Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 124

Search results for: rotary swaging

124 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium

Authors: Michal Duchek, Jan Palán, Tomas Kubina

Abstract:

Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

Keywords: commercial-purity titanium, wire, rotary swaging, tensile test, hardness, modulus of elasticity, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
123 Adjustment and Compensation Techniques for the Rotary Axes of Five-axis CNC Machine Tools

Authors: Tung-Hui Hsu, Wen-Yuh Jywe

Abstract:

Five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools (three linear and two rotary axes) are ideally suited to the fabrication of complex work pieces, such as dies, turbo blades, and cams. The locations of the axis average line and centerline of the rotary axes strongly influence the performance of these machines; however, techniques to compensate for eccentric error in the rotary axes remain weak. This paper proposes optical (Non-Bar) techniques capable of calibrating five-axis CNC machine tools and compensating for eccentric error in the rotary axes. This approach employs the measurement path in ISO/CD 10791-6 to determine the eccentric error in two rotary axes, for which compensatory measures can be implemented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed techniques can improve the performance of various five-axis CNC machine tools by more than 90%. Finally, a result of the cutting test using a B-type five-axis CNC machine tool confirmed to the usefulness of this proposed compensation technique.

Keywords: calibration, compensation, rotary axis, five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools, eccentric error, optical calibration system, ISO/CD 10791-6

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
122 Comparative Study on Soil Tillage Using Rotary Tiller and Power Harrow

Authors: Watcharachan Sukcharoenvipharat, Prathuang Usaborisut, Sirisak Choedkiatphon

Abstract:

Farmers try to reduce steps of soil preparation by using subsoiler and then following by equipment for soil pulverization such as a rotary tiller and a power harrow which take advantage of using a power take-off of a tractor. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the tilling performances of a rotary tiller and a power harrow applying after subsoiling. The results showed that both the rotary tiller and the power harrow had negative slip, indicating that they generated force to push a tractor. The rotary tiller created negative vertical force to lift up the tractor whereas opposite result was found when using the power harrow. Since working depths were different, vertical forces, torques and PTO powers for two equipment types were significantly different. However, no significant differences were found for the forward speeds, slips, drawbar pulls and drawbar powers. Comparative analysis showed that two equipment types had significant difference in PTO power to working depth, drawbar power to working depth, PTO power to working area, drawbar power to working area and soil pulverization.

Keywords: Rotary Tiller, Power Harrow, Drawbar Pull, Drawbar Power, PTO Power

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
121 Parallel Operated Rotary Frequency Converters within a Ship Micro-Grid System

Authors: Hamdy Ahmed Ashour

Abstract:

This paper studies the parallel operation of rotary frequency converters which can be used within a ship micro-grid system and also to supply ships and equipment in a harbour during off-sail and maintenance periods with their suitable voltage and frequency requirements in order to overcome the possible associated problems of overloading on a single converter. The paper theoretically and experimentally investigated the operation of 3-ph induction motor / 3-ph synchronous generator based rotary converters set. Concept of operation and merits of such converters has been discussed. Overall dynamic simulation model of two parallel operated rotary converters has been developed. Active and reactive load sharing of the two converters has been analyzed. Experimental setup has been implemented for proof of concept and practical validation. Simulation and experimental results have been obtained and well correlated; showing how the rotary converters based setup can be manipulated to achieve different requirements of operating conditions.

Keywords: experimental, frequency-converters, load-sharing, marine-applications, simulation, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
120 Characteristics of Interaction Forces Acting on a Newly-Design Rotary Blade for Thai Walking Tractor

Authors: Sirisak Choedkiatphon, Tanya Niyamapa

Abstract:

This research aimed to indeed understand the soil-rotary blade interaction of the newly-design rotary blade for Thai walking tractor. Therefore, this study was carried out to clarify the characteristics of the horizontal and the vertical forces and the moment around a rotary shaft of prototype rotary blade 15 lengthwise slice angle. It was set up and tested in laboratory soil bin at Kasetsart University under sandy loam and clay soil at soil dry bulk density and soil specific weight of 9.81 kN/m3 and 11.3% (d.b.), respectively. The tests were conducted at travel speeds of 0.069 and 0.142 m/s and rotational speeds of 150, 250 and 350 rpm. The characteristic of pushing-forward and lifting-up forces and moment around a rotor shaft were obtained by using the EOR transducer. Also, the acting point of resultant force of these soil-blade reaction forces was determined. The pushing-forward and lifting-up forces, moment around a rotor shaft and resultant force increased at higher travel speed and higher soil moisture content. In tilling stage, the acting points of resultant force located inside the circumstance of the blade locus. The results showed that the variation of magnitude and direction of pushing-forward, lifting-up and resultant forces corresponded to soil-blade interaction of the newly-design in tilling stage.

Keywords: rotary blde, soil-blade interaction, walking tractor, clay, sandy loam

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
119 Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of Vertical Take-Off and Landing Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Enes Gunaltili, Burak Dam

Abstract:

The airplane history started with the Wright brothers' aircraft and improved day by day. With the help of this advancements, big aircrafts replace with small and unmanned air vehicles, so in this study we design this type of air vehicles. First of all, aircrafts mainly divided into two main parts in our day as a rotary and fixed wing aircrafts. The fixed wing aircraft generally use for transport, cargo, military and etc. The rotary wing aircrafts use for same area but there are some superiorities from each other. The rotary wing aircraft can take off vertically from the ground, and it can use restricted area. On the other hand, rotary wing aircrafts generally can fly lower range than fixed wing aircraft. There are one kind of aircraft consist of this two types specifications. It is named as VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) type aircraft. VTOLs are able to takeoff and land vertically and fly horizontally. The VTOL aircrafts generally can fly higher range from the rotary wings but can fly lower range from the fixed wing aircraft but it gives beneficial range between them. There are many other advantages of VTOL aircraft from the rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Because of that, VTOLs began to use for generally military, cargo, search, rescue and mapping areas. Within this framework, this study answers the question that how can we design VTOL as a small unmanned aircraft systems for search and rescue application for benefiting the advantages of fixed wing and rotary wing aircrafts by eliminating the disadvantages of them. To answer that question and design VTOL aircraft, multidisciplinary design optimizations (MDO), some theoretical terminologies, formulations, simulations and modelling systems based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used in same time as design methodology to determine design parameters and steps. As a conclusion, based on tests and simulations depend on design steps, suggestions on how the VTOL aircraft designed and advantages, disadvantages, and observations for design parameters are listed, then VTOL is designed and presented with the design parameters, advantages, and usage areas.

Keywords: airplane, rotary, fixed, VTOL, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
118 Preparing Curved Canals Using Mtwo and RaCe Rotary Instruments: A Comparison Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Vito Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Irene Malagnino

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments, in cleaning and shaping root canals curvature. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 160 simulated canals in resin blocks, with an angle curvature 15°-30°. These 160 simulated canals were divided into two groups, where each group consisted of 80 blocks. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=40 canals each). The simulated canals subgroups were prepared with Mtwo and RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. The root canals were measured at four different points of reference, starting at 13 mm from the orifice. In the first group, the canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany). The Mtwo files used were: 10/0.04, 15/0.05, 20/0.06, and 25/0.06. These instruments entered in the full length of the canal. Each file was rotated in the canal until it reached the apical point. In the second group, the canals were prepared using RaCe instruments (La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland), performing the crown down technique, using the torque electric control motor (VDWCO, Munich, Germany), with 600 RPM and 2n/cm as follow: ≠40/0.10, ≠35/0.08, ≠30/0.06, ≠25/0.04, ≠25/0.02. The data were recorded using SPSS version 23 software (Microsoft, IL, USA). Data analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: The results obtained by using the Mtwo rotary instruments, showed that these instruments were able to clean and shape in the right-to-left motion curved canals, at different levels, without any deviation, and in perfect symmetry, with a P-value=0.000. The data showed that the greater the depth of the root canal, the greater the deviations of the RaCe rotary instruments. These deviations occurred in three levels, which are: S2(P=0.004), S3( P=0.007), S4(P=0.009). The Mtwo files can go deeper and create a greater angle in S4 level (21°-28°), compared to RaCe instruments with an angle equal to 19°-24°. Conclusion: The present study noted a clinically significant difference between Mtwo rotary instruments and RaCe rotary files used for the canal preparation and indicated that Mtwo instruments are a better choice for the curved canals.

Keywords: canal curvature, canal preparation, Mtwo, RaCe, resin blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
117 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko

Abstract:

COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
116 Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting and Wall Thickness Distribution of Bent Tubes Produced by Rotary Draw Bending

Authors: Bernd Engel, Hassan Raheem Hassan

Abstract:

Rotary draw bending is a method used for tube forming. During the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness changes in the cross section of the tube. Wall thinning of the tube takes place at the extrados, whereas wall thickening of the tube occurs at the intrados. This paper investigates the tube bending with rotary draw bending process using thick-walled tubes and different material properties (16Mo3 and 10CrMo9-10). The experimental tests and finite element simulations are used to calculate the variable characteristics (wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting and longitudinal strain distribution). These results are compared with results of a plasto-mechanical model. Moreover, the cross section distortion is investigated in this study. This study helped to get bends with smaller wall factor for different material properties.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, thick wall tube, material properties, material influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
115 Rotary Entrainment in Two Phase Stratified Gas-Liquid Layers: An Experimental Study

Authors: Yagya Sharma, Basanta K. Rana, Arup K. Das

Abstract:

Rotary entrainment is a phenomenon in which the interfaces of two immiscible fluids are subjected to external flux in the form of rotation. Present work reports the experimental study on rotary motion of a horizontal cylinder between the interface of air and water to observe the penetration of gas inside the liquid. Experiments have been performed to establish entrainment of air mass in water alongside the cylindrical surface. The movement of tracer and seeded particles have been tracked to calculate the speed and path of the entrained air inside water. Simplified particle image velocimetry technique has been used to trace the movement of particles/tracers at the moment they are injected inside the entrainment zone and suspended beads have been used to replicate the particle movement with respect to time in order to determine the flow dynamics of the fluid along the cylinder. Present paper establishes a thorough experimental analysis of the rotary entrainment phenomenon between air and water keeping in interest the extent to which we can intermix the two and also to study its entrainment trajectories.

Keywords: entrainment, gas-liquid flow, particle image velocimetry, stratified layer mixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
114 Research on Structural Changes in Plastic Deformation during Rolling and Crimping of Tubes

Authors: Hein Win Zaw

Abstract:

Today, the advanced strategies for aircraft production technology potentially need the higher performance, and on the other hand, those strategies and engineering technologies should meet considerable process and reduce of production costs. Thus, professionals who are working in these scopes are attempting to develop new materials to improve the manufacturability of designs, the creation of new technological processes, tools and equipment. This paper discusses about the research on structural changes in plastic deformation during rotary expansion and crimp of pipes. Pipelines are experiencing high pressure and pulsating load. That is why, it is high demands on the mechanical properties of the material, the quality of the external and internal surfaces, preserve cross-sectional shape and the minimum thickness of the pipe wall are taking into counts. In the manufacture of pipes, various operations: distribution, crimping, bending, etc. are used. The most widely used at various semi-products, connecting elements found the process of rotary expansion and crimp of pipes. In connection with the use of high strength materials and less-plastic, these conventional techniques do not allow obtaining high-quality parts, and also have a low economic efficiency. Therefore, research in this field is relevantly considerable to develop in advanced. Rotary expansion and crimp of pipes are accompanied by inhomogeneous plastic deformation, which leads to structural changes in the material, causes its deformation hardening, by this result changes the operational reliability of the product. Parts of the tube obtained by rotary expansion and crimp differ by multiplicity of form and characterized by various diameter in the various section, which formed in the result of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. The reliability of the coupling, obtained by rotary expansion and crimp, is determined by the structural arrangement of material formed by the formation process; there is maximum value of deformation, the excess of which is unacceptable. The structural state of material in this condition is determined by technological mode of formation in the rotary expansion and crimp. Considering the above, objective of the present study is to investigate the structural changes at different levels of plastic deformation, accompanying rotary expansion and crimp, and the analysis of stress concentrators of different scale levels, responsible for the formation of the primary zone of destruction.

Keywords: plastic deformation, rolling of tubes, crimping of tubes, structural changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
113 Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes

Authors: B. Engel, H. Hassan

Abstract:

Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf=bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf=diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, material properties, neutral axis shifting, wall thickness distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
112 Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Analysis of Heat Exchanging Performance of Rotary Thermal Wheels

Authors: H. M. D. Prabhashana Herath, M. D. Anuradha Wickramasinghe, A. M. C. Kalpani Polgolla, R. A. C. Prasad Ranasinghe, M. Anusha Wijewardane

Abstract:

The demand for thermal comfort in buildings in hot and humid climates increases progressively. In general, buildings in hot and humid climates spend more than 60% of the total energy cost for the functionality of the air conditioning (AC) system. Hence, it is required to install energy efficient AC systems or integrate energy recovery systems for both new and/or existing AC systems whenever possible, to reduce the energy consumption by the AC system. Integrate a Rotary Thermal Wheel as the energy recovery device of an existing AC system has shown very promising with attractive payback periods of less than 5 years. A rotary thermal wheel can be located in the Air Handling Unit (AHU) of a central AC system to recover the energy available in the return air stream. During this study, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software to determine the optimum design parameters (i.e., rotary speed and parameters of the matrix profile) of a rotary thermal wheel for hot and humid climates. The simulations were performed for a sinusoidal matrix geometry. Variation of sinusoidal matrix parameters, i.e., span length and height, were also analyzed to understand the heat exchanging performance and the induced pressure drop due to the air flow. The results show that the heat exchanging performance increases when increasing the wheel rpm. However, the performance increment rate decreases when increasing the rpm. As a result, it is more advisable to operate the wheel at 10-20 rpm. For the geometry, it was found that the sinusoidal geometries with lesser spans and higher heights have higher heat exchanging capabilities. Considering the sinusoidal profiles analyzed during the study, the geometry with 4mm height and 3mm width shows better performance than the other combinations.

Keywords: air conditioning, computational fluid dynamics, CFD, energy recovery, heat exchangers

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
111 Application of Relative Regional Total Energy in Rotary Drums with Axial Segregation Characteristics

Authors: Qiuhua Miao, Peng Huang, Yifei Ding

Abstract:

Particles with different properties tend to be unevenly distributed along an axial direction of the rotating drum, which is usually ignored. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship between axial segregation characteristics and particle crushing efficiency in longer drums. In this paper, a relative area total energy (RRTE) index is proposed, which aims to evaluate the overall crushing energy distribution characteristics. Based on numerical simulation verification, the proposed RRTE index can reflect the overall grinding effect more comprehensively, clearly representing crushing energy distribution in different drum areas. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to the relation between axial segregation and crushing energy in drums. Compared with the radial section, the collision loss energy of the axial section can better reflect the overall crushing effect in long drums. The axial segregation characteristics directly affect the total energy distribution between medium and abrasive, reducing overall crushing efficiency. Therefore, the axial segregation characteristics should be avoided as much as possible in the crushing of the long rotary drum.

Keywords: relative regional total energy, crushing energy, axial segregation characteristics, rotary drum

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
110 Thermal-Fluid Characteristics of Heating Element in Rotary Heat Exchanger in Accordance with Fouling Phenomena

Authors: Young Mun Lee, Seon Ho Kim, Seok Min Choi, JeongJu Kim, Seungyeong Choi, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

To decrease sulfur oxide in the flue gas from coal power plant, a flue gas de-sulfurization facility is operated. In the reactor, a chemical reaction occurs with a temperature change of the gas so that sulfur oxide is removed and cleaned air is emitted. In this process, temperature change induces a serious problem which is a cold erosion of stack. To solve this problem, the rotary heat exchanger is managed before the stack. In the heat exchanger, a heating element is equipped to increase a heat transfer area. Heat transfer and pressure loss is a big issue to improve a performance. In this research, thermal-fluid characteristics of the heating element are analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. Fouling simulation is also conducted to calculate a performance of heating element. Numerical analysis is performed on the situation where plugging phenomenon has already occurred and existed in the inlet region of the heating element. As the pressure of the rear part of the plugging decreases suddenly and the flow velocity becomes slower, it is found that the flow is gathered from both sides as it develops in the flow direction, and it is confirmed that the pressure difference due to plugging is increased.

Keywords: heating element, plugging, rotary heat exchanger, thermal fluid characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
109 Influence of Flight Design on Discharging Profiles of Granular Material in Rotary Dryer

Authors: I. Benhsine, M. Hellou, F. Lominé, Y. Roques

Abstract:

During the manufacture of fertilizer, it is necessary to add water for granulation purposes. The water content is then removed or reduced using rotary dryers. They are commonly used to dry wet granular materials and they are usually fitted with lifting flights. The transport of granular materials occurs when particles cascade from the lifting flights and fall into the air stream. Each cascade consists of a lifting and a falling cycle. Lifting flights are thus of great importance for the transport of granular materials along the dryer. They also enhance the contact between solid particles and the air stream. Optimization of the drying process needs an understanding of the behavior of granular materials inside a rotary dryer. Different approaches exist to study the movement of granular materials inside the dryer. Most common of them are based on empirical formulations or on study the movement of the bulk material. In the present work, we are interested in the behavior of each particle in the cross section of the dryer using Discrete Element Method (DEM) to understand. In this paper, we focus on studying the hold-up, the cascade patterns, the falling time and the falling length of the particles leaving the flights. We will be using two segment flights. Three different profiles are used: a straight flight (180° between both segments), an angled flight (with an angle of 150°), and a right-angled flight (90°). The profile of the flight affects significantly the movement of the particles in the dryer. Changing the flight angle changes the flight capacity which leads to different discharging profile of the flight, thus affecting the hold-up in the flight. When the angle of the flight is reduced, the range of the discharge angle increases leading to a more uniformed cascade pattern in time. The falling length and the falling time of the particles also increase up to a maximum value then they start decreasing. Moreover, the results show an increase in the falling length and the falling time up to 70% and 50%, respectively, when using a right-angled flight instead of a straight one.

Keywords: discrete element method, granular materials, lifting flight, rotary dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
108 Balancing a Rotary Inverted Pendulum System Using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inverse: Design and Experiment

Authors: Ibrahim M. Mehedi, Uzair Ansari, Ubaid M. Al-Saggaf, Abdulrahman H. Bajodah

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for balancing a rotary inverted pendulum system using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inversion (RGDI) under influence of parametric variations and external disturbances. In GDI control, dynamic constraints are formulated in the form of asymptotically stable differential equation which encapsulates the control objectives. The constraint differential equations are based on the deviation function of the angular position and its rates from their reference values. The constraint dynamics are inverted using Moore-Penrose Generalized Inverse (MPGI) to realize the control expression. The GDI singularity problem is addressed by augmenting a dynamic scale factor in the interpretation of MPGI which guarantee asymptotically stable position tracking. An additional term based on Sliding Mode Control is appended within GDI control to make it robust against parametric variations, disturbances and tracking performance deterioration due to generalized inversion scaling. The stability of the closed loop system is ensured by using positive definite Lyapunov energy function that guarantees semi-global practically stable position tracking. Numerical simulations are conducted on the dynamic model of rotary inverted pendulum system to analyze the efficiency of proposed RGDI control law. The comparative study is also presented, in which the performance of RGDI control is compared with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and is verified through experiments. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments demonstrate better tracking performance abilities and robustness features of RGDI control in the presence of parametric uncertainties and disturbances.

Keywords: generalized dynamic inversion, lyapunov stability, rotary inverted pendulum system, sliding mode control

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
107 Device for Mechanical Fragmentation of Organic Substrates Before Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device designed for mechanical fragmentation of plant substrate before methane fermentation. The device is equipped with a perforated rotary cylindrical drum coated with a thermal layer, connected to a substrate feeder and driven by a motoreducer. The drum contains ball- or cylinder-shaped weights of different diameters, while its interior is mounted with lateral permanent magnets with an attractive force ranging from 100 kg to 2 tonnes per m2 of the surface. Over the perforated rotary drum, an infrared radiation generator is mounted, producing 0.2 kW to 1 kW of infrared radiation per 1 m2 of the perforated drum surface. This design reduces the energy consumption required for the biomass destruction process by 10-30% in comparison to the conventional ball mill. The magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets situated within the perforated rotary drum promotes this process through generation of free radicals that act as powerful oxidants, accelerating the decomposition rate. Plant substrate shows increased susceptibility to biodegradation when subjected to magnetic conditioning, reducing the time required for biomethanation by 25%. Additionally, the electromagnetic radiation generated by the radiator improves substrate destruction by 10% and the efficiency of the process. The magnetic field and the infrared radiation contribute synergically to the increased efficiency of destruction and conversion of the substrate.

Keywords: biomass pretreatment, mechanical fragmentation, biomass, methane fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
106 Comparative Analysis of Costs and Well Drilling Techniques for Water, Geothermal Energy, Oil and Gas Production

Authors: Thales Maluf, Nazem Nascimento

Abstract:

The development of society relies heavily on the total amount of energy obtained and its consumption. Over the years, there has been an advancement on energy attainment, which is directly related to some natural resources and developing systems. Some of these resources should be highlighted for its remarkable presence in world´s energy grid, such as water, petroleum, and gas, while others deserve attention for representing an alternative to diversify the energy grid, like geothermal sources. Therefore, because all these resources can be extracted from the underground, drilling wells is a mandatory activity in terms of exploration, and it involves a previous geological study and an adequate preparation. It also involves a cleaning process and an extraction process that can be executed by different procedures. For that reason, this research aims the enhancement of exploration processes through a comparative analysis of drilling costs and techniques used to produce them. The analysis itself is based on a bibliographical review based on books, scientific papers, schoolwork and mainly explore drilling methods and technologies, equipment used, well measurements, extraction methods, and production costs. Besides techniques and costs regarding the drilling processes, some properties and general characteristics of these sources are also compared. Preliminary studies show that there are some major differences regarding the exploration processes, mostly because these resources are naturally distinct. Water wells, for instance, have hundreds of meters of length because water is stored close to the surface, while oil, gas, and geothermal production wells can reach thousands of meters, which make them more expensive to be drilled. The drilling methods present some general similarities especially regarding the main mechanism of perforation, but since water is a resource stored closer to the surface than the other ones, there is a wider variety of methods. Water wells can be drilled by rotary mechanisms, percussion mechanisms, rotary-percussion mechanisms, and some other simpler methods. Oil and gas production wells, on the other hand, require rotary or rotary-percussion drilling with a proper structure called drill rig and resistant materials for the drill bits and the other components, mostly because they´re stored in sedimentary basins that can be located thousands of meters under the ground. Geothermal production wells also require rotary or rotary-percussion drilling and require the existence of an injection well and an extraction well. The exploration efficiency also depends on the permeability of the soil, and that is why it has been developed the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Throughout this review study, it can be verified that the analysis of the extraction processes of energy resources is essential since these resources are responsible for society development. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of costs and well drilling techniques for water, geothermal energy, oil, and gas production, which is the main goal of this research, can enable the growth of energy generation field through the emergence of ideas that improve the efficiency of energy generation processes.

Keywords: drilling, water, oil, Gas, geothermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
105 Optimization of Process Parameters for Rotary Electro Discharge Machining Using EN31 Tool Steel: Present and Future Scope

Authors: Goutam Dubey, Varun Dutta

Abstract:

In the present study, rotary-electro discharge machining of EN31 tool steel has been carried out using a pure copper electrode. Various response variables such as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR), and Machining Rate (MR) have been studied against the selected process variables. The selected process variables were peak current (I), voltage (V), duty cycle, and electrode rotation (N). EN31 Tool Steel is hardened, high carbon steel which increases its hardness and reduces its machinability. Reduced machinability means it not economical to use conventional methods to machine EN31 Tool Steel. So, non-conventional methods play an important role in machining of such materials.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, EDM, tool steel, tool wear rate, optimization techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
104 Dual-Actuated Vibration Isolation Technology for a Rotary System’s Position Control on a Vibrating Frame: Disturbance Rejection and Active Damping

Authors: Kamand Bagherian, Nariman Niknejad

Abstract:

A vibration isolation technology for precise position control of a rotary system powered by two permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors is proposed, where this system is mounted on an oscillatory frame. To achieve vibration isolation for this system, active damping and disturbance rejection (ADDR) technology is presented which introduces a cooperation of a main and an auxiliary PMDC, controlled by discrete-time sliding mode control (DTSMC) based schemes. The controller of the main actuator tracks a desired position and the auxiliary actuator simultaneously isolates the induced vibration, as its controller follows a torque trend. To determine this torque trend, a combination of two algorithms is introduced by the ADDR technology. The first torque-trend producing algorithm rejects the disturbance by counteracting the perturbation, estimated using a model-based observer. The second torque trend applies active variable damping to minimize the oscillation of the output shaft. In this practice, the presented technology is implemented on a rotary system with a pendulum attached, mounted on a linear actuator simulating an oscillation-transmitting structure. In addition, the obtained results illustrate the functionality of the proposed technology.

Keywords: active damping, discrete-time nonlinear controller, disturbance tracking algorithm, oscillation transmitting support, position control, stability robustness, vibration isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
103 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

Abstract:

In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
102 Adjustable Counter-Weight for Full Turn Rotary Systems

Authors: G. Karakaya, C. Türker, M. Anaklı

Abstract:

It is necessary to test to see if optical devices such as camera, night vision devices are working properly. Therefore, a precision biaxial rotary system (gimbal) is required for mounting Unit Under Test, UUT. The Gimbal systems can be utilized for precise positioning of the UUT; hence, optical test can be performed with high accuracy. The weight of UUT, which is placed outside the axis of rotation, causes an off-axis moment to the mounting armature. The off-axis moment can act against the direction of movement for some orientation, thus the electrical motor, which rotates the gimbal axis, has to apply higher level of torque to guide and stabilize the system. Moreover, UUT and its mounting fixture to the gimbal can be changed, which causes change in applied resistance moment to the gimbals electrical motor. In this study, a preloaded spring is added to the gimbal system for minimizing applied off axis moment with the help of four bar mechanism. Two different possible methods for preloading spring are introduced and system optimization is performed to eliminate all moment which is created by off axis weight.

Keywords: adaptive, balancing, gimbal, mechanics, spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
101 Application of ECQFD for Enabling Environmentally Conscious Design

Authors: Gopinath Rathod, Vinod Puranik

Abstract:

Growing business recognizes environmental consciousness as an important concept for survival in the competitive scenario. Environmental consciousness is a critical intersection between manufacturing and product design processes with environmental issues and concerns. This article presents a project in which quality function deployment (QFD) for environment (ECQFD) has been applied to rotary switches for enabling environmentally conscious design in the early stage of product development. ECQFD is capable of handling simultaneously the environmental and traditional product quality requirements. ECQFD consists of four phases. ECQFD phases I and II are concerned with the identification of parts that are important in enhancing environmental consciousness. ECQFD phases III and IV are concerned with the evaluation of effect of design improvement on environmental quality requirements. The case study has been practically validated which indicated the receptivity of applying ECQFD in industrial scenario.

Keywords: quality function deployment, environment, product design, design for environment, rotary switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
100 Thermodynamically Predicting the Impact of Temperature on the Performance of Drilling Bits as a Function of Time

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali

Abstract:

Air drilling has recently received increasing acceptance by the oil and gas industry due to its unique advantages. The main advantages of air drilling include the higher rate of penetration, less formation damage, lower risk of loss of circulation. However, these advantages cannot be fully realized if thermal effects in air drilling are not well understood and minimized. Due to its high frictional coefficient, low heat conductivity, and high compressibility, air can impact the temperature distribution of bit and thus affect its bit performances. Based on energy and mass balances, a transient thermal model that predicts bit temperature is presented along with numerical solutions in this paper. In addition, several important parameters that influence bit temperature distribution are analyzed. Simulation results show that the bit temperature increases with increasing weight on bit and rotary speed but decreases as the standpipe pressure and flow rate increase. These results can be used to optimize drilling operations and flow parameters for an improved bit performance as shown in this paper.

Keywords: air drilling, rate of penetration, temperature, rotary speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
99 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni

Abstract:

Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
98 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
97 Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption

Authors: I. O. Nascimento, J. T. Manzi

Abstract:

The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimization, drying, entropy minimization, modeling dryers

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
96 Study of Linear Generator for Vibration Energy Harvesting of Frequency more than 50Hz

Authors: Seong-Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim

Abstract:

Energy harvesting is the technology which gathers and converts external energies such as light, vibration and heat which are disposed into reusable electrical energy and uses such electrical energy. The vibration energy harvesting is very interesting technology because it produces very high density of energy and unaffected by the climate. Vibration energy can be harvested by the electrostatic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The electrostatic system has low energy conversion efficiency, and the piezoelectric system is expensive and needs the frequent maintenance because it is made of piezoelectric ceramic. On the other hand, the electromagnetic system has a long life time and high harvesting efficiency, and it is relatively cheap. The electromagnetic harvesting system includes the linear generator and the rotary-type generator. The rotary-type generators require the additional mechanical conversion device if it uses linear motion of vibration. But, the linear generator uses directly linear motion of vibration without a mechanical conversion device, and it has uncomplicated structure and light weight compared with the rotary-type generator. Therefore, the linear electromagnetic generator can be useful in using vibration energy harvesting. The pole transformer systems need electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information to administrator. Therefore, the battery is essential, and its regular maintenance of replacement is required. In case of the transformer of high location in mountainous areas, the person can’t easily access it resulting in high maintenance cost. To overcome these problems, we designed and developed the linear electromagnetic generator which can replace battery in electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information of the pole transformer. And, it uses vibration energy of frequency more than 50 Hz by the pole transformer. In order to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of small linear electric generator, a commercial electromagnetic finite element analysis program "MAXWELL" was used. Then, through the actual production and experiment of linear generator, we confirmed output power of linear generator.

Keywords: energy harvesting, frequency, linear generator, experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
95 Modelling Kinetics of Colour Degradation in American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Extract Concentration

Authors: Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Salemeh Kazemzadeh, Mehdi Sharifi Soltani, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei

Abstract:

The kinetics of colour changes of American Pokeweed extract, due to concentration by various heating methods was studied. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for production of American Pokeweed extract concentrate. The American Pokeweed extract was concentrated to a final 40 °Brix from an initial °Brix of 4 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final American Pokeweed extract concentration of 40 °Brix was achieved in 188, 216 and 320 min by using microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. All models were found to describe the L, a and b-data adequately. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of American Pokeweed extract.

Keywords: American pokeweed, colour, concentration, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 417