Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Sidra Saleemi

34 Performance Evaluation of Al Jame’s Roundabout Using SIDRA

Authors: D. Muley, H. S. Al-Mandhari

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the performance of a multi-lane four-legged modern roundabout operating in Muscat using SIDRA model. The performance measures include Degree of Saturation (DOS), average delay, and queue lengths. The geometric and traffic data were used for model preparation. Gap acceptance parameters, critical gap, and follow-up headway were used for calibration of SIDRA model. The results from the analysis showed that currently the roundabout is experiencing delays up to 610 seconds with DOS 1.67 during peak hour. Further, sensitivity analysis for general and roundabout parameters was performed, amongst lane width, cruise speed, inscribed diameter, entry radius, and entry angle showed that inscribed diameter is the most crucial factor affecting delay and DOS. Upgradation of the roundabout to the fully signalized junction was found as the suitable solution which will serve for future years with LOS C for design year having DOS of 0.9 with average control delay of 51.9 seconds per vehicle.

Keywords: performance analysis, roundabout, sensitivity analysis, SIDRA

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33 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel

Abstract:

This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
32 Bleaching Liquor Recovery of Batch-Wise and Continuous Method

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Arsalan Khan, Urooj Baig, Tahir Jamil

Abstract:

In this research, it was examined that some residual amount of bleaching chemicals left in the liquor, this amount is more in Batch-wise process as compared to continuous process. These chemicals can be recovered and reused for bleaching by adding more quantity of fresh bleaching chemicals and water, this quantity will be required to balance the recipe for fabric. This liquor is recovered and samples were bleached with different modified recipe of liquor for both processes i.e. Batch-wise and continuous process. Every time good results were achieved with negligible variation in the quality parameter between the fabric bleached with fresh liquor and the fabric bleached with Recovered Liquor. Additionally, samples were dyed, and found that dyeing can be done easily on samples bleached with recover liquor.

Keywords: bleaching process, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, liquor recovery

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31 Comparative Analysis of Traditional and Modern Roundabouts Using Sidra Intersection

Authors: Amir Mohammad Parvini, Amir Masoud Rahimi

Abstract:

Currently, most parts of the world have shifted from traditional roundabouts to modern roundabouts with respect to the role of roundabouts in reducing accidents, increasing safety, lowering the maintenance costs compared to traffic circles with their improper functional and safety experiences. In this study, field data collected from a current traditional roundabout was analyzed by the software AIMSUN and the obtained numbers were recorded. The modern roundabout was designed by changes in the traditional one, considering the geometric standards listed in regulations. Then, the modern roundabout was analyzed by applying a heterogeneous traffic by a micro-simulation software SIDRA (5.1). The function, capacity, and safety of the roundabout were analyzed assuming the superiority of modern roundabouts and acceptable LOS. The obtained results indicate that the function, capacity, and safety of modern roundabouts are better than traditional ones.

Keywords: traditional roundabout, traffic circles, modern roundabout, AIMSUN, SIDRA

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30 Direct Integration of 3D Ultrasound Scans with Patient Educational Mobile Application

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Eugene Chan, Fareed Ahmed, Mohamed Jama, Avez Rizvi

Abstract:

Advancements in Ultrasound Technology have enabled machines to capture 3D and 4D images with intricate features of the growing fetus. Sonographers can now capture clear 3D images and 4D videos of the fetus, especially of the face. Fetal faces are often seen on the ultrasound scan of the third trimester where anatomical features become more defined. Parents often want 3D/4D images and videos of their ultrasounds, and particularly image that capture the child’s face. Sidra Medicine developed a patient education mobile app called 10 Moons to improve care and provide useful information during the length of their pregnancy. In addition to general information, we built the ability to send ultrasound images directly from the modality to the mobile application, allowing expectant mothers to easily store and share images of their baby. 10 Moons represent the length of the pregnancy on a lunar calendar, which has both cultural and religious significance in the Middle East. During the third trimester scan, sonographers can capture 3D pictures of the fetus. Ultrasound machines are connected with a local 10 Moons Server with a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) application running on it. Sonographers are able to send images directly to the DICOM server by a preprogrammed button on the ultrasound modality. Mothers can also request which pictures they would like to be available on the app. An internally built DICOM application receives the image and saves the patient information from DICOM header (for verification purpose). The application also anonymizes the image by removing all the DICOM header information and subsequently converts it into a lossless JPEG. Finally, and the application passes the image to the mobile application server. On the 10 Moons mobile app – patients enter their Medical Record Number (MRN) and Date of Birth (DOB) to receive a One Time Password (OTP) for security reasons to view the images. Patients can also share the images anonymized images with friends and family. Furthermore, patients can also request 3D printed mementos of their child through 10 Moons. 10 Moons is unique patient education and information application where expected mothers can also see 3D ultrasound images of their children. Sidra Medicine staff has the added benefit of a full content management administrative backend where updates to content can be made. The app is available on secure infrastructure with both local and public interfaces. The application is also available in both English and Arabic languages to facilitate most of the patients in the region. Innovation is at the heart of modern healthcare management. With Innovation being one of Sidra Medicine’s core values, our 10 Moons application provides expectant mothers with unique educational content as well as the ability to store and share images of their child and purchase 3D printed mementos.

Keywords: patient educational mobile application, ultrasound images, digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), imaging informatics

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29 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Over Two Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar

Abstract:

Global and Diffuse Solar radiation on horizontal surface over two cities of Sindh, namely Jacobabad and Rohri were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization in Sindh province. The result obtained shows a high variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months (80% direct and 20% diffuse). The contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i.e. July and August. The appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated value indicates that this part of Sindh has higher solar potential and solar panels can be used for power generation. The solar energy can be utilized throughout the year in this part of Sindh, Pakistan.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over two cities of Sindh, environmental engineering

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28 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques

Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.

Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptography

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27 Solar Radiation Studies for Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Sidra A. Shaikh, M. A. Ahmed, M. W. Akhtar

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for Islamabad (Lat: 330 43’ N, Long: 370 71’) to access the solar potential of the area using sunshine hour data. A detailed analysis of global solar radiation values measured using several methods is presented. These values are then compared with the NASA SSE model. The variation in direct and diffuse components of solar radiation is observed in summer and winter months for Islamabad along with the clearness index KT. The diffuse solar radiation is found maximum in the month of July. Direct and beam radiation is found to be high in the month of April to June. From the results it appears that with the exception of monsoon months, July and August, solar radiation for electricity generation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year. Finally, the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean percent error (MPE) for global solar radiation are also presented.

Keywords: solar potential, global and diffuse solar radiation, Islamabad, errors

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26 Solar Radiation Studies and Performance of Solar Panels for Three Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar

Abstract:

Solar radiation on horizontal surface over three southern cities of Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Nawabshah has been investigated to asses the feasibility of solar energy application for power generation. In the present work, measured data of bright sunshine hour of the region have been used to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation. The regression coefficient 'a' and 'b' have been calculated using first order Angstrom type co-relation. The result obtained shows that the contribution of direct solar radiation is low and diffuse radiation is high during the monsoon months July and August for Karachi and Hyderabad. The sky remains clear from September to June, whereas for Nawabshah the global radiation remains high throughout the year. The potential of grid quality solar photovoltaic power in Karachi is estimated for 10 square meter area of solar panel.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over three cities of Sindh, solar panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
25 A Smart Visitors’ Notification System with Automatic Secure Door Lock Using Mobile Communication Technology

Authors: Rabail Shafique Satti, Sidra Ejaz, Madiha Arshad, Marwa Khalid, Sadia Majeed

Abstract:

The paper presents the development of an automated security system to automate the entry of visitors, providing more flexibility of managing their record and securing homes or workplaces. Face recognition is part of this system to authenticate the visitors. A cost effective and SMS based door security module has been developed and integrated with the GSM network and made part of this system to allow communication between system and owner. This system functions in real time as when the visitor’s arrived it will detect and recognizes his face and on the result of face recognition process it will open the door for authorized visitors or notifies and allows the owner’s to take further action in case of unauthorized visitor. The proposed system is developed and it is successfully ensuring security, managing records and operating gate without physical interaction of owner.

Keywords: SMS, e-mail, GSM modem, authenticate, face recognition, authorized

Procedia PDF Downloads 643
24 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

Abstract:

The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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23 Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Inayatullah Jan, Sidra Pervez

Abstract:

Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are quintessential for promotion of renewable energy in a country. This study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic renewable energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on clean development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and non-governmental organizations work together to launch cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. The need is to have a coordinated, consistent, and focused cooperation of all stakeholders involved in promotion of domestic renewable energy at all levels. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).

Keywords: governance, clean energy, greenhouse gases, CDM, Northwest Pakistan

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22 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

Abstract:

A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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21 Genetic Association of SIX6 Gene with Pathogenesis of Glaucoma

Authors: Riffat Iqbal, Sidra Ihsan, Andleeb Batool, Maryam Mukhtar

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a gathering of optic neuropathies described by dynamic degeneration of retinal ganglionic cells. It is clinically and innately heterogenous illness containing a couple of particular forms each with various causes and severities. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most generally perceived kind of glaucoma. This study investigated the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs10483727 and rs33912345) at the SIX1/SIX6 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Pakistani population. The SIX6 gene plays an important role in ocular development and has been associated with morphology of the optic nerve. A total of 100 patients clinically diagnosed with glaucoma and 100 control individuals of age over 40 were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted by organic extraction method. The SNP genotyping was done by (i) PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing method. Significant genetic associations were observed for rs10483727 (risk allele T) and rs33912345 (risk allele C) with POAG. Hence, it was concluded that Six6 gene is genetically associated with pathogenesis of Glaucoma in Pakistan.

Keywords: genotyping, Pakistani population, primary open-angle glaucoma, SIX6 gene

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20 An Automated System for the Detection of Citrus Greening Disease Based on Visual Descriptors

Authors: Sidra Naeem, Ayesha Naeem, Sahar Rahim, Nadia Nawaz Qadri

Abstract:

Citrus greening is a bacterial disease that causes considerable damage to citrus fruits worldwide. Efficient method for this disease detection must be carried out to minimize the production loss. This paper presents a pattern recognition system that comprises three stages for the detection of citrus greening from Orange leaves: segmentation, feature extraction and classification. Image segmentation is accomplished by adaptive thresholding. The feature extraction stage comprises of three visual descriptors i.e. shape, color and texture. From shape feature we have used asymmetry index, from color feature we have used histogram of Cb component from YCbCr domain and from texture feature we have used local binary pattern. Classification was done using support vector machines and k nearest neighbors. The best performances of the system is Accuracy = 88.02% and AUROC = 90.1% was achieved by automatic segmented images. Our experiments validate that: (1). Segmentation is an imperative preprocessing step for computer assisted diagnosis of citrus greening, and (2). The combination of shape, color and texture features form a complementary set towards the identification of citrus greening disease.

Keywords: citrus greening, pattern recognition, feature extraction, classification

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19 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Lower Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lower Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization for power generation in Sindh province. The results obtained show a large variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in Lower Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi and Hyderabad). In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low during the monsoon months, July and August. The KT value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky throughout almost the entire year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even during the monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential, whereas Karachi and Hyderabad have low solar potential. During the monsoon months the Lower part of Sindh can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 m/sec to 6.9 m/sec. A wind corridor exists near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in the monsoon months of July and August, wind speeds are higher in the Lower region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, lower Sindh, power generation, solar and wind energy potential

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18 Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong

Authors: A. Das, L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour

Abstract:

Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.

Keywords: congestion, constraints, management, LOS

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17 Political Behavior and Democratic Values: Framing Analysis of Political Discussion Programs in Pakistan

Authors: Umair Nadeem, Sidra Umair

Abstract:

Political behavior of voters and democratic values have been observed an emerging phenomenon in recent years in Pakistan. Privatized TV news channels are taking one sided position on the political issues, corresponding with respective political parties. Since last decade, TV News Channels have undermined this monopoly. Elections 2013 were unique in Pakistan with reference to political behavior and democratic values. Partisan narratives and counter narratives have been witnessed on different TV channels, in last few years. These mediated events seem very important to study the political behavior and democratic values as the country is approaching towards elections 2018. This endeavor is an attempt to capture the framing of the parties, issues in the partisan media culture and framing effects on political behavior of voters. Data for this research come from two data set. Content analysis of selected representative talks shows broadcast on mainstream news channels provide an assessment of the framing while quantitative survey of the discussion program’s viewers from Lahore city provide an evidence of framing effects on political behavior on voters and on democratic values. Regression results help us to argue that the highly partisan shows are strong predictors of polarized views among the audience. Study also grasp the attention of scholars towards the implications of this phenomenon.

Keywords: democratic values, partisan media, polarized views, political behavior

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16 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

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15 Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies over Seven Cities of Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaik

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over seven cities of Sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Chore, Padidan, Nawabshah, Rohri and Jacobabad were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization at Sindh province. The result obtained shows a variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in southern Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi, and Hyderabad) where there is a large variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in northern region (80% direct and 20% diffuse for Rohri and Jacobabad). In southern Sindh, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is higher during the monsoon months (July and August). The sky remains clear during September to June. In northern Sindh (Rohri and Jacobabad) the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i,e in July and August. The Kt value for northern Sindh indicates a clear sky. In northern part of the Sindh percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. The appearance of cloud is rare. From the point of view of power generation, the estimated values indicate that northern part of Sindh has high solar potential while the southern part has low solar potential.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiation, solar potential, Province of Sindh, solar radiation studies for power generation

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14 Solar Energy Potential Studies of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

Abstract:

Solar radiation studies of Sindh province have been studied to evaluate the solar energy potential of the area. Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over five cities namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Chore and Padidan of Sindh province were carried out using sun shine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization. The result obtained shows a large variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in winter and summer months. 50% direct and 50% diffuse solar radiation for Karachi and Hyderabad were observed and for Chore in summer month July and August the diffuse radiation is about 33 to 39%. For other areas of Sindh such as Nawabshah and Patidan the contribution of direct solar radiation is high throughout the year. The Kt values for Nawabshah and Patidan indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. In Nawabshah area the percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 29%. The appearance of cloud is rare even in the monsoon months July and August whereas Karachi and Hyderabad and Chore has low solar potential during the monsoon months. During the monsoon period Karachi and Hyderabad can utilize hybrid system with wind power as wind speed is higher. From the point of view of power generation the estimated values indicate that Karachi and Hyderabad and chore has low solar potential for July and August while Nawabshah, and Padidan has high solar potential Throughout the year.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiation, province of Sindh, solar energy potential, solar radiation studies for power generation

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13 Levansucrase from Zymomonas Mobilis KIBGE-IB14: Production Optimization and Characterization for High Enzyme Yield

Authors: Sidra Shaheen, Nadir Naveed Siddiqui, Shah Ali Ul Qader

Abstract:

In recent years, significant progress has been made in discovering and developing new bacterial polysaccharides producing organisms possessing extremely functional properties. Levan is a natural biopolymer of fructose which is produced by transfructosylation reaction in the presence of levansucrase. It is one of the industrially promising enzymes that offer a variety of industrial applications in the field of cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. Although levan has significant applications but the yield of levan produced is not equal to other biopolymers due to the inefficiency of producer microorganism. Among wide range of levansucrase producing microorganisms, Zymomonas mobilis is considered as a potential candidate for large scale production of this natural polysaccharide. The present investigation is concerned with the isolation of levansucrase producing natural isolate having maximum enzyme production. Furthermore, production parameters were optimized to get higher enzyme yield. Levansucrase was partially purified and characterized to study its applicability on industrial scale. The results of this study revealed that the bacterial strain Z. mobilis KIBGE-IB14 was the best producer of levansucrase. Bacterial growth and enzyme production was greatly influenced by physical and chemical parameters. Maximum levansucrase production was achieved after 24 hours of fermentation at 30°C using modified medium of pH-6.5. Contrary to other levansucrases, the one presented in the current study is able to produce high amount of products in relatively short period of time with optimum temperature at 35°C. Due to these advantages, this enzyme can be used on large scale for commercial production of levan and other important metabolites.

Keywords: levansucrase, metabolites, polysaccharides, transfructosylation

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12 Immunoprotective Role of Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) against Experimentally Induced Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Zain Ul Abadeen, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed Hassan, Aisha Khatoon, Qasim Altaf

Abstract:

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi, and there are four types of aflatoxins include AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as most toxic form. It is mainly responsible for the contamination of poultry feed and produces a condition called aflatoxicosis leads to immunosuppression in poultry birds. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a single cell microorganism and acts as a source of growth factors, minerals and amino acids which improve the immunity and digestibility in poultry birds as probiotics. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well recognized to cause the biological degradation of mycotoxins (toxin binder) because its cell wall contains β-glucans and mannans which specifically bind with aflatoxins and reduce their absorption or transfer them to some non-toxic compounds. The present study was designed to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxins in broiler chicks and the reduction of severity of these effects by the use of Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). One-day-old broiler chicks were procured from local hatchery and were divided into various groups (A-I). These groups were treated with different levels of AFB1 @ 400 µg/kg and 600 µg/kg along with different levels of Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 0.1% and 0.5 % in the feed. The total duration of the experiment was six weeks and different immunological parameters including the cellular immune response by injecting PHA-P (Phytohemagglutinin-P) in the skin of the birds, phagocytic function of mononuclear cells by Carbon clearance assay from blood samples and humoral immune response against intravenously injected sheep RBCs from the serum samples were determined. The birds from each group were slaughtered at the end of the experiment to determine the presence of gross lesions in the immune organs and these tissues were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological investigations. The results showed that AFB1 intoxicated groups had reduced body weight gain, feed intake, organs weight and immunological responses compared to the control and Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated groups. Different gross and histological degenerative changes were recorded in the immune organs of AFB1 intoxicated groups compared to control and Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated groups. The present study concluded that Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) addition in the feed helps to ameliorate the immunotoxigenic effects produced by AFB1 in broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxins, body weight gain, feed intake, immunological response, toxigenic effect

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11 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood

Abstract:

Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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10 Cross-Linked Amyloglucosidase Aggregates: A New Carrier Free Immobilization Strategy for Continuous Saccharification of Starch

Authors: Sidra Pervez, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader

Abstract:

The importance of attaining an optimum performance of an enzyme is often a question of devising an effective method for its immobilization. Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEAs) is a new approach for immobilization of enzymes using carrier free strategy. This method is exquisitely simple (involving precipitation of the enzyme from aqueous buffer followed by cross-linking of the resulting physical aggregates of enzyme molecules) and amenable to rapid optimization. Among many industrial enzymes, amyloglucosidase is an important amylolytic enzyme that hydrolyzes alpha (1→4) and alpha (1→6) glycosidic bonds in starch molecule and produce glucose as a sole end product. Glucose liberated by amyloglucosidase can be used for the production of ethanol and glucose syrups. Besides this amyloglucosidase can be widely used in various food and pharmaceuticals industries. For production of amyloglucosidase on commercial scale, filamentous fungi of genera Aspergillus are mostly used because they secrete large amount of enzymes extracellularly. The current investigation was based on isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus for the production of amyloglucosidase in submerged fermentation and optimization of cultivation parameters for starch saccharification. Natural isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger KIBGE-IB36, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33, Aspergillus flavus KIBGE-IB34 and Aspergillus terreus KIBGE-IB35 on taxonomical basis and 18S rDNA analysis and their sequence were submitted to GenBank. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33 was selected on the basis of maximum enzyme production. After optimization of fermentation conditions enzyme was immobilized on CLEA. Different parameters were optimized for maximum immobilization of amyloglucosidase. Data of enzyme stability (thermal and Storage) and reusability suggested the applicability of immobilized amyloglucosidase for continuous saccharification of starch in industrial processes.

Keywords: aspergillus, immobilization, industrial processes, starch saccharification

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9 Analysis of the Contribution of Coastal and Marine Physical Factors to Oil Slick Movement: Case Study of Misrata, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg, Mark Johnson

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Developing a coastal oil spill management plan for the Misratah coast is the motivating factor for building a database for coastal and marine systems and energy resources. Wind direction and speed, currents, bathymetry, coastal topography and offshore dynamics influence oil spill deposition in coastal water. Therefore, oceanographic and climatological data can be used to understand oil slick movement and potential oil deposits on shoreline area and the behaviour of oil spill trajectories on the sea surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the coastal and marine physical factors under strong wave conditions and various bathymetric and coastal topography gradients in the western coastal area of Libya on the movement of oil slicks. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a GNOME simulation model based on current and wind speed/direction. The results in this paper show that (1) Oil slick might reach the Misratah shoreline area in two days in the summer and winter. Seasons. (2 ) The North coast of Misratah is the potential oil deposit area on the Misratah coast. (3) Tarball pollution was observed along the North coast of Misratah. (4) Two scenarios for the summer and the winter season were run, along the western coast of Libya . (5) The eastern coast is at a lower potential risk due to the influence of wind and current energy in the Gulf of Sidra. (6) The Misratah coastline is more vulnerable to oil spill movement in the summer than in winter seasons. (7) Oil slick takes from 2 to 5 days to reach the saltmarsh in the eastern Misratah coast. (8) Oil slick moves 300 km in 30 days from the spill resource location near the Libyan western border to the Misratah coast.(9) Bathymetric features have a profound effect on oil spill movement. (9)Oil dispersion simulations using GNOME are carried out taking into account high-resolution wind and current data.

Keywords: oil spill movement, coastal and marine physical factors, coast area, Libyan

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8 The Molecular Analysis of Effect of Phytohormones and Spermidine on Tomato Growth under Biotic Stress

Authors: Rumana Keyani, Haleema Sadia, Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Humaira Yasmin, Sidra Zahoor

Abstract:

Tomato is a significant crop of the world and is one of the staple foods of Pakistan. A vast number of plant pathogens from simple viruses to complex parasites cause diseases in tomatoes but fungal infection in our country is quite high. Sometimes the symptoms are too harsh destroying the crop altogether. Countries like our own with continuously increasing massive population and limited resources cannot afford such an economic loss. There is an array of morphological, genetic, biochemical and molecular processes involved in plant resistance mechanisms to biotic stress. The study of different metabolic pathways like Jasmonic acid (JA) pathways and most importantly signaling molecules like ROS/RNS and their redoxin enzymes i.e. TRX and NRX is crucial to disease management, contributing to healthy plant growth. So, improving tolerance in crop plants against biotic stresses is a dire need of our country and world as whole. In the current study, fungal pathogenic strains Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani were used to inoculate tomatoes to check the defense responses of tomato plant against these pathogens at molecular as well as phenotypic level with jasmonic acid and spermidine pretreatment. All the growth parameters (root and shoot length, dry and weight root, shoot weight measured 7 days post-inoculation, exhibited that infection drastically declined the growth of the plant whereas jasmonic acid and spermidine assisted the plants to cope up with the infection. Thus, JA and Spermidine treatments maintained comparatively better growth factors. Antioxidant assays and expression analysis through real time quantitative PCR following time course experiment at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals also exhibited that activation of JA defense genes and a polyamine Spermidine helps in mediating tomato responses against fungal infection when used alone but the two treatments combined mask the effect of each other.

Keywords: fungal infection, jasmonic acid defence, tomato, spermidine

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7 Examining Social Connectivity through Email Network Analysis: Study of Librarians' Emailing Groups in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Haroon Idrees, Imran Aziz, Sidra Mushtaq

Abstract:

Social platforms like online discussion and mailing groups are well aligned with academic as well as professional learning spaces. Professional communities are increasingly moving to online forums for sharing and capturing the intellectual abilities. This study investigated dynamics of social connectivity of yahoo mailing groups of Pakistani Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals using Graph Theory technique. Design/Methodology: Social Network Analysis is the increasingly concerned domain for scientists in identifying whether people grow together through online social interaction or, whether they just reflect connectivity. We have conducted a longitudinal study using Network Graph Theory technique to analyze the large data-set of email communication. The data was collected from three yahoo mailing groups using network analysis software over a period of six months i.e. January to June 2016. Findings of the network analysis were reviewed through focus group discussion with LIS experts and selected respondents of the study. Data were analyzed in Microsoft Excel and network diagrams were visualized using NodeXL and ORA-Net Scene package. Findings: Findings demonstrate that professionals and students exhibit intellectual growth the more they get tied within a network by interacting and participating in communication through online forums. The study reports on dynamics of the large network by visualizing the email correspondence among group members in a network consisting vertices (members) and edges (randomized correspondence). The model pair wise relationship between group members was illustrated to show characteristics, reasons, and strength of ties. Connectivity of nodes illustrated the frequency of communication among group members through examining node coupling, diffusion of networks, and node clustering has been demonstrated in-depth. Network analysis was found to be a useful technique in investigating the dynamics of the large network.

Keywords: emailing networks, network graph theory, online social platforms, yahoo mailing groups

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6 The Incidence of Maxillary Canine Ankylosis: A Single-Centre Analysis of 206 Canines Following Surgical Exposure and Orthodontic Alignment

Authors: Sidra Suleman, Maliha Suleman, Jinesh Shah

Abstract:

Maxillary canines play a crucial role in occlusion and aesthetics. Successful management of impacted canines requires early identification and intervention to prevent complications such as resorption of adjacent teeth and cystic changes. Although removal of the deciduous canine can encourage normal eruption of its successor, this is not always successful. Some patients may require surgical exposure and bonding of a gold chain to mobilise and align the canine, which can take up to 3 years. As this procedure has various risks, patients need to be appropriately consented to. Failure of such treatment commonly occurs due to inadequate anchorage or failure of the gold chain attachment, but in some cases, this is due to ankylosis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of ankylosis of unerupted maxillary ectopic canines following surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment at the Maxillofacial and Orthodontic Department, Royal Stoke University Hospital (RSUH), United Kingdom. Methodology: Patients treated from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019, were retrospectively studied. Electronic records with post-treatment follow-up at 3-6 months and 12-15 months were extracted and analysed. Patients were excluded based on three criteria, non-compliance with orthodontic treatment post-surgery, presence of canine transposition, and external orthodontic treatment. Sample: Overall, 159 suitable patients were selected from the 171 patients identified. Surgical exposure and gold chain bonding was carried out for a total of 206 maxillary canines, with the pattern of impaction being 159 (77.2 %) palatal, 46 (22.3%) buccal, and 1 (0.49%) in line of the arch. The sample consisted of 57 (35.8%) males and 102 (64.2%) females between the age range of 10 to 32 years, with the mean age being 15 years. The procedures were carried out under general anaesthesia for all but three patients, with two cases being repeats. Closed exposure was carried out for 189 (91.7%) canines. Results: The incidence of ankylosis from this study was 0.97%. In total, two patients had upper left canine ankylosis, which was identified at their 12-15 months orthodontic follow-up. Both patients were males, one having closed exposure at age 15 and the other having open exposure at age 19. Conclusions: Although this data shows that there is a low risk of ankylosis (0.97%), it highlights the difficulty in predicting which patients may be affected, and thus, a thorough pre-treatment assessment and careful observation during treatment is necessary. Future studies involving larger cohorts are warranted to further analyse factors affecting outcomes.

Keywords: ankylosis, ectopic, maxillary canines, orthodontics

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5 Knowledge Management in Public Sector Employees: A Case Study of Training Participants at National Institute of Management, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Haroon Idrees, Imran Aziz, Sidra Mushtaq

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the current level of knowledge mapping skills of the public sector employees in Pakistan. National Institute of Management is one of the premiere public sector training organization for mid-career public sector employees in Pakistan. This study is conducted on participants of fourteen weeks long training course called Mid-Career Management Course (MCMC) which is mandatory for public sector employees in order to ascertain how to enhance their knowledge mapping skills. Methodology: Researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approach to conduct this study. Primary data about current level of participants’ understanding of knowledge mapping was collected through structured questionnaire. Later on, Participant Observation method was used where researchers acted as part of the group to gathered data from the trainees during their performance in training activities and tasks. Findings: Respondents of the study were examined for skills and abilities to organizing ideas, helping groups to develop conceptual framework, identifying critical knowledge areas of an organization, study large networks and identifying the knowledge flow using nodes and vertices, visualizing information, represent organizational structure etc. Overall, the responses varied in different skills depending on the performance and presentations. However, generally all participants have demonstrated average level of using both the IT and Non-IT K-mapping tools and techniques during simulation exercises, analysis paper de-briefing, case study reports, post visit presentation, course review, current issue presentation, syndicate meetings, and daily synopsis. Research Limitations: This study is conducted on a small-scale population of 67 public sector employees nominated by federal government to undergo 14 weeks extensive training program called MCMC (Mid-Career Management Course) at National Institute of Management, Peshawar, Pakistan. Results, however, reflects only a specific class of public sector employees i.e. working in grade 18 and having more than 5 years of work. Practical Implications: Research findings are useful for trainers, training agencies, government functionaries, and organizations working for capacity building of public sector employees.

Keywords: knowledge management, km in public sector, knowledge management and professional development, knowledge management in training, knowledge mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 183