pathway

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19 The Factors Constitute the Interaction between Teachers and Students: An Empirical Study at the Notion of Framing

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang


The code theory, proposed by Basil Bernstein, indicates that framing can be viewed as the core element in constituting the phenomenon of cultural reproduction because it is able to regulate the transmission of pedagogical information. Strong framing increases the social relation boundary between a teacher and pupils, which obstructs information transmission, so that in order to improve underachieving students’ academic performances, teachers need to reduce to strength of framing. Weak framing enables them to transform academic knowledge into commonsense knowledge in daily life language. This study posits that most teachers would deliver strong framing due to their belief mainly confined within the aspect of instrumental rationality that deprives their critical minds. This situation could make them view the normal distribution bell curve of students’ academic performances as a natural outcome. In order to examine the interplay between framing, instrumental rationality and pedagogical action, questionnaires were completed by over 5,000 primary school teachers in Henan province, China, who were stratified sample. The statistical results show that most teachers employed psychological concepts to measure students’ academic performances and, in turn, educational inequity was legitimatized as a natural outcome in the efficiency-led approach. Such efficiency-led minds made them perform as the agent practicing the mechanism of social control and in turn sustaining the phenomenon of cultural reproduction.

Keywords: code, cultural reproduction, framing, instrumental rationality, social relation and interaction

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18 Developing a Spatial Decision Support System for Rationality Assessment of Land Use Planning Locations in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam

Authors: Xuan Linh Nguyen, Tien Yin Chou, Yao Min Fang, Feng Cheng Lin, Thanh Van Hoang, Yin Min Huang


In Vietnam, land use planning is the most important and powerful tool of the government for sustainable land use and land management. Nevertheless, many of land use planning locations are facing protests from surrounding households due to environmental impacts. In addition, locations are planned completely based on the subjective decisions of planners who are unsupported by tools or scientific methods. Hence, this research aims to assist the decision-makers in evaluating the rationality of planning locations by developing a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) using approaches of Geographic Information System (GIS)-based technology, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) multi-criteria-based technique and Fuzzy set theory. An ArcGIS Desktop add-ins named SDSS-LUPA was developed to support users analyzing data and presenting results in friendly format. The Fuzzy-AHP method has been utilized as analytic model for this SDSS. There are 18 planned locations in Hung Ha district (Thai Binh province, Vietnam) as a case study. The experimental results indicated that the assessment threshold higher than 0.65 while the 18 planned locations were irrational because of close to residential areas or close to water sources. Some potential sites were also proposed to the authorities for consideration of land use planning changes.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy set theory, land use planning, spatial decision support system

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17 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Tien S. H. Pham, Peter J. Mahon, Aimin Yu


The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, β-CD, ciprofloxacin, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

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16 The Patterns of Cross-Sentence: An Event-Related Potential Study of Mathematical Word Problem

Authors: Tien-Ching Yao, Ching-Ching Lu


Understanding human language processing is one of the main challenges of current cognitive neuroscience. The aims of the present study were to use a sentence decision task combined with event-related potentials to investigate the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." Therefore, we take the math word problems the experimental materials and use the ERPs' P600 component to verify. In this study, the experimental material consisted of 200 math word problems with three different conditions were used ( multiplication word problems、division word problems type 1、division word problems type 2 ). Eighteen Mandarin native speakers participated in the ERPs study (14 of whom were female). The result of the grand average waveforms suggests a later posterior positivity at around 500ms - 900ms. These findings were tested statistically using repeated measures ANOVAs at the component caused by the stimulus type of different questions. Results suggest that three conditions present significant (P < 0.05) on the Mean Amplitude, Latency, and Peak Amplitude. The result showed the characteristic timing and posterior scalp distribution of a P600 effect. We interpreted these characteristic responses as the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." These results provide insights into the sentence processing issues in linguistic theory and psycholinguistic models of language processing and advance our understanding of how people make sense of information during language comprehension.

Keywords: language processing, sentence comprehension, event-related potentials, cross-sentence patterns

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15 Modified Silicates as Dissolved Oxygen Sensors in Water: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Andile Mkhohlakali, Tien-Chien Jen, James Tshilongo, Happy Mabowa


Among different parameters, oxygen is one of the most important analytes of interest, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is very crucial and significant for various areas of physical, chemical, and environmental monitoring. Herein we report oxygen-sensitive luminophores -based lanthanum(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate), [La]³⁺ was encapsulated into SiO₂-based xerogel matrix. The nanosensor is composed of organically modified silica nanoparticles, doped with the luminescent oxygen–sensitive lanthanum(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate complex. The precursor materials used for sensing film were triethyl ethoxy silane (TEOS) and (3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) (MPTMS- TEOS) used for SiO2-baed matrices. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and BJH indicate that the SiO₂ transformed from microporous to mesoporous upon the addition of La³⁺ luminophore with increased surface area (SBET). The typical amorphous SiO₂ based xerogels were revealed with X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) analysis. Scanning electron microscope- (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed the porous morphology and reduced particle for SiO₂ and La-SiO₂ xerogels respectively. The existence of elements, siloxane networks, and thermal stability of xerogel was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Thermographic analysis (TGA). UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to characterize the optical properties of xerogels. La-SiO₂ demonstrates promising characteristic features of an active sensing film for dissolved oxygen in the water. Keywords: Sol-gel, ORMOSILs, encapsulation, Luminophores quenching, O₂-sensing

Keywords: sol-gel, ORMOSILs, luminophores quenching, O₂-sensing

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14 Examining the Notion of Duality: The Interaction between Neo-Academicism and University Teachers' Agency within the Performativity Context Defined by Public Managerialism

Authors: Tien Hui Chiang


Along with the predominant influence of neo-liberalism, public managerialism is viewed as a panacea for curing the institutionalized weakness caused by the monopoly of the public sector. In the name of efficiency, its outcome-led approach acquires a legitimate status and, in turn, it transforms into the discourse of performativity, reformulating the souls of individual members into the form of docile bodies who are willing to demonstrate their own ability in organizational contributions. The evaluation system and the organizational reconstruction are viewed as the crucial means for achieving this mission. Inevitably, university teachers are confined within a rigid and bureaucratic setting, in which they do not have too much latitude but are subject to the commands of senior administrators. However, the notion of duality highlights the interaction between structural constraints and agency. If the actor discovers the rules or properties of social structure, he/she is able to transform structural constraints into resources for developing creative actions, conceptualized as an agency. This study was designed for examining how duality operates within this hierarchical arrangement formed by public managerialism. Fourteen informants were interviewed from February to August 2014. The findings show that the evaluation system created the culture of neo-academicalism, addressing excellence in research and, in turn, motivating academic-oriented teachers. This correspondence provided a gateway for them to win honor, dignity, and prestige in groups. However, unlike the concept of duality, this agency was operating within the institutionalized context, regulated by structural constraint. Furthermore, complying with the rule/property of social structure was able to secure their advantages.

Keywords: public managerialism, social discourse, neo-academicalism, duality, structural constraint, agency

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13 The Relationship among Lifestyles, Accompany Forms, and Children’s Capability to Solve Problems of Modern Families

Authors: Tien-Ling Yeh, Jo-Han Chan


The percentage of dual-earner couples has become higher and higher each year. Family lifestyles in Taiwan have also been changing. This fact reflects the importance of family communication and parent-child relationship. This study aimed to explore the influences of family lifestyles and accompany forms on children’s capability to solve problems. The research process included two phases: (1) literature review, to explore the characteristics of children’s capability to solve problems and methods to measure this capability; and (2) questionnaire analyses, to explore the influences of lifestyles and accompany time and forms of modern families on their children’s capability to solve problems. The questionnaires were issued in October and November, 2016. A total of 300 questionnaires were retrieved, among which 250 were valid. The findings are summarized below: -The linguistic performances of the children from families of the busy and haggling lifestyle or the intermittent childcare lifestyle were rather good. Besides being interested in learning, these children could solve problems or difficulties independently. -The capability to ‘analyze problems’ of children from families with accompanying time during 19:00-19:30 (family dinner time) or 22:00-23:30 (before bedtime) was good. When facing a complex problem, these children could identify the most important factor in the problem. When seeing a problem, they would first look for the cause. If they encountered a bottleneck while solving a problem, they would review the context of the problem and related conditions to come up with another solution. -According to the literature, learning toys with numbers and symbols to learn to read can help develop children’s logic thinking, which is helpful to solve problems. Interestingly, some study suggested that children playing with fluid constructive toys are less likely to give up what they are doing and more likely to identify problems in their daily life. Some of them can even come up with creative and effective solutions.

Keywords: accompany, lifestyle, parent-child, problem-solving

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12 Nonlinear Multivariable Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China

Authors: Hsiao-Tien Pao, Yi-Ying Li, Hsin-Chia Fu


This paper addressed the impacts of energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, and population size on environmental degradation using grey relational analysis (GRA) for China, where foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows is the proxy variable for financial development. The more recent historical data during the period 2004–2011 are used, because the use of very old data for data analysis may not be suitable for rapidly developing countries. The results of the GRA indicate that the linkage effects of energy consumption–emissions and GDP–emissions are ranked first and second, respectively. These reveal that energy consumption and economic growth are strongly correlated with emissions. Higher economic growth requires more energy consumption and increasing environmental pollution. Likewise, more efficient energy use needs a higher level of economic development. Therefore, policies to improve energy efficiency and create a low-carbon economy can reduce emissions without hurting economic growth. The finding of FDI–emissions linkage is ranked third. This indicates that China do not apply weak environmental regulations to attract inward FDI. Furthermore, China’s government in attracting inward FDI should strengthen environmental policy. The finding of population–emissions linkage effect is ranked fourth, implying that population size does not directly affect CO2 emissions, even though China has the world’s largest population, and Chinese people are very economical use of energy-related products. Overall, the energy conservation, improving efficiency, managing demand, and financial development, which aim at curtailing waste of energy, reducing both energy consumption and emissions, and without loss of the country’s competitiveness, can be adopted for developing economies. The GRA is one of the best way to use a lower data to build a dynamic analysis model.

Keywords: China, CO₂ emissions, foreign direct investment, grey relational analysis

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11 Observed Changes in Constructed Precipitation at High Resolution in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Tien Thanh, Günter Meon


Precipitation plays a key role in water cycle, defining the local climatic conditions and in ecosystem. It is also an important input parameter for water resources management and hydrologic models. With spatial continuous data, a certainty of discharge predictions or other environmental factors is unquestionably better than without. This is, however, not always willingly available to acquire for a small basin, especially for coastal region in Vietnam due to a low network of meteorological stations (30 stations) on long coast of 3260 km2. Furthermore, available gridded precipitation datasets are not fine enough when applying to hydrologic models. Under conditions of global warming, an application of spatial interpolation methods is a crucial for the climate change impact studies to obtain the spatial continuous data. In recent research projects, although some methods can perform better than others do, no methods draw the best results for all cases. The objective of this paper therefore, is to investigate different spatial interpolation methods for daily precipitation over a small basin (approximately 400 km2) located in coastal region, Southern Vietnam and find out the most efficient interpolation method on this catchment. The five different interpolation methods consisting of cressman, ordinary kriging, regression kriging, dual kriging and inverse distance weighting have been applied to identify the best method for the area of study on the spatio-temporal scale (daily, 10 km x 10 km). A 30-year precipitation database was created and merged into available gridded datasets. Finally, observed changes in constructed precipitation were performed. The results demonstrate that the method of ordinary kriging interpolation is an effective approach to analyze the daily precipitation. The mixed trends of increasing and decreasing monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation have documented at significant levels.

Keywords: interpolation, precipitation, trend, vietnam

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10 Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning

Authors: Chun-Han Li, Tien-Fu Yang, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan


The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.

Keywords: vacuum membrane dehumidification, planar membrane dehumidifier, water vapour and air permeability, air conditioning

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9 Social Media as a Tool for Medication Adherence and Personal Health Management

Authors: Huang Wei-Chi, Li Wei, Yu Tien-Chieh


Medication adherence is crucial for treatment success. Adherence problem is common in patients with polypharmacy, especially in the geriatric population who are vulnerable to multiple chronic conditions but averagely less knowledgeable about diseases and medications. In order to help patients take medications appropriately and enhance the understanding of diseases or medications, a Line official account named e-Pharmacist was designed. The line is a popular freeware app with the highest penetration rate (95.7%) in Taiwan. The interface of e-Pharmacist is user-friendly for easy-to-read and convenient operating. Differ from other medication adherence apps, users just added e-Pharmacist as a LINE friend without installing any more apps and the drug lists were automatically downloaded from the personal electronic medical records with security permission. Over and above medication reminder, several additional capabilities were set up and engaged in the platform of e-Pharmacist including prescription refill reservation, laboratory examination consultation, medical appointment registration, and “Daily Health Log” where patients can record and track data of blood pressure/blood sugar and daily meals for self-health management as well as can share the important information to clinical professionals when seeking medical help. Additionally, a Line chatbot was utilized to provide tailored medicine information for the individual user. From July 2020 to March 2022, around 3000 patients added e-pharmacist as Line friends. Every day more than 1500 patients receive messages from e-pharmacist to notify them to take medicine. Thanks to the e-pharmacist alert system and Chatbot, the low-compliance patients (defined by Program on Adherence to Medication, PAM) significantly dropped from 36% to 6%, whereas the high-compliance patients dramatically increased from 13% to 77%. The user satisfaction is 98%. In brief, an e-pharmacist is not only a medication reminder but also a tailored personal assistant with value-added service for health management.

Keywords: e-pharmacist, self-health management, medication reminder, value-added service

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8 Investigation of Projected Organic Waste Impact on a Tropical Wetland in Singapore

Authors: Swee Yang Low, Dong Eon Kim, Canh Tien Trinh Nguyen, Yixiong Cai, Shie-Yui Liong


Nee Soon swamp forest is one of the last vestiges of tropical wetland in Singapore. Understanding the hydrological regime of the swamp forest and implications for water quality is critical to guide stakeholders in implementing effective measures to preserve the wetland against anthropogenic impacts. In particular, although current field measurement data do not indicate a concern with organic pollution, reviewing the ways in which the wetland responds to elevated organic waste influx (and the corresponding impact on dissolved oxygen, DO) can help identify potential hotspots, and the impact on the outflow from the catchment which drains into downstream controlled watercourses. An integrated water quality model is therefore developed in this study to investigate spatial and temporal concentrations of DO levels and organic pollution (as quantified by biochemical oxygen demand, BOD) within the catchment’s river network under hypothetical, projected scenarios of spiked upstream inflow. The model was developed using MIKE HYDRO for modelling the study domain, as well as the MIKE ECO Lab numerical laboratory for characterising water quality processes. Model parameters are calibrated against time series of observed discharges at three measurement stations along the river network. Over a simulation period of April 2014 to December 2015, the calibrated model predicted that a continuous spiked inflow of 400 mg/l BOD will elevate downstream concentrations at the catchment outlet to an average of 12 mg/l, from an assumed nominal baseline BOD of 1 mg/l. Levels of DO were decreased from an initial 5 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l. Though a scenario of spiked organic influx at the swamp forest’s undeveloped upstream sub-catchments is currently unlikely to occur, the outcomes nevertheless will be beneficial for future planning studies in understanding how the water quality of the catchment will be impacted should urban redevelopment works be considered around the swamp forest.

Keywords: hydrology, modeling, water quality, wetland

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7 The Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Marine Actinomycete Strain HP411 Isolated in the Northern Coast of Vietnam

Authors: Huyen T. Pham, Nhue P. Nguyen, Tien Q. Phi, Phuong T. Dang, Hy G. Le


Since the marine environmental conditions are extremely different from the other ones, so that marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, actinomycete strains were screened from marine water and sediment samples collected from the coastal areas of Northern Vietnam. Ninety-nine actinomycete strains were obtained on starch-casein agar media by dilution technique, only seven strains, named HP112, HP12, HP411, HPN11, HP 11, HPT13 and HPX12, showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus epidemidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11105). Further studies were carried out with the most active HP411strain against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. This strain could grow rapidly on starch casein agar and other media with high salt containing 7-10% NaCl at 28-30oC. Spore-chain of HP411 showed an elongated and circular shape with 10 to 30 spores/chain. Identification of the strain was carried out by employing the taxonomical studies including the 16S rRNA sequence. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that HP411 to be belongs to species Streptomyces variabilis. The potent of the crude extract of fermentation broth of HP411that are effective against wide range of pathogens: both gram-positive, gram-negative and fungi. Further studies revealed that the crude extract HP411 could obtain the anticancer activity for cancer cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer cell line); RD (cardiac and skeletal muscle letters cell line); FL (membrane of the uterus cancer cell line). However, the actinomycetes from marine ecosystem will be useful for the discovery of new drugs in the furture.

Keywords: marine actinomycetes, antibacterial, anticancer, Streptomyces variabilis

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