Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3954

Search results for: urban conversion

3954 Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul

Authors: Rachida Benabbou, Sang Hun Park, Hee Chung Lee

Abstract:

The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.

Keywords: urban conversion, green public space, change, urban regeneration

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3953 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios

Abstract:

This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

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3952 The Thermochemical Conversion of Lactic Acid in Subcritical and Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Hung-Chi Tu

Abstract:

One way to utilize biomass is to thermochemically convert it into gases and chemicals. For conversion of biomass, glucose is a particularly popular model compound for cellulose, or more generally for biomass. The present study takes a different approach by employing lactic acid as the model compound for cellulose. Since lactic acid and glucose have identical elemental composition, they are expected to produce similar results as they go through the conversion process. In the current study, lactic acid was thermochemically converted to assess its reactivity and reaction mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water, by using a 16-ml autoclave reactor. The major operating parameters investigated include: The reaction temperature, from 673 to 873 K, the reaction pressure, 10 and 25 MPa, the dosage of oxidizing agent, 0 and 0.5 chemical oxygen demand, and the concentration of lactic acid in the feed, 0.5 and 1.0 M. Gaseous products from the conversion were generally found to be comparable to those derived from the conversion of glucose.

Keywords: lactic acid, subcritical water, supercritical water, thermochemical conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3951 Sustainable Land Use Policy and Monitoring Urban Land Expansion in Kabul: A Case Study of Rapid Urbanization

Authors: Osama Hidayat, Yoshitaka Kajiat

Abstract:

Kabul is a city that is highly representative of Afghanistan’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper evaluates land use change and urban spatial expansion, from 1950 to 2016, in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, using satellite images, field observation, and socio-economic data. The discussion covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban upgrading, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems in Afghanistan. Efficient frames are outlined in Kabul for the following elements: governmental self-restraint and policy modification. The paper concludes that Kabul’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in Afghanistan.

Keywords: urban land expansion, urbanization, land use policy, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3950 Conversion in Islam: The Case of Iranian Converts to Christianity in Malaysia

Authors: Gholamreza Nuei, Faisal Ahmad Shah

Abstract:

The way religion defines people’s identity is quite important in the majority of Muslim countries. Yet, in most such countries the number of Muslims converting to other religions is not documented. The present research investigates a population of Iranians who have converted to Christianity and live in Malaysia. This article focuses on this subgroup of ex-Muslims with the aim of providing a window into how they experience and justify their conversion. The data was collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was carried out through in-depth interviews with 13 people; also 45 people answered a questionnaire (quantitative). The research findings revealed some of the typical religious, social and personal reasons behind the conversion of this group of "ex-Muslims".

Keywords: conversion from Islam to Christianity, apostasy, Iran, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
3949 Land Use Changes in Two Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Do Urban Areas Matter?

Authors: L. Salvati, D. Smiraglia, S. Bajocco, M. Munafò

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LULCC) occurred in the urban coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin in the last thirty years. LULCC were assessed diachronically (1975-2006) in two urban areas, Rome (Italy) and Athens (Greece), by using CORINE land cover maps. In strictly coastal territories a persistent growth of built-up areas at the expenses of both agricultural and forest land uses was found. On the contrary, a different pattern was observed in the surrounding inland areas, where a high conversion rate of the agricultural land uses to both urban and forest land uses was recorded. The impact of city growth on the complex pattern of coastal LULCC is finally discussed.

Keywords: land use changes, coastal region, Rome prefecture, Attica, southern Europe

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3948 Ambiguity in Anti-conversion Laws in the Indian States – A Limitation to the Freedom of Religion Guaranteed under the Constitution of India

Authors: Roy Alex, Dr. Shampa I Dev

Abstract:

Abstract Nine out of twenty-eight states in India have enacted anti-conversion laws to regulate religious conversions by use of force, allurement, inducement, or fraudulent means. The vagueness of the definitions of the terms used in these laws makes them inconsistent with the provisions of the right to freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution. It is a critical question whether these laws protect the religious freedom of groups that are “vulnerable” to missionary inducements, or are they restricting the freedom of citizens to propagate their religion to others or change their religious identity? This article looks into the constitutionality of the anti-conversion laws passed in the Indian States and argues that these laws limit the freedom of religion guaranteed under Article 25 of the Constitution of India. The ambiguity in the anti-conversion laws passed in various states of India is brought out by critically analyzing multiple cases charged under anti-conversion laws.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Anti-conversion Laws, allurement, inducement, and fraudulent means.

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3947 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: all optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modultation

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3946 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on Urban Microclimate of Lahore: A Rapidly Urbanizing Metropolis of the Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi, Safdar Ali Shirazi

Abstract:

Urban green spaces (UGS) play a key role in the urban ecology of an area since they provide significant ecological services to compensate for natural environment functions damaged by the rapid growth of urbanization. The transformation of urban green specs to impervious landscapes has been recognized as a key factor prompting the distinctive urban heat and associated microclimatic changes. There is no doubt that urban green spaces offer a range of ecosystem services that can help to mitigate the ill effects of urbanization, heat anomalies, and climate change. The present study attempts to appraise the impact of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environment for the development of the microclimatic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan. The influence of urban heat has been studied through Landsat 8 data. The land surface temperature (LST) of Lahore was computed through the Radiative transfer method (RTM). The spatial variation of land surface temperature is retrieved to describe their local heat effect on urban microclimate. The association between the LST, normalized difference vegetation index, and the normalized difference built-up index are investigated to explore the impact of the urban green spaces and impervious surfaces on urban microclimate. The results of this study show significant changes in (impervious land surface 18% increase) land use within the study area. However, conversion of natural green cover to commercial and residential uses considerably increases the LST. Furthermore, results show that green spaces were the major heat sinks while impervious landscapes were the major heat source in the study area. Urban green spaces reveal 1 to 3℃ lower LST associated with their surrounding urban built-up area. This study shows that urban green spaces will help to mitigate the effect of urban microclimate and it is significant for the sustainable urban environment as well as to improve the quality of life of the urban inhabitants.

Keywords: thermal environmental, urban green space, cooling effect, microclimate, Lahore

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3945 Strategy in Controlling Rice-Field Conversion in Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nurliani, Ida Rosada

Abstract:

The national rice consumption keeps increasing along with raising income of the households and the rapid growth of population. However, food availability, particularly rice, is limited. Impacts of rice-field conversion have run cumulatively, as we can see on potential losses of rice and crops production, as well as work opportunity that keeps increasing year-by-year. Therefore, it requires policy recommendation to control rice-field conversion through economic, social, and ecological approaches. The research was a survey method intended to: (1) Identify internal factors; quality and productivity of the land as the cause of land conversion, (2) Identify external factors of land conversion, value of the rice-field and the competitor’s land, workforce absorption, and regulation, as well as (3) Formulate strategies in controlling rice-field conversion. Population of the research was farmers who applied land conversion at Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. Samples were determined using the incidental sampling method. Data analysis used productivity analysis, land quality analysis, total economic value analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results of the research showed that the quality of rice-field was low as well as productivity of the grains (unhulled-rice). So that, average productivity of the grains and quality of rice-field were low as well. Total economic value of rice-field was lower than the economic value of the embankment. Workforce absorption value on rice-field was higher than on the embankment. Strategies in controlling such rice-field conversion can be done by increasing rice-field productivity, improving land quality, applying cultivation technique of specific location, improving the irrigation lines, and socializing regulation and sanction about the transfer of land use.

Keywords: land conversion, quality of rice-field, productivity, land economic value.

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3944 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

Abstract:

The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
3943 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh

Abstract:

We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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3942 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng

Abstract:

A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3941 Synthesis of Novel Organic Dyes Based on Indigo for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. Hosseinnejad, K. Gharanjig, S. Moradian

Abstract:

A novel metal free organic dyes based on indigo was prepared and used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. The synthesized dye together with its corresponding intermediates were purified and characterized by analytical techniques. Such techniques confirmed the corresponding structures of dye and its intermediate and the yield of all the stages of dye preparation were calculated to be above 85%. Fluorometric analyses show fluorescence in the green region of the visible spectrum for dye. Oxidation potential measurements for dye ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favourable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of photo-electric conversion. Finally, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behaviour and conversion efficiencies of dye. Such evaluations demonstrate rather medium conversion efficiencies of 2.33% for such simple structured synthesized dye. Such conversion efficiencies demonstrate the potentiality of future use of such dye structures in dye-sensitized solar cells with respect to low material costs, ease of molecular tailoring, high yields of reactions, high performance and ease of recyclability.

Keywords: conversion efficiency, Dye-sensitized solar cells, indigo, photonic material

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3940 Alpha-Theta a Non-Invasive Treatment for the Self-Exploration of Individuals with Conversion Disorder in Pakistani Society

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Khalily

Abstract:

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of alpha-theta brainwave Neuro feedback treatment for the internal self-exploration of individuals with conversion disorder. Method: A Purposive sample technique was used and data collected from Kalsoom International Hospital Islamabad and Al-Malik Medical Center Rawalpindi. 123 participants were examined, Male child = 5, female child = 6, male adult = 64, female adult = 48. This study retrospectively examined the symptomatic changes in clients with a range of psychiatric disorders particularly 13 (Male = 3, Female = 10) conversion disorder clients who have received Neuro feedback treatment. Results: Our results indicated a significant improvement (P < .001) in the amelioration of our clients’ symptoms which have enabled them to bring their emotional memories into conscious awareness for the peaceful resolution without self-detachment. Conclusion: Majority of the clients improved their psychiatric symptoms including the symptoms of conversion disorder and was discharged from therapy with the accomplishment of therapeutic goals.

Keywords: EEG, neurofeedback, conversion, therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3939 Determination of Various Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Different Feedstocks

Authors: Faisal Anwar, Dawar Zaidi, Shubham Dixit, Nafees Ahmedii

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the various properties of biodiesel such as pour point, cloud point, viscosity, calorific value, etc produced from different feedstocks. The aim of the work is to analyze change in these properties after converting feedstocks to biodiesel and then comparring it with ASTM 6751-02 standards to check whether they are suitable for diesel engines or not. The conversion of feedstocks is carried out by a process called transesterification. This conversion is carried out to reduce viscosity, pour point, etc. It has been observed that there is some remarkable change in the properties of oil after conversion.

Keywords: biodiesel, ethyl ester, free fatty acid, production

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3938 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo

Abstract:

Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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3937 The Impacts of Land Use Change and Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang

Abstract:

Urban areas contain abundant potential biochemical storages and renewable and non-renewable flows. Urban natural environments for breeding natural assets and urban economic development for maintaining urban functions can be analyzed form the concept of ecological economic system. Land use change and ecosystem services change are resulting from the interactions between human activities and environments factually. Land use change due to human activities is the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. However, it lacks discussion on the interactions among urban land use change, ecosystem services change, and extreme precipitation events. Energy synthesis can use the same measure standard unit, solar energy, for different energy resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) and analyze contributions of various natural environmental resources on human economic systems. Therefore, this research adopts the concept of ecological, economic systems and energy synthesis for analyzing dynamic spatial impacts of land use change on ecosystem services, using the Taipei area as a case study. The analysis results show that changes in land use in the Taipei area, especially the conversion of natural lands and agricultural lands to urban lands, affect the ecosystem services negatively. These negative effects become more significant during the extreme precipitation events.

Keywords: urban ecological economic system, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, energy

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3936 Comparison of Depth of Cure and Degree of Conversion between Opus Bulk Fill and X-Tra Fill Bulk Fill Composites

Authors: Yasaman Samani, Ali Golmohammadi

Abstract:

Introduction: The degree of conversion and depth of cure affects the clinical success of resin composite restorations directly. One of the main challenges in achieving a successful composite restoration is the achievement of sufficient depth of cure. The insufficient polymerization may lead to a decrease in the physical/mechanical and biological properties of resin composites and, as a result of that, unsuccessful composite restoration. Thus, because of the importance of studying and evaluating the depth of cure and degree of conversion in bulk-fill composites, we decided to evaluate and compare the degree of conversion and depth of cure in two bulk-fill composites; x-tra fill (Voco, Germany) and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil). Materials and Methods: Composite resin specimens (n=10) per group were prepared as cylinder blocks (4×8 mm) with bulk-fill composites, x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) designated as Group A, and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) designated as Group B. Depth of cure was determined according to “ISO 4049; Depth of Cure” method, In which each specimen were cured (iLED, Woodpecker, China) 40 seconds and FTIR spectroscopy method was used to estimate the degree of conversion of both the bulk-fill composites. The degree of conversion of monomer to polymer was estimated individually in the coronal half (Group A1 and B1) and pulpal half (Group A2 and Group B2) by dividing each specimen into two halves. The data were analyzed using a Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. Results: The mean depth of cure in x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) was 3.99 (±0.16), and for Opus Bulk fill, APS (FGM, Brazil) was 2.14 (±0.3). The degree of conversion percentage in Group A1 was 82.7 (±6.1), in group A2 was 73.4 (±5.2), in group B1 was 63.3 (±4.7) and in Group B2 was 56.5 (±7.7). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the depth of cure between the two bulk-fill composites with x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) higher than Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) (P<0.001). The degree of conversion percentage also showed a significant difference, Group A1 being higher than A2 (P=0.0085), B1, and B2 (P<0.001). Group A2 was also higher than B1 (P=0.003) and B2 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between B1 and B2 (P=0.072). Conclusion: The results indicate that x-tra fill has more depth of cure and a higher percentage of the degree of conversion than Opus Bulk fill APS. The coronal half of x-tra fil had the highest depth of cure percentage (82.66%), and the pulpal half of Opus Bulk fill APS had the lowest percentage (56.45%). Even though both bulk-fill composite materials had an acceptable degree of conversion (55% and higher), x-tra fill has shown better results.

Keywords: depth of cure, degree of conversion, bulk-fill composite, FTIR

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3935 Sigma-Delta ADCs Converter a Study Case

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra, Mauro Lopes de Freitas, Waldir Sabino da Silva Júnior

Abstract:

The Sigma-Delta A/D converters have been proposed as a practical application for A/D conversion at high rates because of its simplicity and robustness to imperfections in the circuit, also because the traditional converters are more difficult to implement in VLSI technology. These difficulties with conventional conversion methods need precise analog components in their filters and conversion circuits, and are more vulnerable to noise and interference. This paper aims to analyze the architecture, function and application of Analog-Digital converters (A/D) Sigma-Delta to overcome these difficulties, showing some simulations using the Simulink software and Multisim.

Keywords: analysis, oversampling modulator, A/D converters, sigma-delta

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3934 "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management

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3933 Statically Fused Unbiased Converted Measurements Kalman Filter

Authors: Zhengkun Guo, Yanbin Li, Wenqing Wang, Bo Zou

Abstract:

The statically fused converted position and doppler measurements Kalman filter (SF-CMKF) with additive debiased measurement conversion has been previously presented to combine the resulting states of converted position measurements Kalman filter (CPMKF) and converted doppler measurement Kalman filter (CDMKF) to yield the final state estimates under minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criterion. However, the exact compensation for the bias in the polar-to-cartesian and spherical-to-cartesian conversion are multiplicative and depend on the statistics of the cosine of the angle measurement errors. As a result, the consistency and performance of the SF-CMKF may be suboptimal in large-angle error situations. In this paper, the multiplicative unbiased position and Doppler measurement conversion for 2D (polar-to-cartesian) tracking are derived, and the SF-CMKF is improved to use those conversions. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the statistical consistency of the multiplicative unbiased conversion and the superior performance of the modified SF-CMKF (SF-UCMKF).

Keywords: measurement conversion, Doppler, Kalman filter, estimation, tracking

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3932 Independent Village Planning Based Eco Village and Save Energy in Region of Maritime Tourism

Authors: Muhamad Rasyid Angkotasan

Abstract:

Eco-village is an ecosystem where the countryside or urban communities that are inside trying to integrate the social environment with low impact way of life to achieve this, they integrate the various aspects of ecological design, agriculture permanent, ecological building and the alternative energy. Eco-village in question is eco-village conducted on of marine tourism areas, where natural resources are very good, without ignoring the global issue of climate change. Desperately needed a source of energy, which can support the fulfillment of energy needs in a sustainable. Fulfillment of energy sources that offer is the use or application of environmentally friendly technologies of usage is still very low in Indonesia, the technology namely the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), OTEC is expected to be a source of the alternative energy, which can support the goal of eco-village of the region's of marine tourism.

Keywords: eco village, saving energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, environmental engineering

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3931 Design and Implementation of a 94 GHz CMOS Double-Balanced Up-Conversion Mixer for 94 GHz Imaging Radar Sensors

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Run-Chi Liu, Chien-Chu Ji, Chih-Chung Chen, Chien-Chin Wang

Abstract:

A W-band double-balanced mixer for direct up-conversion using standard 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. The mixer comprises an enhanced double-balanced Gilbert cell with PMOS negative resistance compensation for conversion gain (CG) enhancement and current injection for power consumption reduction and linearity improvement, a Marchand balun for converting the single LO input signal to differential signal, another Marchand balun for converting the differential RF output signal to single signal, and an output buffer amplifier for loading effect suppression, power consumption reduction and CG enhancement. The mixer consumes low power of 6.9 mW and achieves LO-port input reflection coefficient of -17.8~ -38.7 dB and RF-port input reflection coefficient of -16.8~ -27.9 dB for frequencies of 90~100 GHz. The mixer achieves maximum CG of 3.6 dB at 95 GHz, and CG of 2.1±1.5 dB for frequencies of 91.9~99.4 GHz. That is, the corresponding 3 dB CG bandwidth is 7.5 GHz. In addition, the mixer achieves LO-RF isolation of 36.8 dB at 94 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, the CG, LO-RF isolation and power dissipation results are the best data ever reported for a 94 GHz CMOS/BiCMOS up-conversion mixer.

Keywords: CMOS, W-band, up-conversion mixer, conversion gain, negative resistance compensation, output buffer amplifier

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3930 The Return of Daily Life — Improvement Experiments on Urban Village in the Post-Urban Village Era

Authors: Gan Lu, Xu Lei

Abstract:

This is an era when urban village is disappearing in China. A series of social phenomenon presented in post-urban village era is forcing rethinking of the future of urban village. Existing monotonous urban renewal mode based on gentrification is questioned, and the social values of urban village has been gaining increasing attention while the daily life and spatial power of underclass is being focused on. Based on the consensus on the positive meaning of urban village phenomenon, social sectors have taken amount of improvement experiments to explore the possibility of modern transition of urban village on the premise of existence. These experiments revealed that urban tremendous changes impact a lot on social daily life, and pointed out that it is necessary to bring up the responsibility of architects and the definition of urban for discussion again.

Keywords: post-urban village era, gentrification, social value, daily life, improvement experiment.

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
3929 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based on Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani

Abstract:

We introduced an all-optical multi-casting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier

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3928 High Dissolution of ATC by pH Control and Its Enzymatic Conversion to L-Cysteine

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin

Abstract:

L-Cysteine is extensively used as a supplement of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and feed additives. It has obtained industrially by hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. However, there are some problems such as the restriction of using materials from animals and the intractable waste pollution. The enzymatic conversion has been regarded as an environmental-friendly method. Currently, the biggest bottle-neck of enzymatic conversion is the low yield of L-cysteine due to the low substrate solubility. In this study, the method of enhancing the solubility of the substrate D,L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid (ATC) was developed and the enzymatic reaction at high concentration levels was performed. A large amount of substrate in aqueous solutions was dissolved by pH control using salts. As the pH of the solution increased, the solubility of ATC increased. It was thought that a shift of ATC from acid form (-COOH) to dissociated carboxylic group (-COO-) would improve its hydrophilicity leading to solubility increase. The highest solubility of ATC was 610 mM at pH 10.5, whereas the maximum reaction rate was obtained at pH 8.3. As a result, a high L-cysteine yield of 250 mM was achieved at pH 9.1, which was obtained from a combination of optimum pH conditions for ATC solubility and enzymatic conversion. This yield corresponds to approximately 18 times of that in previous reports.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, high-substrate solubilization, L-Cysteine

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3927 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape

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3926 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, ethanol, acetone, gasoline, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3925 The Extent of Land Use Externalities in the Fringe of Jakarta Metropolitan: An Application of Spatial Panel Dynamic Land Value Model

Authors: Rahma Fitriani, Eni Sumarminingsih, Suci Astutik

Abstract:

In a fast growing region, conversion of agricultural lands which are surrounded by some new development sites will occur sooner than expected. This phenomenon has been experienced by many regions in Indonesia, especially the fringe of Jakarta (BoDeTaBek). Being Indonesia’s capital city, rapid conversion of land in this area is an unavoidable process. The land conversion expands spatially into the fringe regions, which were initially dominated by agricultural land or conservation sites. Without proper control or growth management, this activity will invite greater costs than benefits. The current land use is the use which maximizes its value. In order to maintain land for agricultural activity or conservation, some efforts are needed to keep the land value of this activity as high as possible. In this case, the knowledge regarding the functional relationship between land value and its driving forces is necessary. In a fast growing region, development externalities are the assumed dominant driving force. Land value is the product of the past decision of its use leading to its value. It is also affected by the local characteristics and the observed surrounded land use (externalities) from the previous period. The effect of each factor on land value has dynamic and spatial virtues; an empirical spatial dynamic land value model will be more useful to capture them. The model will be useful to test and to estimate the extent of land use externalities on land value in the short run as well as in the long run. It serves as a basis to formulate an effective urban growth management’s policy. This study will apply the model to the case of land value in the fringe of Jakarta Metropolitan. The model will be used further to predict the effect of externalities on land value, in the form of prediction map. For the case of Jakarta’s fringe, there is some evidence about the significance of neighborhood urban activity – negative externalities, the previous land value and local accessibility on land value. The effects are accumulated dynamically over years, but they will fully affect the land value after six years.

Keywords: growth management, land use externalities, land value, spatial panel dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 164