Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: metallic mordant

452 The Role of Metallic Mordant in Natural Dyeing Process: Experimental and Quantum Study on Color Fastness

Authors: Bo-Gaun Chen, Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ching Chiang, Kuo-Hsing Lee, Chia-Chen Ho, Chin-Ping Huang, Chin-Heng Tien

Abstract:

It is known that the natural dyeing of cloth results moderate color, but with poor color fastness. This study points out the correlation between the macroscopic color fastness of natural dye to the cotton fiber and the microscopic binding energy of dye molecule to the cellulose. With the additive metallic mordant, the new-formed coordination bond bridges the dye to the fiber surface and thus affects the color fastness as well as the color appearance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation is therefore used to explore the most possible mechanism during the dyeing process. Finally, the experimental results reflect the strong effect of three different metal ions on the natural dyeing clothes.

Keywords: binding energy, color fastness, density functional theory (DFT), natural dyeing, metallic mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
451 Textile Dyeing with Natural Dye from Sappan Tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) Extract

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nattida Tumpat

Abstract:

Natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing process. The dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was extracted using water and ethanol. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. Brazilein, the major dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was confirmed in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts by UV–VIS spectrum. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordant had a shade of reddish-brown, while those post-mordanted with aluminum potassium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate produced a variety of wine red to dark purple color shades. Cotton fabric and silk yarn dyeing was studied using aluminum potassium sulfate as a mordant. The observed color strength was enhanced with increase in mordant concentration.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
450 Study of Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CeFeO3

Authors: A. Abbad, W. Benstaali

Abstract:

Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory and generalize gradient approximation, we predict electronic and magnetic properties of CeFeO3 orthorhombic perovskite. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the metallic behavior CeFeO3 when we use the GGA scheme, whereas when we use the GGA+U, we see that its exhibits half-metallic character with an integer magnetic moment of 24μB per formula unit at its equilibrium volume which makes this compound promising candidate for applications in spintronics.

Keywords: CeFeO3, magnetic moment, half-metallic, electronic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
449 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Kouidri, B.Madani

Abstract:

The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.

Keywords: boiling, metallic foam, heat transfer, plate heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
448 Half Metallic Antiferromagnetic of Doped TiO2 Rutile with Doubles Impurities (Os, Mo) from Ab Initio Calculations

Authors: M. Fakhim Lamrani, M. Ouchri, M. Belaiche, El Kenz, M. Loulidi, A. Benyoussef

Abstract:

Electronic and magnetic calculations based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation for II-VI compound semiconductor TiO2 doped with single impurity Os and Mo; these compounds are a half metallic ferromagnet in their ground state with a total magnetic moment of 2 μB for both systems. Then, TiO2 doped with double impurities Os and Mo have been performed. As result, Ti1-2xOsxMoxO2 with x=0.065 is half-metallic antiferromagnets with 100% spin polarization of the conduction electrons crossing the Fermi level, without showing a net magnetization. Moreover, Ti14OsMoO32 compound is stable energetically than Ti1-xMoxO2 and Ti1-xOsxO2. The antiferromagnetic interaction in Ti1-2xOsxMoxO2 system is attributed to the double exchange mechanism, and the latter could also be the origin of their half metallic.

Keywords: diluted magnetic semiconductor, half-metallic antiferromagnetic, augmented spherical wave method

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
447 Natural Dyeing on Wool Fabrics Using Some Red Rose Petals

Authors: Emrah Çimen, Mustafa Demirelli, Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Mahmure Üstün Özgür

Abstract:

Natural colours are used on a large area such as textile, food and pharmaceutical industries by many researchers. When tannic acid is used together with metal salts for dyeing with natural dyes, antibacterial and fastness properties of textile materials are increased. In addition, the allegens are removed on wool fabrics. In this experimental work, some red rose petals were applied as a natural dye with three different dyeing methods and eight different mordant salts. The effect of tannic acid and different metal salts on dyeing of wool fabric was studied. Colour differences ΔECMC (2:1) and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were investigated and compared with each other. Finally, dark colours and adequate colour fastness results (4+) were obtained after dyeing of wool fabrics with FeSO4.7H2O, FeCl3.6H2O and CuCl2.2H2O in the presence of the tannic acid.

Keywords: natural dye, red rose petals, tannic acid, mordant salts, wool fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 550
446 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

Abstract:

Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
445 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Recep Karadağ, Emine Torgan

Abstract:

Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, natural dye, dyeing, silk fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
444 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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443 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
442 Nanowire by Ac Electrodeposition Into Nanoporous Alumina Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Metalic

Authors: M. Beyzaiea, S. Mohammadia

Abstract:

High aspect ratio metallic (silver, cobalt) nanowire arrays were fabricated using ac electrodeposition techniques into the nanoporous alumina template. The template with long pore dept fabricated by hard anodization (HA) and thinned for ac electrodeposition. Template preparation was done in short time by using HA technique and high speed thing process. The TEM and XRD investigation confirm the three dimensional nucleation growth mechanism of metallic nanowire inside the nanoporous alumina that fabricated by HA process.

Keywords: metallic, nanowire, nanoporous alumina, ac electrodeposition

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441 Critical Investigation on Performance of Polymeric Materials in Rehabilitation of Metallic Components

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Failure and leakage of metallic components because of corrosion in infrastructure structures is a considerably problematic and expensive issue and the traditional solution of replacing the component is costly and time-consuming. Rehabilitation techniques by using advanced polymeric materials are an alternative solution towards this problem. This paper provides a summary of analyses on relined rehabilitated metallic samples after exposure in practice and real condition to study the composite material performance when it is exposed to water, heat and chemicals in real condition. The study was carried out by using different test methods such as microscopy, thermal and chemical as well as mechanical analyses.

Keywords: composite, material, rehabilitation, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
440 BI- And Tri-Metallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Iodide Decomposition

Authors: Sony, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar

Abstract:

Production of hydrogen from a renewable raw material without any co-synthesis of harmful greenhouse gases is the current need for sustainable energy solutions. The sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, using intermediate chemicals, is an efficient process for producing hydrogen at a much lower temperature than that required for the direct splitting of water. No net byproduct forms in the cycle. Hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition is a crucial reaction in this cycle, as the product, hydrogen, forms only in this step. It is an endothermic, reversible, and equilibrium-limited reaction. The theoretical equilibrium conversion at 550°C is just a meagre of 24%. There is a growing interest, therefore, in enhancing the HI conversion to near-equilibrium values at lower reaction temperatures and by possibly improving the rate. The reaction is relatively slow without a catalyst, and hence catalytic decomposition of HI has gained much significance. Bi-metallic Ni-Co, Ni-Mn, Co-Mn, and tri-metallic Ni-Co-Mn catalysts over zirconia support were tested for HI decomposition reaction. The catalysts were synthesized via a sol-gel process wherein Ni was 3wt% in all the samples, and Co and Mn had equal weight ratios in the Co-Mn catalyst. Powdered X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area characterizations indicated the polycrystalline nature and well-developed mesoporous structure of all the samples. The experiments were performed in a vertical laboratory-scale packed bed reactor made of quartz, and HI (55 wt%) was fed along with nitrogen at a WHSV of 12.9 hr⁻¹. Blank experiments at 500°C for HI decomposition suggested conversion of less than 5%. The activities of all the different catalysts were checked at 550°C, and the highest conversion of 23.9% was obtained with the tri-metallic 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ catalyst. The decreasing order of the performance of catalysts could be expressed as: 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Co-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Mn-ZrO₂ > 2.5Co-2.5Mn-ZrO₂. The tri-metallic catalyst remained active till 360 mins at 550°C without any observable drop in its activity/stability. Among the explored catalyst compositions, the tri-metallic catalyst certainly has a better performance for HI conversion when compared to the bi-metallic ones. Owing to their low costs and ease of preparation, these trimetallic catalysts could be used for large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: sulfur-iodine cycle, hydrogen production, hydrogen iodide decomposition, bi-, and tri-metallic catalysts

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439 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Metallic Hydroxyds

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Metallic Hydroxydes, industrial dyes, purification, lagunage

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
438 Dipole and Quadrupole Scattering of Ultra Short Pulses on Metal Nanospheres

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko

Abstract:

The presentation is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) scattering on metallic nanospheres in a dielectric medium in the vicinity of surface plasmon resonance due to excitation of dipole and quadrupole surface plasmons.

Keywords: surface plasmon, scattering, metallic nanosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
437 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala

Abstract:

Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
436 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo

Abstract:

The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
435 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj

Abstract:

The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
434 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
433 Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CdCoTe and CdMnTe: Ab-Initio Study

Authors: A.Zitouni, S.Bentata, B.Bouadjemi, T.Lantri, W. Benstaali, Z.Aziz, S.Cherid, A. Sefir

Abstract:

Using the first-principles method, we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc blende phase with 12.5% of Cr. The calculations are performed by a developed full potential augmented plane wave (FP-L/APW) method within the spin density functional theory (DFT). As exchange–correlation potential, we used the new generalized gradient approximation GGA. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations and we found that these compounds are stable in the ferromagnetic phase. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and local moments. Finally, CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc-blend phase show the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature and are expected to be potential materials for spintronic devices.

Keywords: DFT, GGA, band structures, half-metallic, spintronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
432 Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in Ternary Zinc Blende Fe/In0.5Ga0.5 as/in Psuperlattice: First-Principles Study

Authors: N. Berrouachedi, M. Bouslama, S. Rioual, B. Lescop, J. Langlois

Abstract:

Using first-principles calculations within the LSDA (Local Spin Density Approximation) method based on density functional theory (DFT), the electronic structure and magnetic properties of zinc blende Fe/In0.5Ga0.5As/InPsuperlattice are investigated. This compound are found to be half -metallic ferromagnets with a total magnetic moment of 2.25μB per Fe. In addition to this, we reported the DRX measurements of the thick iron sample before and after annealing. One should note, after the annealing treatment at a higher temperature, the disappearance of the peak associated to the Fe(001) plane. In contrast to this report, we observed after the annealing at low temperature the additional peaks attributed to the presence of indium and Fe2As. This suggests a subsequent process consisting in a strong migration of atoms followed with crystallization at the higher temperature.To investigate the origin of magnetism and electronic structure in these zb compounds, we calculated the total and partial DOS of FeInP.One can see that µtotal=4.24µBand µFe=3.27µB in contrast µIn=0.021µB and µP=0.049µB.These results predicted that FeInP compound do belong to the class of zb half metallic HM ferromagnetswith a pseudo gap= 0.93 eVare more promising materials for spintronics devices.

Keywords: zincblend structure, half metallic ferromagnet, spin moments, total and partial DOS, DRX, Wien2k

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431 Heat Transfer Enhancement through Hybrid Metallic Nanofluids Flow with Viscous Dissipation and Joule Heating Effect

Authors: Khawar Ali

Abstract:

We present the numerical study of unsteady hydromagnetic (MHD) flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting water-based hybrid metallic nanofluid (containing Cu-Au/ H₂O nanoparticles) between two orthogonally moving porous coaxial disks with suction. Different from the classical shooting methodology, we employ a combination of a direct and an iterative method (SOR with optimal relaxation parameter) for solving the sparse systems of linear algebraic equations arising from the FD discretization of the linearized self similar nonlinear ODEs. Effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer are discussed and presented through tables and graphs. The findings of the present investigation may be beneficial for the electronic industry in maintaining the electronic components under effectiveand safe operational conditions.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, hybrid metallic nanofluid, viscous dissipation and joule heating effect , Two dimensional flow

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430 Free-Standing Pd-Based Metallic Glass Membranes for MEMS Applications

Authors: Wei-Shan Wang, Klaus Vogel, Felix Gabler, Maik Wiemer, Thomas Gessner

Abstract:

Metallic glasses, which are free of grain boundaries, have superior properties including large elastic limits, high strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and thin film metallic glasses (TFMG) have been widely developed and investigated. Among various kinds of metallic glasses, Pd-Cu-Si TFMG, which has lower elastic modulus and better resistance of oxidation and corrosions compared to Zr- and Fe-based TFMGs, can be a promising candidate for MEMS applications. However, the study of Pd-TFMG membrane is still limited. This paper presents free-standing Pd-based metallic glass membranes with large area fabricated on wafer level for the first time. Properties of Pd-Cu-Si thin film metallic glass (TFMG) with various deposition parameters are investigated first. When deposited at 25°C, compressive stress occurs in the Pd76Cu6Si18 thin film regardless of Ar pressure. When substrate temperature is increased to 275°C, the stress state changes from compressive to tensile. Thin film stresses are slightly decreased when Ar pressure is higher. To show the influence of temperature on Pd-TFMGs, thin films without and with post annealing below (275°C) and within (370°C) supercooled liquid region are investigated. Results of XRD and TEM analysis indicate that Pd-TFMGs remain amorphous structure with well-controlled parameters. After verification of amorphous structure of the Pd-TFMGs, free-standing Pd-Cu-Si membranes were fabricated by depositing Pd-Cu-Si thin films directly on 200nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, followed by post annealing and dry etching of silicon nitride layer. Post annealing before SiNx removal is used to further release internal stress of Pd-TFMGs. The edge length of the square membrane ranges from 5 to 8mm. The effect of post annealing on Pd-Cu-Si membranes are discussed as well. With annealing at 370°C for 5 min, Pd-MG membranes are fully distortion-free after removal of SiNx layer. Results show that, by introducing annealing process, the stress-relief, distortion-free Pd-TFMG membranes with large area can be a promising candidate for sensing applications such as pressure and gas sensors.

Keywords: amorphous alloy, annealing, metallic glasses, TFMG membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
429 Evidence of Half-Metallicity in Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad

Abstract:

The electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3 were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, where U is on-site Coulomb interaction correction. The results show a half-metallic ferromagnetic ground state for PrMnO3 in GGA+U approached, while semi-metallic ferromagnetic character is observed in GGA. The results obtained, make the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: first-principles, electronic properties, transition metal, materials science

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
428 Deformation of Metallic Foams with Closed Cell at High Temperatures

Authors: Emrah Ersoy, Yusuf Ozcatalbas

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate formability of Al based closed cell metallic foams at high temperature. The foam specimens with rectangular section were produced from AlMg1Si0.6TiH20.8 alloy preform material. Bending and free bending tests based on gravity effect were applied to foam specimens at high temperatures. During the tests, the time-angular deformation relationships with various temperatures were determined. Deformation types formed in cell walls were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. Bending deformation about 90° was achieved without any defect at high temperatures. The importance of a critical temperature and deformation rate was emphasized in maintaining the deformation. Significant slip lines on surface of cell walls at tensile zones of bending specimen were observed. At high strain rates, the microcrack formation in boundaries of elongated grains was determined.

Keywords: Al alloy, Closed cell, Hot deformation, Metallic foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
427 First Principles Study of a New Half-Metallic Ferrimagnets Mn2–Based Full Heusler Compounds: Mn2ZrSi and Mn2ZrGe

Authors: Ahmed Abada, Kadda Amara, Said Hiadsi, Bouhalouane Amrani

Abstract:

Half-metallic properties of new predicted Mn2-based full Heusler alloys Mn2ZrSi and Mn2ZrGe have been studied by first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Our investigation is focused on the structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of these compounds. The AlCu2Mn-type structure is found to be energetically more favorable than the CuHg2Ti-type structure for both compounds and are half-metallic ferrimagnets (HMFIs) with total magnetic moments of 2.000 µB per formula unit, well consistent with Slater-Pauling rule (Mtot = ( 24 – Ztot ) µB). Calculations show that both the alloys have an indirect band gaps, in the majority-spin channel, with values of 0.505 eV and 0.278 eV for Mn2ZrSi and Mn2ZrGe, respectively. It was found that Mn2ZrSi and Mn2ZrGe preserved their half-metallicity for lattice constants range of 5.85–6.38 Å and 6.05–6.38 Å, respectively, and kept a 100% of spin polarization at the Fermi level. Moreover, the calculated formation energies and elastic constants confirm that these compounds are stable chemically and mechanically, and the good crystallographic compatibility with the lattice of semiconductors used industrially makes them promising magnetic materials in spintronic applications.

Keywords: first-principles calculations, full Heusler structure, half-metallic ferrimagnets, elastic properties

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426 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang

Abstract:

The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

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425 Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can

Abstract:

This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.

Keywords: tri-metallic, upsetting, copper, brass, steel, aluminum

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424 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian

Abstract:

This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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423 Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of New Developed Titanium Alloys in Ringer’s Solution

Authors: Yasser M. Abd-elrhman, Mohamed A. Gepreel, Kiochi Nakamura, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Sengo Kobayashi, Mervat M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are known as highly bio compatible metallic materials due to their high strength, low elastic modulus, and high corrosion resistance in biological media. Besides other important material features, the corrosion parameters and corrosion products are responsible for limiting the biological and chemical bio compatibility of metallic materials that produce undesirable reactions in implant-adjacent and/or more distant tissues. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of novel beta titanium alloys, Ti-4.7Mo-4.5Fe, Ti-3Mo-0.5Fe, and Ti-2Mo-0.5Fe were characterized in naturally aerated Ringer’s solution at room temperature compared with common used biomedical titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys were investigated through open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements and optical microscope (OM). A high corrosion resistance was obtained for all alloys due to the stable passive film formed on their surfaces. The new present alloys are promising metallic biomaterials for the future, owing to their very low elastic modulus and good corrosion resistance capabilities.

Keywords: titanium alloys, corrosion resistance, Ringer’s solution, electrochemical corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 553