Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2982

Search results for: healthy cities

2982 Planning Healthy, Livable, and Sustainable Community in Terms of Effective Indicators on Policy Maker

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat, Maryam Baradaran

Abstract:

Creating healthy communities that are sustainable and livable is a desire of policy makers in European countries. Indicators have used at the level of international, national, state to evaluate the level of health in cities and regions. Therefore, there are many challenges in the assumption of health and planning indicators. This research provides an overview of health indicators used to date in Europe according to World Health Organization (WHO) strategy. It then discusses on how indicators have been successful to the creation of healthy, livable and sustainable cities in Europe. This research is based on qualitative research to review the documentary researches on health issue and urban planning. The result will show the positive and negative effects of in process indicators on European cities.

Keywords: healthy community, livability, sustainability, WHO strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2981 Achievement of Livable and Healthy City through the Design of Green and Blue Infrastructure: A Case Study on City of Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

due to towards the rapid urbanization, cities throughout the world faced to rapid growth through gray infrastructure. Therefore designing cities based on green and blue infrastructure can offer the best solution to support healthy urban environment. This conformation with a wide range of ecosystem service has a positive impact on the regulation of air temperature, noise reduction, air quality, and also create a pleasant environment for humans activities. Research mainly focuses on the concept and principles of green and blue infrastructure in the city of Esfahan at the center of Iran in order to create a livable and healthy environment. Design principles for green and blue infrastructure are classified into two different but interconnect evaluations. Healthy green infrastructure assessing based on; volume, shape, location, dispersion, and maintenance. For blue infrastructure there are three aspects of water and ecosystem which are; the contribution of water on medical health, the contribution of water on mental health, and creating possibilities to exercise.

Keywords: healthy cities, livability, urban landscape, green and blue infrastructure

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2980 Creating Smart and Healthy Cities by Exploring the Potentials of Emerging Technologies and Social Innovation for Urban Efficiency: Lessons from the Innovative City of Boston

Authors: Mohammed Agbali, Claudia Trillo, Yusuf Arayici, Terrence Fernando

Abstract:

The wide-spread adoption of the Smart City concept has introduced a new era of computing paradigm with opportunities for city administrators and stakeholders in various sectors to re-think the concept of urbanization and development of healthy cities. With the world population rapidly becoming urban-centric especially amongst the emerging economies, social innovation will assist greatly in deploying emerging technologies to address the development challenges in core sectors of the future cities. In this context, sustainable health-care delivery and improved quality of life of the people is considered at the heart of the healthy city agenda. This paper examines the Boston innovation landscape from the perspective of smart services and innovation ecosystem for sustainable development, especially in transportation and healthcare. It investigates the policy implementation process of the Healthy City agenda and eHealth economy innovation based on the experience of Massachusetts’s City of Boston initiatives. For this purpose, three emerging areas are emphasized, namely the eHealth concept, the innovation hubs, and the emerging technologies that drive innovation. This was carried out through empirical analysis on results of public sector and industry-wide interviews/survey about Boston’s current initiatives and the enabling environment. The paper highlights few potential research directions for service integration and social innovation for deploying emerging technologies in the healthy city agenda. The study therefore suggests the need to prioritize social innovation as an overarching strategy to build sustainable Smart Cities in order to avoid technology lock-in. Finally, it concludes that the Boston example of innovation economy is unique in view of the existing platforms for innovation and proper understanding of its dynamics, which is imperative in building smart and healthy cities where quality of life of the citizenry can be improved.

Keywords: computing paradigm, emerging technologies, equitable healthcare, healthy cities, open data, smart city, social innovation

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2979 Thermal Perception by Older People in Open Spaces in Madrid: Relationships between Weather Parameters and Personal Characteristics

Authors: María Teresa Baquero, Ester Higueras

Abstract:

One of the challenges facing 21st century cities, is their adaptation to the phenomenon of an ageing population. International policies have been developed, such as the "Global Network for Age-friendly Cities and Communities". These cities must recognize the diversity of the elderly population, and facilitate an active, healthy, satisfied aging and promote inclusion. In order to promote active and healthy aging, older people should be encouraged to engage in physical activity, sunbathe, socialize and enjoy the public open spaces in the city. Some studies recognize thermal comfort as one of the factors that most influence the use of public open spaces. However, although some studies have shown vulnerability to thermal extremes and environmental conditions in older people, there is little research on thermal comfort for older adults, because it is usually analyzed based on the characteristics of the ¨average young person¨ without considering the physiological, physical and psychological differences that characterize the elderly. This study analyzes the relationship between the microclimate parameters as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sky view factor (SVF) with the personal thermal perception of older adults in three public spaces in Madrid, through a mixed methodology that combines weather measurements with interviews, made during the year 2018. Statistical test like Chi-square, Spearman, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the relationship between preference votes and thermal sensation votes with environmental and personal parameters. The results show that there is a significant correlation between thermal sensation and thermal preference with the measured air temperature, age, level of clothing, the color of clothing, season, time of the day and kind of space while no influence of gender or other environmental variables was detected. These data would contribute to the design of comfortable public spaces that improve the welfare of the elderly contributing to "active and healthy aging" as one of the 21st century challenges cities face.

Keywords: healthy ageing, older adults, outdoor public space, thermal perception

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2978 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

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2977 Presenting of 'Local Wishes Map' as a Tool for Promoting Dialogue and Developing Healthy Cities

Authors: Ana Maria G. Sperandio, Murilo U. Malek-Zadeh, João Luiz de S. Areas, Jussara C. Guarnieri

Abstract:

Intersectoral governance is a requirement for developing healthy cities. However, this achievement is difficult to be succeeded, especially in regions at low resources condition. Therefore, it was developed a cheap investigative procedure to diagnose sectoral wishes related to urban planning and health promotion. This procedure is composed of two phases, which can be applied to different groups in order to compare the results. The first phase is a conversation guided by a list of questions. Some of those questions aim to gather information about how individuals understand concepts such as healthy city or a health promotion and what they believe that constitutes the relation between urban planning and urban health. Other questions investigate local issues, and how citizens would like to promote dialogue between sectors. At second phase individuals stand around the investigated city (or city region) map and are asked to represent their wishes on it. They can represent it by writing text notations or inserting icons on it, with the latter representing a city element, for example, some trees, a square, a playground, a hospital, a cycle track. After groups had represented their wishes, the map can be photographed, and then the results from distinct groups can be compared. This procedure was conducted at a small city in Brazil (Holambra), in 2017 which is the first out of four years of the mayor’s term. The prefecture asked for this tool in order to make Holambra become a city of Potential Healthy Municipalities Network in Brazil. Two sectors were investigated: the government and the urban population. By the end of our investigation, the intersection from the group (i.e., population and government) maps was accounted for creating a map of common wishes. Therefore, the material produced can be used as a guide for promoting dialogue between sectors and as a tool of monitoring politics progress. The report of this procedure was directed to public managers, so they could see the common wishes between themselves and local populations, and use this tool as a guide for creating urban politics which intends to enhance health promotion and to develop a healthy city, even at low resources condition.

Keywords: governance, health promotion, intersectorality, urban planning

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2976 Inclusive Cities Decision Matrix Based on a Multidimensional Approach for Sustainable Smart Cities

Authors: Madhurima S. Waghmare, Shaleen Singhal

Abstract:

The concept of smartness, inclusion, sustainability is multidisciplinary and fuzzy, rooted in economic and social development theories and policies which get reflected in the spatial development of the cities. It is a challenge to convert these concepts from aspirations to transforming actions. There is a dearth of assessment and planning tools to support the city planners and administrators in developing smart, inclusive, and sustainable cities. To address this gap, this study develops an inclusive cities decision matrix based on an exploratory approach and using mixed methods. The matrix is soundly based on a review of multidisciplinary urban sector literature and refined and finalized based on inputs from experts and insights from case studies. The application of the decision matric on the case study cities in India suggests that the contemporary planning tools for cities need to be multidisciplinary and flexible to respond to the unique needs of the diverse contexts. The paper suggests that a multidimensional and inclusive approach to city planning can play an important role in building sustainable smart cities.

Keywords: inclusive-cities decision matrix, smart cities in India, city planning tools, sustainable cities

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2975 Planning for a Smart Sustainable Cities: A Case Study

Authors: Ajaykumar Kambekar, Nikita Kalantri

Abstract:

Due to faster urbanization; developing nations will have to look forward towards establishing new planned cities those are environmentally friendly. Due to growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is evident that the rise of smart cities is witnessed as a promising trend for future growth; however, technology alone cannot make a city as a smart city. Cities must use smart systems to enhance the quality of life of its citizens and to achieve sustainable growth. Recent trends in technology may offer some indication towards harnessing our cities potential as the new engines of sustainable growth. To overcome the problems of mega-urbanization, new concept of smart cities has been introduced. The current research aims to reduce the knowledge gap in urban planning by exploring the concept of smart cities considering sustainability as a major focus. The aim of this paper is to plan for an entire smart city. The paper analyses sustainable development and identifies the key factors for the creation of future smart cities. The study also emphasizes the use of advanced planning and scheduling software such as Microsoft Project (MSP).

Keywords: urbanization, planned cities, information and communication technology, sustainable growth

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2974 A Brief Review of Urban Green Vegetation (Green Wall) in Reduction of Air Pollution

Authors: Masoumeh Pirhadi

Abstract:

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem affecting millions. In support of this observation, the world health organization estimates that many people feel unhealthy due to pollution. This is a coupled fact that one of the main global sources of air pollution in cities is greenhouse gas emissions due heavy traffic. Green walls are developed as a sustainable strategy to reduce pollution by increasing vegetation in developed areas without occupying space in the city. This concept an offer advantageous environmental benefits and they can also be proposed for aesthetic purposes, and today they are used to preserve the urban environment. Green walls can also create environments that can promote a healthy lifestyle. Findings of multiple studies also indicate that Green infrastructure in cities is a strategy for improving air quality and increasing the sustainability of cities. Since these green solutions (green walls) act as porous materials that affect the diffusion of air pollution they can also act as a removing air vents that clean the air. Therefore, implementation of this strategy can be considered as a prominent factor in achieving a cleaner environment.

Keywords: green vegetation, air pollution, green wall, urban area

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2973 Integrating Environmental and Ecological Justice for the Sustainable Development of Smart Cities: A Normative Eco Framework

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

This paper leverages theoretical insights into two different justice approaches – environmental justice and ecological justice – to examine the effectiveness of sustainable development within smart cities and related smart city technology initiatives. Through theoretical development, the author seeks to establish an Eco Framework for smart cities and urban sustainable development. In turn, this paper aims to proffer the notion that there are ecologically sustainable ways in which smart cities can get smarter, and that such strategies can be compatible with ecological justice and environmental justice. Ultimately, a single conceptual framework is put forward to integrate the above approaches and concepts with normative prescriptions, which can serve researchers in the continued examination of smart cities and policymakers in their sustainable development of smart cities.

Keywords: ecological justice, environmental justice, normative framework, smart cities, sustainable development

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2972 The Role of Sustainable Development in the Design and Planning of Smart Cities Using GIS Techniques: Models of Arab Cities

Authors: Ahmed M. Jihad

Abstract:

The paper presents the concept of sustainable development, and the role of geographic techniques in the design, planning and presentation of maps of smart cities with geographical vision, and the identification of programs and tools, and models of maps of Arab cities, is the problem of research in how to apply, process and experience these programs? What is the role of geographic techniques in planning and mapping the optimal place for these cities? The paper proposes an addition to the designs of Iraqi cities, as it can be developed in the future to serve as a model for interactive smart cities by developing its services. The importance of this paper stems from the concept of sustainable development dynamic which has become a method of development imposed by the present era in rapid development to achieve social balance and specialized programs in draw paper argues that ensuring sustainable development is achieved through the use of information technology. The paper will follow the theoretical presentation of the importance of the concept of development, design tools and programs. The paper follows the method of analysis of modern systems (System Analysis Approach) through the latest programs will provide results can be said that the new Iraqi cities can be developed with smart technologies, like some of the Arab and European cities that were newly created through the introduction of international investment, and therefore Plans can be made to select the best programs in manufacturing and producing maps and smart cities in the future.

Keywords: geographic techniques, planning the cities, smart cities, sustainable development

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2971 Assessment of Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Needs for Older Adults Living with Hypertension

Authors: P. Sutipan, U. Intarakamhang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the order of needs with regard to the healthy lifestyle behaviors for older adults living with hypertension. The participants involved 400 hypertensive elderly individuals in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The research instrument was a 26-item needs-assessment questionnaire in a dual response format on a four-level rating scale. The data was analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and the needs were ranked using the Modified Priority Needs Index (PNIModified). The results indicated that the three priorities of healthy lifestyle behavior were healthy eating (PNImodified = 0.36), exercise (PNImodified = 0.35), and social contribution (PNImodified = 0.34), respectively. The implications of the findings for planning the intervention phase of the project are of particular interest.

Keywords: needs assessment, the modified priority needs index (PNIModified), healthy lifestyle behavior, older adults

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2970 Comprehensive Strategy for Healthy City from Local Practice Networking among Citizens, Industry, University and Municipality

Authors: Yuki Hara

Abstract:

Healthy assets are recognized as important for all people in the world through experiencing COVID-19. Each part of life and work is important to be changed against the preceding wide-spreading of COVID-19. Furthermore, it is necessary to innovate the whole structure of a city upon the sum of the parts. This study aims at creating a comprehensive strategy from a small practice of making healthier lives with collaborating local actors for a city. This paper employs action research as the research framework. The core practice is the 'Ken’iku Festival' at Ken’iku Festival Committee. The field locates the urban-rural fringe in the northwest part of Fujisawa city, Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. The data is collected through the author's practices for three years from the observations and interviews at meetings and discussions among stakeholders, texts in municipal reports, books, and movies, 3 questionnaires for customers and stakeholders at the Ken’iku Festival. These data are analysed by qualitative methods. The results show that couples in their 40s with children and couples or friends over the 70s are at the heart of promoting healthy lifestyles. In contrast, 40% of the visitors at the festival are the people who have no idea or no interest in healthier actions, which the committee has to suggest healthy activities through more pleasing services. The committee could organize staff and local actors as the core parties involved through gradually expanding its tasks relating to the local practices. This private sectoral activity from health promotion is covering a part of the whole-city planning of Fujisawa municipality by including many people over organisations into one community. This paper concludes from local practice networking through the festival that a comprehensive strategy for a healthy city is both a practical approach easily applied to each partner and one of the holistic services.

Keywords: communal practice network, healthy cities, health & development, health promotion, with and after COVID-19

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2969 The Construction of Healthy Bodies in U.S. and China: A Comparative Analysis of Women's Health and Trends Health

Authors: Yang L. Frances

Abstract:

Women's health and wellness has been becoming an increasingly important issue in mass media in the age of globalization. In this context, the current research focuses on comparing the construction of healthy bodies in women's health magazines of China and U.S. Trends Health in China and Women's Health in U.S are chosen. Textual analysis and in depth interviews are combined to examine how the healthy bodies are constructed in two magazines through discursive strategies. The interviews with the Deputy Editorial Director, Creative Director and Senior Visual Design of two magazines are undertaken to make the further comparisons. In both Trends Health and Women's Health, women's subjectivity is realized in the construction of ideal healthy body; nevertheless in the process of constructing healthy body, the disciplinary practices imposed on women's bodies are different in two magazines. This paper argues that women's health magazines in both China and America provide an alternative discourse to speak their voices on the one hand, but on the other hand, Women's Health and Trends Health construct the healthy body through disparate disciplinary practices because of the different socio-cultural contexts in two societies.

Keywords: healthy body, women's health magazines, Foucault, textual analysis

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2968 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: citizen participation, smart cities, urban governance, Singapore, Tokyo

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2967 Evaluation of the Spatial Performance of Ancient Cities in the Context of Landscape Architecture

Authors: Elvan Ender Altay, Zeynep Pirselimoglu Batman, Murat Zencirkiran

Abstract:

Ancient cities are, according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), landscape areas designed and created by people, at the same time naturally developing and constantly changing sustainable cultural landscapes. Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands of years ago. The conceptual and spatial traces in ancient cities, are crucial for examining the city history and its preservation. This study is intended to demonstrate the impacts of human life and physical environment on the cultural landscape. This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection. In this context, ancient cities in Bursa were researched and a total of 7 ancient cities were identified. These ancient cities are; Apollonia, Lopadion, Nicaea, Myrleia, Cius, Daskyleion and Basilinopolis. In the next stage, the spatial performances of ancient cities were assessed by weighted criteria method. The highest score is the Nicaea Ancient City. Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until our day due to lack of interest in these areas. As a result, according to the findings, it is a priority to create a protective band with green areas around the archaeological sites, thus adapting to nearby areas and emphasizing culture. In addition, proposals have been made to provide a transportation network that does not harm the ancient cities and the cultural landscape.

Keywords: ancient cities, Bursa, landscape, spatial performance

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2966 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang

Abstract:

Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

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2965 Studying the Function of Green Belt around the Metropolises

Authors: Soroush Mokallaei

Abstract:

Since ancient times, urbanization engineers have always thought of creating green spaces along with urbanization. Athens and Rome have attempted to construct public gardens around streets and palaces. Since then developing green space has become a part of urban civilization. In medieval ages, all Western cities had palaces and houses with internal gardens. In different sources green belt is defined as a green band of trees and bushes around the cities which has multiple functions. It is said that green belts are not only around the mountains, cities, and rivers but also around houses, subways, and highways. Constructing green belt around cities has different advantages such as: protecting cities against pollution, purifying air, screening dust, being a place for recreation, buffer zone of city internal lands, confronting the phenomenon of heat island, increasing agricultural products, helping to prevent illegal city development, confronting deforestation, preventing flood and increasing subterranean water resources.

Keywords: environment, garden cities, green belt, metropolises

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2964 Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul

Authors: Rachida Benabbou, Sang Hun Park, Hee Chung Lee

Abstract:

The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.

Keywords: urban conversion, green public space, change, urban regeneration

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2963 Healthy and Smart Building Projects

Authors: Ali A. Karakhan

Abstract:

Stakeholders in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry have been always searching for strategies to develop, design, and construct healthy and smart building projects. Healthy and smart building projects require that the building process including design and construction be altered and carefully implemented in order to bring about sustainable outcomes throughout the facility lifecycle. Healthy and smart building projects are expected to positively influence organizational success and facility performance across the project lifecycle leading to superior outcomes in terms of people, economy, and the environment. The present study aims to identify potential strategies that AEC organizations can implement to achieve healthy and smart building projects. Drivers and barriers for healthy and smart building features are also examined. The study findings indicate that there are three strategies to advance the development of healthy and smart building projects: (1) the incorporation of high-quality products and low chemical-emitting materials, (2) the integration of innovative designs, methods, and practices, and (3) the adoption of smart technology throughout the facility lifecycle. Satisfying external demands, achievement of a third-party certification, obtaining financial incentives, and a desire to fulfill professional duty are identified as the key drivers for developing healthy and smart building features; whereas, lack of knowledge and training, time/cost constrains, preference for/adherence to customary practices, and unclear business case for why healthy buildings are advantageous are recognized as the primary barriers toward a wider diffusion of healthy and smart building projects. The present study grounded in previous engineering, medical, and public health research provides valuable technical and practical recommendations for facility owners and industry professionals interested in pursuing sustainable, yet healthy and smart building projects.

Keywords: healthy buildings, smart construction, innovative designs, sustainable projects

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2962 Process of Revitalization of the City Centres in Poland: The Problem of Cooperation between Sectors

Authors: Ewa M. Boryczka

Abstract:

Contemporary city is a subject to rapid economic and social changes. Therefore it requires an active policy designed to meet the diverse needs of their residents, build competitive position and capacity to compete with other cities. Competitiveness of cities depends largely on their resources, but also to a large extent, on the policies and performance of local authorities. Cooperation with private and social sectors also plays an important role, as it affects the use of resources and builds an advantage over other cities. The subject of this article is city's contemporary problems of development with particular emphasis on central areas. This issue is a starting point for reflection on the process of urban regeneration in medium size cities in Poland, as well as cooperation between various actors and their roles in the revitalization processes of Polish cities' centres.

Keywords: city, cooperation between sectors, crisis of city centres, revitalization

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2961 Examining Institutional and Structural Racism to Address Persistent Racial Inequities in US Cities

Authors: Zoe Polk

Abstract:

In cities across the US, race continues to predict an individual’s likelihood to be employed, to receive a quality education, to live in a safe neighborhood, to life expectancy to contacts with the criminal justice system. Deep and pervasive disparities exist despite laws enacted at the federal, state and local level to eliminate discrimination. This paper examines the strengths of the U.S. civil rights movement in making discrimination a moral issue. Following the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, cities throughout the US adopted laws that mirror the language, theories of practice and enforcement of the law. This paper argues that while those laws were relevant to the way discrimination was conducted in that time, they are limited in their ability to help cities address discrimination today. This paper reviews health indicators This paper concludes that in order for cities to create environments where race no longer predicts one’s success, cities must conduct institutional and structural racism audits.

Keywords: racism, racial equity, constitutional law, social justice

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2960 Drivers, Patterns and Economic Consequences of Cities’ Globalization

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Cities are the main actors of global production and trade, and dominant share of international business activity is now concentrating within a frame of global urban net. This trend transforms mechanisms and patterns of market economy institutes’ (such as competition, division of labor, international movement of capital and labor force) functioning; stimulates an appearance of new economical (development of rural areas), social (urbanization) and political (political and economical unity of the big countries) problems. All these reasons identified relevance and importance of purpose of this study – to consider a modern role of cities’ business systems in the global economy, to identify sources for global urban competitive advantages, to clear inter-cities economic relationships and patterns of cities’ positioning within a frame of global net.

Keywords: globalization, urban business system, global city, transnationalization, networking

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2959 Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Public Bicycle Projects in Chinese Cities

Authors: Xiujuan Wang, Weiguo Wang, Lei Yu, Xue Liu

Abstract:

There are many purported benefits of public bike systems, therefore, it has seen a sharp increase since 2008 in Hangzhou, China. However, there are few studies on the public bicycle system in Chinese cities. In order to make recommendations for the development of public bicycle systems, this paper analyzes the influencing factors by using the system dynamics method according to the main characteristics of Chinese cities. The main characteristics of Chinese cities lie in the city size and process of urbanization, traffic mode division, demographic characteristics, bicycle infrastructure and right of way, regime structure. Finally, under the context of Chinese bike sharing systems, these analyses results can help to design some feasible strategies for the planner to the development of the public bicycles.

Keywords: engineering of communication and transportation system, bicycle, public bike, characteristics of Chinese cities, system dynamics

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2958 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide

Abstract:

This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: cities representation, cities simulation, games simulation, immersion, locative games

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2957 Key Factors for a Smart City

Authors: Marta Christina Suciu, Cristina Andreea Florea

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relevance of building smart cities in the context of regional development and to analyze the important factors that make a city smart. These cities could be analyzed through the perspective of environment quality, the socio-cultural condition, technological applications and innovations, the vitality of the economic environment and public policies. Starting with these five sustainability domains, we will demonstrate the hypothesis that smart cities are the engine of the regional development. The aim of this paper is to assess the implications of smart cities, in the context of sustainable development, analyzing the benefits of developing creative and innovative cities. Regarding the methodology, it is used the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data, also descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. In conclusion, we will define a direction on the regional development and competitiveness increasing.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, regional development, smart city, sustainability, triple helix

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2956 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

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17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2955 Global City Typologies: 300 Cities and Over 100 Datasets

Authors: M. Novak, E. Munoz, A. Jana, M. Nelemans

Abstract:

Cities and local governments the world over are interested to employ circular strategies as a means to bring about food security, create employment and increase resilience. The selection and implementation of circular strategies is facilitated by modeling the effects of strategies locally and understanding the impacts such strategies have had in other (comparable) cities and how that would translate locally. Urban areas are heterogeneous because of their geographic, economic, social characteristics, governance, and culture. In order to better understand the effect of circular strategies on urban systems, we create a dataset for over 300 cities around the world designed to facilitate circular strategy scenario modeling. This new dataset integrates data from over 20 prominent global national and urban data sources, such as the Global Human Settlements layer and International Labour Organisation, as well as incorporating employment data from over 150 cities collected bottom up from local departments and data providers. The dataset is made to be reproducible. Various clustering techniques are explored in the paper. The result is sets of clusters of cities, which can be used for further research, analysis, and support comparative, regional, and national policy making on circular cities.

Keywords: data integration, urban innovation, cluster analysis, circular economy, city profiles, scenario modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2954 Progress and Challenges of Smart Cities in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sushil K. Sharma, Jeff Zhang, Saeed Tabar

Abstract:

Worldwide, several governments are utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) to create smart city infrastructures to improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Over 700 cities from around the world have already started implementing their smart city projects. Smart City utilizes the network of connected things, or the Internet of Things (IoT), that interconnects devices and various components across city infrastructure, making them work together seamlessly to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, optimize resources, and reduce costs. Without developing smart cities, the accelerating growth of cities, and their disproportionate consumption of physical and social resources are unsustainable. In 2016, the Indian Government released a list of 100 cities with the intention of kick-starting the process of developing them into 'smart cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. This study reports the progress and challenges of Smart City projects in India. The data were collected through the city/state government websites, media reports, and focus group discussions/interviews. The preliminary results indicate that smart city projects are not only behind in their implementation and scope but also lacks the sincerity for its implementation.

Keywords: smart city, smart government, Internet of Things, digital government

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
2953 Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts

Authors: Brian Ceh, Alison Jackson-Holland

Abstract:

Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.

Keywords: Canada, desert, food, Hamilton, store

Procedia PDF Downloads 159