Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1676

Search results for: green roofs

1676 Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls

Authors: Eman M. Elmazek

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.

Keywords: green roof, green walls, urban farming, roof herb garden

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1675 Decision Support Tool for Green Roofs Selection: A Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: I. Teotónio, C.O. Cruz, C.M. Silva, M. Manso

Abstract:

Diverse stakeholders show different concerns when choosing green roof systems. Also, green roof solutions vary in their cost and performance. Therefore, decision-makers continually face the difficult task of balancing benefits against green roofs costs. Decision analysis methods, as multicriteria analysis, can be used when the decision‑making process includes different perspectives, multiple objectives, and uncertainty. The present study adopts a multicriteria decision model to evaluate the installation of green roofs in buildings, determining the solution with the best trade-off between costs and benefits in agreement with the preferences of the users/investors. This methodology was applied to a real decision problem, assessing the preferences between different green roof systems in an existing building in Lisbon. This approach supports the decision-making process on green roofs and enables robust and informed decisions on urban planning while optimizing buildings retrofitting.

Keywords: decision making, green roofs, investors preferences, multicriteria analysis, sustainable development

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1674 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries

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1673 Green Roofs and Xeriscape Planting that Contribute to Sustainable Urban Green Space

Authors: Derya Sarı, Banu Karasah

Abstract:

In the recent years, urban green areas decrease dramatically as a result of increasing industrialization and population growth. At the same time, green spaces provide many ecosystem services such as controls of air pollution, noise reduction, prevents flooding and reduces the stress in the urban areas. Therefore, the plants help to these areas to get more livable and active, and also plants are one of the most significant identity elements in these open spaces. Roof gardens comes significant design comprehension as a result of global warming and also they contribute to cities with regard to ecological, economic, visual and recreational aspects. This study is mainly based on evaluation potential of green roofs and xeriscape planting design approach of Artvin (Turkey) known that generally has a remarkable floristic richness. Artvin is located on a sloping terrain, and the amount of green spaces that can be used is very limited in this city. Therefore, green roofs approach should be evaluated to supply urban green space sustainability. This study shows that it is appropriate about 20 perennial plants for green roofs and xeriscape planting design in Artvin city center. Usage of native plant species would be support to sustainable urban green spaces.

Keywords: Artvin, green roofs, urban green spaces, xeriscape planting

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1672 Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada

Authors: Santhosh Kumar Sathi

Abstract:

In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.

Keywords: energy consumption, green roofs, retrofitting, urban heat island

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1671 Assessment of Alternative Water Resources and Growing Media in Green Roofs

Authors: Hamideh Nouri, Sattar Chavoshi Borujeni

Abstract:

Grey infrastructure is an unavoidable part of urbanisation that is threatening the local microclimates. Sustainable urbanisation requires more green infrastructure in cities such as green roofs to minimise urbanisation impacts. The environmental, social and economic benefits of green roofs are widely deliberated. However, there is still a lack of assessment of the water management for green roofs. This paper aimed to assess the irrigation management of green roofs in a semi-arid region where blue water scarcity is one of the primary challenges in urban water management. To determine the appropriate water source and growing media for green roofs, an experiment was established at the University of South Australia, Australia. This study compared the performance of two growing media and three water sources on the drainage quality, medium weight and survival rate of potted Tussock grass (Poa labillardieral), an endemic plant to Australia and recommended for green roofs. Three irrigation sources were tap water, mixed of wastewater-stormwater, and rainwater. The growing media were natural sandy loam soil and Scoria - one of the most used commercial growing media for green roofs. The drainage quality of these media was tested by analysing leachate samples. Medium weight was measured before and after watering, and all pots were monitored for their survival rates. Results showed that although plant growing development was significantly higher in Scoria, the survival rate was lower. For all three water sources, EC and pH of the leachate were significantly lower from Scoria than the sandy loam soil. However, the mixed of wastewater-stormwater had the highest EC, and rainwater had the lowest EC. Results did not present a significant difference between pH of different water resources in the same media. Our experimental results found the scoria and rainwater as the best sources of medium and water for green roofs.

Keywords: green smart cities, urban water, green roofs, green walls, wastewater, stormwater

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1670 Thermal Behavior of the Extensive Green Roofs in Riyadh City

Authors: Ashraf Muharam, Nasser Al-Hemiddi, El Sayed Amer

Abstract:

Green roof is one of sustainable practice for reducing the environmental impact of a building. Green roofs are vegetation roofs that are partially or completely covered building's roof. It can provide multiple environmental benefits such as mitigation of urban heat island effect and protecting buildings against solar radiation. In Riyadh city buildings consume about 70 % of the total energy used in the building for cooling and heating because of the Riyadh's harsh and tropical climate. So, the study aim was identifying the thermal performance of extensive green roof and comparing its performance with concrete roof performance during summer season. The experimental validations results indicated that the extensive green roofs system was better than concrete roof system for lowering the indoor air temperature. It could reduce the indoor air temperature from 2°C to 5.5°C compared to the concrete roof system. Also, the finding of this study demonstrated that extensive green roof system could reduce 12% to 33% of energy consumption of air conditioning in Riyadh city during summer seasons by using environmentally friendly insulation.

Keywords: thermal performance, green roof system, concrete roof system, tropical climatic, internal temperatures

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1669 Federal College of Education Kano

Authors: Mahnaz Babaei Morad, Mojtaba Zargarzadeh, Behnaz Babaei Morad, Najmeh Salari Nasab

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are one of the key elements of sustainable design in ecology design of cities. Lack of open space and urban green at different scales from one neighborhood to district is as subject that has become challenge for urban management Use change from green space to other use is familiar for Iranian citizens. The high price of land in this area, it seems only justified reason for municipalities that reduce the green space per capita. In this paper, examines the rooftops of Iranian city as a fifth facade, as well as the opportunity to offset some of the capital's urban spaces that has been removed. Today green roof isn't a matter of taste in the world. Be proportional to the quantity and quality of the architecture become the first concern of urban professionals and ecological approaches such as "sustainable" and "green architecture" is checked. In this paper we review and present examples of green roofs have been executed in Iran over the past decade. Survey some of the urban management policies in leading province in this article constitutes the second dimension. The purpose of this paper is study example of green roof performance in different parts of Iran, along with criteria for sustainable urban development and achieves the policies and components collection of implementation sustainable development , specific of Iranian green roof and monitor the develops ways to it.

Keywords: sustainable development, green roofs, Iran, green architecture

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1668 Identifying the Influence of Vegetation Type on Multiple Green Roof Functions with a Field Experiment in Zurich

Authors: Lauren M. Cook, Tove A. Larsen

Abstract:

Due to their potential to provide numerous ecosystem services, green roofs have been proposed as a solution to mitigate a growing list of environmental challenges, like urban flooding and urban heat island effect. Because of their cooling effect, green roofs placed below rooftop photovoltaic (PV) panels also have the potential to increase PV panel efficiency. Sedums, a type of succulent plant, are commonly used on green roofs because they are drought and heat tolerant. However, other plant species, such as grasses or plants with reflective properties, have been shown to reduce more runoff and cool the rooftop more than succulent species due to high evapotranspiration (ET) and reflectivity, respectively. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether vegetation with high ET or reflectivity can influence multiple co-benefits of the green roof. Four small scale green roofs in Zurich are used as an experiment to evaluate differences in (1) the timing and amount of runoff discharged from the roof, (2) the air temperature above the green roof, and (3) the temperature and efficiency of solar panels placed above the green roof. One grass species, Silene vulgaris, and one silvery species, Stachys byzantia, are compared to a baseline of Sedum album and black roof. Initial results from August to November 2019 show that the grass species has retained more cumulative runoff and led to a lower canopy temperature than the other species. Although the results are not yet statistically significant, they may suggest that plants with higher ET will have a greater effect on canopy temperature than plants with high reflectivity. Future work will confirm this hypothesis and evaluate whether it holds true for solar panel temperature and efficiency.

Keywords: co-benefit estimation, green cities, green roofs, solar panels

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1667 A Theoretical Study of and Phase Change Material Layered Roofs under Specific Climatic Regions in Turkey and the United Kingdom

Authors: Tugba Gurler, Irfan Kurtbas

Abstract:

Roof influences considerably energy demand of buildings. In order to reduce this energy demand, various solutions have been proposed, such as roofs with variable thermal insulation, cool roofs, green roofs, heat exchangers and ventilated roofs, and phase change material (PCM) layered roofs. PCMs suffer from relatively low thermal conductivity despite of their promise of the energy-efficiency initiatives for thermal energy storage (TES). This study not only presents the thermal performance of the concrete roof with PCM layers but also evaluates the products with different design configurations and thicknesses under Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Nottinghamshire, UK weather conditions. System design limitations and proposed prediction models are discussed in this study. A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed, and governing equations have been solved at each time step. Upper surfaces of the roofs have been modelled with heat flux conditions, while lower surfaces of the roofs with boundary conditions. In addition, suitable roofs have been modeled under symmetry boundary conditions. The results of the designed concrete roofs with PCM layers have been compared with common concrete roofs in Turkey. The UK and the numerical modeling results have been validated with the data given in the literature.

Keywords: phase change material, regional energy demand, roof layers, thermal energy storage

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1666 Study on the Effect of Different Media on Green Roof Water Retention

Authors: Chen Zhi-Wei, Hsieh Wei-Fang

Abstract:

Taiwan annual rainfall is global average of 2.5 times, plus city excessive development, green constantly to reduced, instead of is big area of artificial base disc, makes Taiwan rainy season during occurred of storm cannot timely of emissions, led to flood constantly, and rain also cannot was retained again using, led to city hydrological balance suffered damage, and to Regulation city of by brings of negative effect, increased green covered rate became most effective of method, and city land limited, so roof green gradually became a alternative program. Green roofs have become one of the Central and local government policy initiatives for urban development, in foreign countries, such as the United States, and Japan, and Singapore etc. Development of roof greening as an important policy, has become a trend of the times. In recent years, many experts and scholars are also on the roof greening all aspects of research, mostly for green roof for the environmental impact of benefits, such as: carbon reduction, cooling, thermostat, but research on the benefits of green roofs under water cut but it is rare. Therefore, this research literature from green roof in to view and analyze what kind of medium suitable for roof greening and use of green base plate combination simulated green roof structure, via different proportions of the medium with water retention plate and drainage board, experiment with different planting base plate combination of water conservation performance. Research will want to test the effect of roof planting base mix, promotion of relevant departments and agencies in future implementation of green roofs, prompted the development of green roofs, which in the end Taiwan achieve sustainable development of the urban environment help.

Keywords: thin-layer roof greening and planting medium, water efficiency

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1665 Thermal Performance of the Extensive Wetland Green Roofs in Winter in Humid Subtropical Climate

Authors: Yi-Yu Huang, Chien-Kuo Wang, Sreerag Chota Veettil, Hang Zhang, Hu Yike

Abstract:

Regarding the pressing issue of reducing energy consumption and carbon footprint of buildings, past research has focused more on analyzing the thermal performance of the extensive terrestrial green roofs with sedum plants in summer. However, the disadvantages of this type of green roof are relatively limited thermal performance, low extreme weather adaptability, relatively higher demands in maintenance, and lower added value in healing landscape. In view of this, this research aims to develop the extensive wetland green roofs with higher thermal performance, high extreme weather adaptability, low demands in maintenance, and high added value in healing landscape, and to measure its thermal performance for buildings in winter. The following factors are considered including the type and mixing formula of growth medium (light weight soil, akadama, creek gravel, pure water) and the type of aquatic plants. The research adopts a four-stage field experiment conducting on the rooftop of a building in a humid subtropical climate. The results found that emergent (Roundleaf rotala), submerged (Ribbon weed), floating-leaved (Water lily) wetland green roofs had similar thermal performance, and superior over wetland green roof without plant, traditional terrestrial green roof (without plant), and pure water green roof (without plant, nighttime only) in terms of overall passive cooling (8.00C) and thermal insulation (4.50C) effects as well as a reduction in heat amplitude (77-85%) in winter in a humid subtropical climate. The thermal performance of the free-floating (Water hyacinth) wetland green roof is inferior to that of the other three types of wetland green roofs, whether in daytime or nighttime.

Keywords: thermal performance, extensive wetland green roof, Aquatic plant, Winter , Humid subtropical climate

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1664 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of an Extensive Green Roof with a Traditional Gravel-Asphalted Roof: An Application for the Lebanese Context

Authors: Makram El Bachawati, Rima Manneh, Thomas Dandres, Carla Nassab, Henri El Zakhem, Rafik Belarbi

Abstract:

A vegetative roof, also called a garden roof, is a "roofing system that endorses the growth of plants on a rooftop". Garden roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as embellishing the roofing system, enhancing the water management, and reducing the energy consumption and heat island effects. Lebanon is a Middle East country that lacks the use of a sustainable energy system. It imports 98% of its non-renewable energy from neighboring countries and suffers flooding during heavy rains. The objective of this paper is to determine if the implementation of vegetative roofs is effectively better than the traditional roofs for the Lebanese context. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in order to compare an existing extensive green roof to a traditional gravel-asphalted roof. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was established and modeled using the SimaPro 8.0 software, while the environmental impacts were classified using the IMPACT 2002+ methodology. Results indicated that, for the existing extensive green roof, the waterproofing membrane and the growing medium were the highest contributors to the potential environmental impacts. When comparing the vegetative to the traditional roof, results showed that, for all impact categories, the extensive green roof had the less environmental impacts.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, green roofs, vegatative roof, environmental impact

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1663 Effect of Green Roofs to Prevent the Dissipation of Energy in Mountainous Areas

Authors: Mina Ganji Morad, Maziar Azadisoleimanieh, Sina Ganji Morad

Abstract:

A green roof is formed by green plants alive and has many positive impacts in the regional climatic, as well as indoor. Green roof system to prevent solar radiation plays a role in the cooling space. The cooling is done by reducing thermal fluctuations on the exterior of the roof and by increasing the roof heat capacity which cause to keep the space under the roof cool in the summer and heating rate increases during the winter. A roof garden is one of the recommended ways to reduce energy consumption in large cities. Despite the scale of the city green roofs have effective functions, such as beautiful view of city and decontaminating the urban landscape and reduce mental stress, and in an exchange of energy and heat from outside to inside spaces. This article is based on a review of 20 articles and 10 books and valid survey results on the positive effects of green roofs to prevent energy waste in the building. According to these publications, three of the conventional roof, green roof typical and green roof with certain administrative details (layers of glass) and the use of resistant plants and shrubs have been analyzed and compared their heat transfer. The results of these studies showed that one of the best green roof systems for mountainous climate is tree and shrub system that in addition to being resistant to climate change in mountainous regions, will benefit from the other advantages of green roof. Due to the severity of climate change in mountainous areas it is essential to prevent the waste of buildings heating and cooling energy. Proper climate design can greatly help to reduce energy.

Keywords: green roof, heat transfer, reducing energy consumption, mountainous areas, sustainable architecture

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1662 Sustainability Analysis and Quality Assessment of Rainwater Harvested from Green Roofs: A Review

Authors: Mst. Nilufa Sultana, Shatirah Akib, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Most people today are aware that global Climate change, is not just a scientific theory but also a fact with worldwide consequences. Global climate change is due to rapid urbanization, industrialization, high population growth and current vulnerability of the climatic condition. Water is becoming scarce as a result of global climate change. To mitigate the problem arising due to global climate change and its drought effect, harvesting rainwater from green roofs, an environmentally-friendly and versatile technology, is becoming one of the best assessment criteria and gaining attention in Malaysia. This paper addresses the sustainability of green roofs and examines the quality of water harvested from green roofs in comparison to rainwater. The factors that affect the quality of such water, taking into account, for example, roofing materials, climatic conditions, the frequency of rainfall frequency and the first flush. A green roof was installed on the Humid Tropic Centre (HTC) is a place of the study on monitoring program for urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA), Eco-Hydrological Project in Kualalumpur, and the rainwater was harvested and evaluated on the basis of four parameters i.e., conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature. These parameters were found to fall between Class I and Class III of the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) and the Water Quality Index (WQI). Some preliminary treatment such as disinfection and filtration could likely to improve the value of these parameters to class I. This review paper clearly indicates that there is a need for more research to address other microbiological and chemical quality parameters to ensure that the harvested water is suitable for use potable water for domestic purposes. The change in all physical, chemical and microbiological parameters with respect to storage time will be a major focus of future studies in this field.

Keywords: Green roofs, INWQS, MSMA-SME, rainwater harvesting, water treatment, water quality parameter, WQI

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1661 Monitoring Energy Reduction through Applying Green Roofs to Residential Buildings in Dubai

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb

Abstract:

Since buildings are a major consumer of energy, their potential impact on the environment is considerable. Therefore, expanding the application of low energy architecture is of the utmost importance. Designing with nature is also one of the most attractive methods of design for many architects and designers because it creates a pathway to sustainability. One feature of designing with nature is the use of green roofing which aims to cover the roof with vegetation either partially or completely. Appreciably, green roofing in a building has many advantages including absorbing rainwater, providing thermal insulation, enhancing the ecology, creating a peaceful retreat for people and animals, improving air quality and helping to offset the air temperature and heat island effect. The aim of this paper is to monitor energy saving in the residential buildings of Dubai after applying green roofing techniques. The paper also attempts to provide a thermal analysis after the application of green roofs. A villa in Dubai was chosen as a case study. With the aid of energy simulation software, namely Design Builder, as well as manual recording and calculations, the energy savings after applying the green roofing were detected. To that extent, the paper draws some recommendations with regard to the types of green roofing that should be used in these particular climatic conditions based on this real experiment that took place over a one year period.

Keywords: residential buildings, Dubai, energy saving, green roofing, CFD, thermal comfort

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1660 The Influence of Different Green Roof Vegetation on Indoor Temperature in Semi-Arid Climate Cyprus

Authors: Sinem Yıldırım, Çimen Özburak, Özge Özden

Abstract:

Cities are facing a growing environmental issue as a result of the combined effect of urbanization and climate change. Climate change is the most conspicuousimpact on environmental issues. Nowadays, energy conservation is a very important subject for planners. It is known that green roofs can provide environmental benefits, which include building insulation and mitigating urban heat island effect within the cities. Some of the studies shown that green roofs regulate roof temperature and they have an effect on indoor temperatures of buildings. This research looks at the experimental investigation of different type green roof vegetation with control of no vegetation and their effect on indoor temperatures. The research has been carried out at Near East University Campus with the duration of four months in Nicosia, Cyprus. The experiment was consisting of four green roof types; three of them covered with vegetation, and one of them was not vegetated for control of the experiment. Each hut had 2.7 m2 roof areas, and the soil depth was 8 cm. Mediterranean climate drought resistant ground covers and shrubs were planted on the roof of the three huts. Three different vegetation type was used: 1-Low growing ground cover succulents 2-Mixture of low growing succulents and low shrubs 3-Mixture of low growing succulents, low shrubs, and high growing foliage plantsElitech RC-5 temperature data loggers were used in order to measure indoor temperatures of the huts. Research results were shown that the hut with a highly vegetated roof had the lowest temperatures during hot summer period in Cyprus.

Keywords: green roofs, indoor temperature, vegetation, mediterranean, cyprus

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1659 Using Medicinal Herbs in Designing Green Roofs

Authors: Mohamad Javad Shakouri, Behshad Riahipour

Abstract:

Today, the use of medicinal herbs in architecture and green space has a significant effect on the process of calming human and increases the reliability coefficient of design and design flexibility. The current research was conducted with the aim to design green roof and investigate the effect of medicinal herbs such as cress, leek, fenugreek, beet, sweet fennel, green basil, purple basil, and purslane on reducing the number of environmental pollutants (copper, zinc, and cadmium). Finally, the weight of the dry plant and the concentration of elements zinc, lead, and cadmium in the herbs was measured. According to the results, the maximum dry weight (88.10 and 73.79 g) was obtained in beet and purslane respectively and the minimum dry weight (24.12 and 25.21) was obtained in purple basil, and green basil respectively. The maximum amount of element zinc (235 and 213 mg/kg) and the maximum amount of lead (143 mg/kg) were seen in sweet fennel and purple basil. In addition, the maximum amount of cadmium (13 mg/kg) was seen in sweet fennel and purple basil and the minimum amount of lead and cadmium (78 and 7 mg/kg) was seen in green basil, and the minimum amount of zinc (110 mg/kg) was seen in leek. On the other hand, the absorption amount of element lead in the herbs beet and purslane was the same and both absorbed 123 mg/kg lead. Environmentally, if green roofs are implemented extensively and in wide dimensions in urban spaces, they will purify and reduce pollution significantly by absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen.

Keywords: medicinal herbs, green space, green roof, heavy metals, lead, green basil

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1658 Impacts of Urban Morphologies on Air Pollutants Dispersion in Porto's Urban Area

Authors: Sandra Rafael, Bruno Vicente, Vera Rodrigues, Carlos Borrego, Myriam Lopes

Abstract:

Air pollution is an environmental and social issue at different spatial scales, especially in a climate change context, with an expected decrease of air quality. Air pollution is a combination of high emissions and unfavourable weather conditions, where wind speed and wind direction play a key role. The urban design (location and structure of buildings and trees) can both promote the air pollutants dispersion as well as promote their retention within the urban area. Today, most of the urban areas are applying measures to adapt to future extreme climatic events. Most of these measures are grounded on nature-based solutions, namely green roofs and green areas. In this sense, studies are required to evaluate how the implementation of these actions will influence the wind flow within the urban area and, consequently, how this will influence air pollutants' dispersion. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a set of urban morphologies in the wind conditions and in the dispersion of air pollutants, in a built-up area in Portugal. For that, two pollutants were analysed (NOx and PM10) and four scenarios were developed: i) a baseline scenario, which characterizes the current status of the study area, ii) an urban green scenario, which implies the implementation of a green area inside the domain, iii) a green roof scenario, which consists in the implementation of green roofs in a specific area of the domain; iv) a 'grey' scenario, which consists in a scenario with absence of vegetation. For that, two models were used, namely the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the CFD model VADIS (pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions). The WRF model was used to initialize the CFD model, while the last was used to perform the set of numerical simulations, on an hourly basis. The implementation of the green urban area promoted a reduction of air pollutants' concentrations, 16% on average, related to the increase in the wind flow, which promotes air pollutants dispersion; while the application of green roofs showed an increase of concentrations (reaching 60% during specific time periods). Overall the results showed that a strategic placement of vegetation in cities has the potential to make an important contribution to increase air pollutants dispersion and so promote the improvement of air quality and sustainability of urban environments.

Keywords: air pollutants dispersion, wind conditions, urban morphologies, road traffic emissions

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1657 Environmental and Formal Conditions for the Development of Blue-green Infrastructure (BGI) in the Cities of Central Europe on the Example of Poland

Authors: Magdalena Biela, Marta Weber-Siwirska, Edyta Sierka

Abstract:

The current noticed trend in Central European countries, as in other regions of the world, is for people to migrate to cities. As a result, the urban population is to have reached 70% of the total by 2050. Due to this tendency, as well as taking high real estate prices and limited reserves of city green areas into consideration, the greenery and agricultural soil adjacent to cities is are to be devoted to housing projects, while city centres are expected to undergo partial depopulation. Urban heat islands and phenomena such as torrential rains may cause serious damage. They may even endanger the very life and health of the inhabitants. Due to these tangible effects of climate change, residents expect that local government takes action to develop green infrastructure (GI). The main purpose of our research has been to assess the degree of readiness on the part of the local government in Poland to develop BGI. A questionnaire using the CAWI method was prepared, and a survey was carried out. The target group were town hall employees in all 380 powiat cities and towns (380 county centres) in Poland. The form contained 14 questions covering, among others, actions taken to support the development of GI and ways of motivating residents to take such actions. 224 respondents replied to the questions. The results of the research show that 52% of the cities/towns have taken or intend to take measures to favour the development of green spaces. Currently, the installation of green roofs and living walls is are only carried out by 6 Polish cities, and a few more are at the stage of preparing appropriate regulations. The problem of rainwater retention is much more widespread. Among the municipalities declaring any activities for the benefit of GI, approximately 42% have decided to work on this problem. Over 19% of the respondents are planning an increase in the surface occupied by green areas, 14% - the installation of green roofs, and 12% - redevelopment of city greenery. It is optimistic that 67% of the respondents are willing to acquire knowledge about BGI by means of taking part in educational activities both at the national and international levels. There are many ways to help GI development. The most common type of support in the cities and towns surveyed is co-financing (35%), followed by full financing of projects (11%). About 15% of the cities declare only advisory support. Thus, the problem of GI in Central European cities is at the stage of initial development and requires advanced measures and implementation of both proven solutions applied in other European and world countries using the concept of Nature-based Solutions.

Keywords: city/town, blue-green infrastructure, green roofs, climate change adaptation

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1656 Regulating Green Roofs: A Review of the Relation between Current International Regulations and Economic, Environmental and Social Effects

Authors: Marianna Nigra, Maicol Negrello

Abstract:

Efficiency, productivity, and sustainability are important factors for structure and the application of processes in green building. Various previous studies have addressed efficiency, productivity, and sustainability separately. This research study aims to investigate the implications of these three factors taking together. Frequency analysis and the ranking techniques are carried out to explore the connection between these factors. The interconnection matrix has been developed and functional grouping is made based upon data from expert opinion and field professionals. The existence of a relationship, the type of relationship and the scaled impact have been drawn. Additionally, a system diagram has been developed to show the variable correlation. The results of expert opinion show that efficiency, productivity, and sustainability have a stronger impact on green buildings.

Keywords: green roof regulation, architecture, climate adaptation, resilience, innovation management

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1655 Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Calculating the Installable Photovoltaic and Thermal Power on All the Roofs of the City of Aix-en-Provence, France

Authors: Sofiane Bourchak, Sébastien Bridier

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The objective of this study is to show how to calculate and map solar energy’s quantity (instantaneous and accumulated global solar radiation during the year) available on roofs in the city Aix-en-Provence which has a population of 140,000 inhabitants. The result is a geographic information system (GIS) layer, which represents hourly and monthly the production of solar energy on roofs throughout the year. Solar energy professionals can use it to optimize implementations and to size energy production systems. The results are presented as a set of maps, tables and histograms in order to determine the most effective costs in Aix-en-Provence in terms of photovoltaic power (electricity) and thermal power (hot water).

Keywords: geographic information system, photovoltaic, thermal, solar potential, solar radiation

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1654 Influence of Plant Cover and Redistributing Rainfall on Green Roof Retention and Plant Drought Stress

Authors: Lubaina Soni, Claire Farrell, Christopher Szota, Tim D. Fletcher

Abstract:

Green roofs are a promising engineered ecosystem for reducing stormwater runoff and restoring vegetation cover in cities. Plants can contribute to rainfall retention by rapidly depleting water in the substrate; however, this increases the risk of plant drought stress. Green roof configurations, therefore, need to provide plants the opportunity to efficiently deplete the substrate but also avoid severe drought stress. This study used green roof modules placed in a rainout shelter during a six-month rainfall regime simulated in Melbourne, Australia. Rainfall was applied equally with an overhead irrigation system on each module. Aside from rainfall, modules were under natural climatic conditions, including temperature, wind, and radiation. A single species, Ficinia nodosa, was planted with five different treatments and three replicates of each treatment. In this experiment, we tested the impact of three plant cover treatments (0%, 50% and 100%) on rainfall retention and plant drought stress. We also installed two runoff zone treatments covering 50% of the substrate surface for additional modules with 0% and 50% plant cover to determine whether directing rainfall resources towards plant roots would reduce drought stress without impacting rainfall retention. The retention performance for the simulated rainfall events was measured, quantifying all components for hydrological performance and survival on green roofs. We found that evapotranspiration and rainfall retention were similar for modules with 50% and 100% plant cover. However, modules with 100% plant cover showed significantly higher plant drought stress. Therefore, planting at a lower cover/density reduced plant drought stress without jeopardizing rainfall retention performance. Installing runoff zones marginally reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention, but by approximately the same amount for modules with 0% and 50% plant cover. This indicates that reduced evaporation due to the installation of the runoff zones likely contributed to reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention. Further, runoff occurred from modules with runoff zones faster than those without, indicating that we created a faster pathway for water to enter and leave the substrate, which also likely contributed to lower overall evapotranspiration and retention. However, despite some loss in retention performance, modules with 50% plant cover installed with runoff zones showed significantly lower drought stress in plants compared to those without runoff zones. Overall, we suggest that reducing plant cover represents a simple means of optimizing green roof performance but creating runoff zones may reduce plant drought stress at the cost of reduced rainfall retention.

Keywords: green roof, plant cover, plant drought stress, rainfall retention

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1653 The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Amany Haridy, Ahmed Elseragy, Fahd Omar

Abstract:

The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.

Keywords: envi-met, green building envelope, urban heat island, urban microclimate

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1652 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar

Abstract:

This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1651 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1650 Management of Urine Recovery at the Building Level

Authors: Joao Almeida, Ana Azevedo, Myriam Kanoun-Boule, Maria Ines Santos, Antonio Tadeu

Abstract:

The effects of the increasing expansion of cities and climate changes have encouraged European countries and regions to adopt nature-based solutions with ability to mitigate environmental issues and improve life in cities. Among these strategies, green roofs and urban gardens have been considered ingenious solutions, since they have the desirable potential to improve air quality, prevent floods, reduce the heat island effect and restore biodiversity in cities. However, an additional consumption of fresh water and mineral nutrients is necessary to sustain larger green urban areas. This communication discusses the main technical features of a new system to manage urine recovery at the building level and its application in green roofs. The depletion of critical nutrients like phosphorus constitutes an emergency. In turn, their elimination through urine is one of the principal causes for their loss. Thus, urine recovery in buildings may offer numerous advantages, constituting a valuable fertilizer abundantly available in cities and reducing the load on wastewater treatment plants. Although several urine-diverting toilets have been developed for this purpose and some experiments using urine directly in agriculture have already been carried out in Europe, several challenges have emerged with this practice concerning collection, sanitization, storage and application of urine in buildings. To our best knowledge, current buildings are not designed to receive these systems and integrated solutions with ability to self-manage the whole process of urine recovery, including separation, maturation and storage phases, are not known. Additionally, if from a hygiene point of view human urine may be considered a relatively safe fertilizer, the risk of disease transmission needs to be carefully analysed. A reduction in microorganisms can be achieved by storing the urine in closed tanks. However, several factors may affect this process, which may result in a higher survival rate for some pathogens. In this work, urine effluent was collected under real conditions, stored in closed containers and kept in climatic chambers under variable conditions simulating cold, temperate and tropical climates. These samples were subjected to a first physicochemical and microbiological control, which was repeated over time. The results obtained so far suggest that maturation conditions were reached for all the three temperatures and that a storage period of less than three months is required to achieve a strong depletion of microorganisms. The authors are grateful for the Project WashOne (POCI-01-0247-FEDER-017461) funded by the Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI) of Portugal 2020, with the support of the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).

Keywords: sustainable green roofs and urban gardens, urban nutrient cycle, urine-based fertilizers, urine recovery in buildings

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1649 Study of Storms on the Javits Center Green Roof

Authors: Alexander Cho, Harsho Sanyal, Joseph Cataldo

Abstract:

A quantitative analysis of the different variables on both the South and North green roofs of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was taken to find mathematical relationships between net radiation and evapotranspiration (ET), average outside temperature, and the lysimeter weight. Groups of datasets were analyzed, and the relationships were plotted on linear and semi-log graphs to find consistent relationships. Antecedent conditions for each rainstorm were also recorded and plotted against the volumetric water difference within the lysimeter. The first relation was the inverse parabolic relationship between the lysimeter weight and the net radiation and ET. The peaks and valleys of the lysimeter weight corresponded to valleys and peaks in the net radiation and ET respectively, with the 8/22/15 and 1/22/16 datasets showing this trend. The U-shaped and inverse U-shaped plots of the two variables coincided, indicating an inverse relationship between the two variables. Cross variable relationships were examined through graphs with lysimeter weight as the dependent variable on the y-axis. 10 out of 16 of the plots of lysimeter weight vs. outside temperature plots had R² values > 0.9. Antecedent conditions were also recorded for rainstorms, categorized by the amount of precipitation accumulating during the storm. Plotted against the change in the volumetric water weight difference within the lysimeter, a logarithmic regression was found with large R² values. The datasets were compared using the Mann Whitney U-test to see if the datasets were statistically different, using a significance level of 5%; all datasets compared showed a U test statistic value, proving the null hypothesis of the datasets being different from being true.

Keywords: green roof, green infrastructure, Javits Center, evapotranspiration, net radiation, lysimeter

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1648 Contextual Paper on Green Finance: Analysis of the Green Bonds Market

Authors: Dina H. Gabr, Mona A. El Bannan

Abstract:

With growing worldwide concern for global warming, green finance has become the fuel that pushes the world to act in combating and mitigating climate change. Coupled with adopting the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Green finance became a vital tool in creating a pathway to sustainable development, as it connects the financial world with environmental and societal benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the concepts and definitions of green finance and the importance of 'green' impact investments today. The core challenge in combating climate change is reducing and controlling Greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, this study explores the solutions green finance provides putting emphasis on the use of renewable energy, which is necessary for enhancing the transition to the green economy. With increasing attention to the concept of green finance, multiple forms of green investments and financial tools have come to fruition; the most prominent are green bonds. The rise of green bonds, a debt market to finance climate solutions, provide a promising mechanism for sustainable finance. Following the review, this paper compiles a comprehensive green bond dataset, presenting a statistical study of the evolution of the green bonds market from its first appearance in 2006 until 2021.

Keywords: climate change, GHG emissions, green bonds, green finance, sustainable finance

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1647 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin

Abstract:

In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 491