Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1627

Search results for: particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions

1627 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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1626 High Quality Gallium Oxide Microstructures by Catalyst-Free Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Jiang-Bei Qin, Rui-Xia Miao, Wei Ren


In this study, high crystalline gallium oxide microstructures (wires, belts, and sheets) were synthesized by catalyst-free thermal oxidation. Structural studies such as X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations on the microstructures showed monoclinic phase of gallium oxide and single crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that a huge super microsheet even grows up to 450 µm in length and 206 µm in width. Gallium oxide microstructures exhibit high crystallinity along (002) and (401), respectively. The PL spectrum of these microstructures excites a blue light band centered at 441 and 489nm. The growth mechanism of gallium oxide microstructures is discussed. These gallium oxide microstructures have great potential in functional devices.

Keywords: catalyst-free, gallium oxide, microstructures, thermal oxide

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1625 Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach

Authors: Marjan Javanmard


The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.

Keywords: dairy suspensions, rheology-structure, Maron-Pierce-Quemada Model, Evans and Lips Model

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1624 Characterization of Shear and Extensional Rheology of Fibre Suspensions Prior to Atomization

Authors: Siti N. M. Rozali, A. H. J. Paterson, J. P. Hindmarsh


Spray drying of fruit juices from liquid to powder is desirable as the powders are easier to handle, especially for storage and transportation. In this project, pomace fibres will be used as a drying aid during spray drying, replacing the commonly used maltodextrins. The main attraction of this drying aid is that the pomace fibres are originally derived from the fruit itself. However, the addition of micro-sized fibres to fruit juices is expected to affect the rheology and subsequent atomization behaviour during the spray drying process. This study focuses on the determination and characterization of the rheology of juice-fibre suspensions specifically inside a spray dryer nozzle. Results show that the juice-fibre suspensions exhibit shear thinning behaviour with a significant extensional viscosity. The shear and extensional viscosities depend on several factors which include fibre fraction, shape, size and aspect ratio. A commercial capillary rheometer is used to characterize the shear behaviour while a portable extensional rheometer has been designed and built to study the extensional behaviour. Methods and equipment will be presented along with the rheology results. Rheology or behaviour of the juice-fibre suspensions provides an insight into the limitations that will be faced during atomization, and in the future, this finding will assist in choosing the best nozzle design that can overcome the limitations introduced by the fibre particles thus resulting in successful spray drying of juice-fibre suspensions.

Keywords: extensional rheology, fibre suspensions, portable extensional rheometer, shear rheology

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1623 Microstructures of Si Surfaces Fabricated by Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation with Agarose Stamps

Authors: Hang Zhou, Limin Zhu


This paper investigates the fabrication of microstructures on Si surfaces by using electrochemical anodic oxidation with agarose stamps. The fabricating process is based on a selective anodic oxidation reaction that occurs in the contact area between a stamp and a Si substrate. The stamp which is soaked in electrolyte previously acts as a current flow channel. After forming the oxide patterns as an etching mask, a KOH aqueous is used for the wet etching of Si. A complicated microstructure array of 1 cm2 was fabricated by the method with high accuracy.

Keywords: microstructures, anodic oxidation, silicon, agarose stamps

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1622 Robust State feedback Controller for an Active Suspension System

Authors: Hussein Altartouri


The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the active suspension system using robust state feedback controller implemented for a half car model. This system represents a mechatronic system which contains all the essential components to be considered a complete mechatronic system. This system must adapt different conditions which are difficult to compromise, such as disturbances, slippage, and motion on rough road (that contains rocks, stones, and other miscellanies). Some current automobile suspension systems use passive components only by utilizing spring and damping coefficient with fixed rates. Vehicle suspensions systems are used to provide good road handling and improve passenger comfort. Passive suspensions only offer compromise between these two conflicting criteria. Active suspension poses the ability to reduce the traditional design as a compromise between handling and comfort by directly controlling the suspensions force actuators. In this study, the robust state feedback controller implemented to the active suspensions system for half car model.

Keywords: half-car model, active suspension system, state feedback, road profile

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1621 Growth Performance and Critical Supersaturation of Heterogeneous Condensation for High Concentration of Insoluble Sub-Micron Particles

Authors: Jie Yin, Jun Zhang


Measuring the growth performance and critical supersaturation of particle group have a high reference value for constructing a supersaturated water vapor environment that can improve the removal efficiency of the high-concentration particle group. The critical supersaturation and the variation of the growth performance with supersaturation for high-concentration particles were measured by a flow cloud chamber. Findings suggest that the influence of particle concentration on the growth performance will reduce with the increase of supersaturation. Reducing residence time and increasing particle concentration have similar effects on the growth performance of the high-concentration particle group. Increasing particle concentration and shortening residence time will increase the critical supersaturation of the particle group. The critical supersaturation required to activate a high-concentration particle group is lower than that of the single-particle when the minimum particle size in the particle group is the same as that of a single particle.

Keywords: sub-micron particles, heterogeneous condensation, critical supersaturation, nucleation

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1620 Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel

Authors: A. Jourani, C. Trevisiol, S. Bouvier


The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.

Keywords: martensite, microstructure, friction, wear, surface roughness

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1619 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao


Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

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1618 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan


In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

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1617 Effects of Polydispersity on the Glass Transition Dynamics of Aqueous Suspensions of Soft Spherical Colloidal Particles

Authors: Sanjay K. Behera, Debasish Saha, Paramesh Gadige, Ranjini Bandyopadhyay


The zero shear viscosity (η₀) of a suspension of hard sphere colloids characterized by a significant polydispersity (≈10%) increases with increase in volume fraction (ϕ) and shows a dramatic increase at ϕ=ϕg with the system entering a colloidal glassy state. Fragility which is the measure of the rapidity of approach of these suspensions towards the glassy state is sensitive to its size polydispersity and stiffness of the particles. Soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles deform in the presence of neighboring particles at volume fraction above the random close packing volume fraction of undeformed monodisperse spheres. Softness, therefore, enhances the packing efficiency of these particles. In this study PNIPAM particles of a nearly constant swelling ratio and with polydispersities varying over a wide range (7.4%-48.9%) are synthesized to study the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of suspensions of soft PNIPAM colloidal particles. The size and polydispersity of these particles are characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As these particles are deformable, their packing in aqueous suspensions is quantified in terms of effective volume fraction (ϕeff). The zero shear viscosity (η₀) data of these colloidal suspensions, estimated from rheometric experiments as a function of the effective volume fraction ϕeff of the suspensions, increases with increase in ϕeff and shows a dramatic increase at ϕeff = ϕ₀. The data for η₀ as a function of ϕeff fits well to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. It is observed that increasing polydispersity results in increasingly fragile supercooled liquid-like behavior, with the parameter ϕ₀, extracted from the fits to the VFT equation shifting towards higher ϕeff. The observed increase in fragility is attributed to the prevalence of dynamical heterogeneities (DHs) in these polydisperse suspensions, while the simultaneous shift in ϕ₀ is ascribed to the decoupling of the dynamics of the smallest and largest particles. Finally, it is observed that the intrinsic nonlinearity of these suspensions, estimated at the third harmonic near ϕ₀ in Fourier transform oscillatory rheological experiments, increases with increase in polydispersity. These results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulation results for polydisperse hard sphere colloidal glasses and clearly demonstrate that jammed suspensions of polydisperse colloidal particles can be effectively fluidized with increasing polydispersity. Suspensions of these particles are therefore excellent candidates for detailed experimental studies of the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of glass formation.

Keywords: dynamical heterogeneity, effective volume fraction, fragility, intrinsic nonlinearity

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1616 Modeling and Calculation of Physical Parameters of the Pollution of Water by Oil and Materials in Suspensions

Authors: Ainas Belkacem, Fourar Ali


The present study focuses on the mathematical modeling and calculation of physical parameters of water pollution by oil and sand in regime fully dispersed in water. In this study, the sand particles and oil are suspended in the case of fully developed turbulence. The study consists to understand, model and predict the viscosity, the structure and dynamics of these types of mixtures. The work carried out is Numerical and validated by experience.

Keywords: multi phase flow, pollution, suspensions, turbulence

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1615 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee


In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

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1614 Rheological Properties and Thermal Performance of Suspensions of Microcapsules Containing Phase Change Materials

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Carlos Salas-Bringas, Anna M. Szczotok, Marianne Hiorth, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen


The increasing cost of energy supply for the purposes of heating and cooling creates a demand for more energy efficient buildings. Improved construction techniques and enhanced material technology can greatly reduce the energy consumption needed for the buildings. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) suspensions utilized as heat transfer fluids for energy storage and heat transfer applications provide promising potential solutions. A full understanding of the flow and thermal characteristics of microcapsule suspensions is needed to optimize the design of energy storage systems, in order to reduce the capital cost, system size, and energy consumption. The MPCM suspensions exhibited pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour, and significantly improved the thermal performance of the suspensions. Three different models were used to characterize the thixotropic behaviour of the MPCM suspensions: the second-order structural, kinetic model was found to give a better fit to the experimental data than the Weltman and Figoni-Shoemaker models. For all samples, the initial shear stress increased, and the breakdown rate accelerated significantly with increasing concentration. The thermal performance and rheological properties, especially the selection of rheological models, will be useful for developing the applications of microcapsules as heat transfer fluids in thermal energy storage system such as calculation of an optimum MPCM concentration, pumping power requirement, and specific power consumption. The effect of temperature on the shear thinning properties of the samples suggests that some of the phase change material is located outside the capsules, and contributes to agglomeration of the samples.

Keywords: latent heat, microencapsulated phase change materials, pseudoplastic, suspension, thixotropic behaviour

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1613 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan


In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

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1612 Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formation and Spectroscopic Analysis

Authors: Mangaka C. Matoetoe, Fredrick O. Okumu


Metal nanoparticles have attracted a great interest in scientific research and industrial applications, owing to their unique large surface area-to-volume ratios and quantum-size effects. Supported metal nanoparticles play a pivotal role in areas such as nanoelectronics, energy storage and as catalysts for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Monometallics (Ag, Pt) and Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) with a mole fraction (1:1) were prepared by reduction / co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The kinetics of the nanoparticles formation was monitored using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used for size, film morphology as well as elemental composition study. Fast reduction processes was noted in Ag NPs (0.079 s-1) and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 (0.082 s-1) with exception of Pt NPs (0.006 s-1) formation. The UV-visible spectra showed characteristic peaks in Ag NPs while the Pt NPs and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 had no observable absorption peaks. UV visible spectra confirmed chemical reduction resulting to formation of NPs while TEM images depicted core-shell arrangement in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 with particle size of 20 nm. Monometallic Ag and Pt NPs reported particle sizes of 60 nm and 2.5 nm respectively. The particle size distribution in the BM NPs was found to directly depend on the concentration of Pt NPs around the Ag core. EDX elemental composition analysis of the nanoparticle suspensions confirmed presence of the Ag and Pt in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1. All the spectroscopic analysis confirmed the successful formation of the nanoparticles.

Keywords: kinetics, morphology, nanoparticles, platinum, silver

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1611 Basic Properties of a Fundamental Particle: Behavioral-Physical and Visual Methods for the Study of Fundamental Particle

Authors: Shukran M. Dadayev


To author's best knowledge, in this paper, the Basic Properties and Research methods of a Fundamental Particle is studied for the first time. That's to say, Fundamental Particle has not been discovered in the Nature yet. Because Fundamental Particle consists of specific Physical, Geometrical and Internal bases. Geometrical and Internal characteristics that are considered significant for the elementary and fundamental particles aren’t basic properties, characteristics or criteria of a Fundamental Particle. Of course, completely new Physical and Visual experimental methods of Quantum mechanics and Behavioral-Physical investigations of Particles are needed to study and discover the Fundamental Particle. These are new Physical, Visual and Behavioral-Physical experimental methods for describing and discovering the Fundamental Particle in the Nature and Microworld. Fundamental Particle consists of the same Energy-Mass-Motion system and a symmetry of Energy-Mass-Motion. Fundamental Particle supplies each of the elementary particles with the same Energy-Mass-Motion system at the same time and regulates each of the particles. Fundamental Particle gives Energy, Mass and Motion to each particles at the same time, each of the Particles consists of acquired Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry. Energy, Mass, Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles are Symmetrical Equivalent and they remain in their primary shapes in all cases. Fundamental Particle gives Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry consisting of different measures and functions to each of the particles. The Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles is Gravitation, Gravitational Interaction not only gives Motion, but also cause Motion by attracting. All Substances, Fields and Cosmic objects consist of Energy-Mass-Motion. The Field also includes specific Mass. They are always Energetic, Massive and Active. Fundamental Particle establishes the bases of the Nature. Supplement and Regulating of all the particles existing in the Nature belongs to Fundamental Particle.

Keywords: basic properties of a fundamental particle, behavioral-physical and visual methods, energy-mass-motion system and symmetrical equivalence, fundamental particle

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1610 Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels

Authors: O. Altuntaş, A. Güral


The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5 wt.% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150 °C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via the Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm3 was obtained after sintering and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950 °C temperature and then over-tempered at 705 °C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735 °C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300 °C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.

Keywords: powder metallurgy steel, bainite, cementite, austempering and spheroidization heat treatment

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1609 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov


The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: gland seal, lubricant additives, nanocrystalline cellulose, water-based lubricants

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1608 Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: Al-Si-Cu alloy, microstructures, micro-hardness, tensile stress electrical resistivity, enthalpy

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1607 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan


In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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1606 Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites

Authors: A. P .I. Popoola, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. I. Fayomi


The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.

Keywords: bean pod ash nanoparticles, al-cu-mg alloy, mechanical properties, wear, microstructures

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1605 Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2

Authors: Lawrence I. Onyeji, Girish M. Kale, M. Bijan Kermani


Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.

Keywords: carbon dioxide corrosion, corrosion behaviour, micro-alloyed steel, microstructures

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1604 The Influence of the Form of Grain on the Mechanical Behaviour of Sand

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah


The size and shape of soil particles reflect the formation history of the grains. In turn, the macro scale behavior of the soil mass results from particle level interactions which are affected by particle shape. Sphericity, roundness and smoothness characterize different scales associated to particle shape. New experimental data and data from previously published studies are gathered into two databases to explore the effects of particle shape on packing as well as small and large-strain properties of sandy soils. Data analysis shows that increased particle irregularity (angularity and/or eccentricity) leads to: an increase in emax and emin, a decrease in stiffness yet with increased sensitivity to the state of stress, an increase in compressibility under zero-lateral strain loading, and an increase in critical state friction angle φcs and intercept Γ with a weak effect on slope λ. Therefore, particle shape emerges as a significant soil index property that needs to be properly characterized and documented, particularly in clean sands and gravels. The systematic assessment of particle shape will lead to a better understanding of sand behavior.

Keywords: angularity, eccentricity, shape particle, behavior of soil

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1603 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang


The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

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1602 Preparation of n-type Bi2Te3 Films by Electrophoretic Deposition

Authors: Tahereh Talebi, Reza Ghomashchi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya


A high quality crack-free film of Bi2Te3 material has been deposited for the first time using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and microstructures of various films have been investigated. One of the most important thermoelectric (TE) applications is Bi2Te3 to manufacture TE generators (TEG) which can convert waste heat into electricity targeting the global warming issue. However, the high cost of the manufacturing process of TEGs keeps them expensive and out of reach for commercialization. Therefore, utilizing EPD as a simple and cost-effective method will open new opportunities for TEG’s commercialization. This method has been recently used for advanced materials such as microelectronics and has attracted a lot of attention from both scientists and industry. In this study, the effect of media of suspensions has been investigated on the quality of the deposited films as well as their microstructure. In summary, finding an appropriate suspension is a critical step for a successful EPD process and has an important effect on both the film’s quality and its future properties.

Keywords: Bi2Te3, electrical conductivity, electrophoretic deposition, thermoelectric materials, thick films

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1601 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin


In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

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1600 Particle Deflection in a PDMS Microchannel Caused by a Plane Travelling Surface Acoustic Wave

Authors: Florian Keipert, Hagen Schmitd


The size selective separation of different species in a microfluidic system is an actual task in biological or medical research. Former works dealt with the utilisation of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) caused by a plane travelling Surface Acoustic Wave (tSAW). In literature the ARF is described by a dimensionless parameter κ, depending on the wavelength and the particle diameter. To our knowledge research was done for values 0.2 < κ < 5.8 showing that the ARF is dominating the acoustic streaming force (ASF) for κ > 1.2. As a consequence the particle separation is limited by κ. In addition the dependence on the electrical power level was examined but only for κ > 1 pointing out an increased particle deflection for higher electrical power levels. Nevertheless a detailed study on the ASF and ARF especially for κ < 1 is still missing. In our setup we used a tSAW with a wavelength λ = 90 µm and 3 µm PS particles corresponding to κ = 0.3. Herewith the influence of the applied electrical power level on the particle deflection in a polydimethylsiloxan micro channel was investigated. Our results show an increased particle deflection for an increased electrical power level, which coincides with the reported results for κ > 1. Therefore particle separation is in contrast to literature also possible for lower κ values. Thereby the experimental setup can be generally simplified by a coordinated electrical power level for the specific particle size. Furthermore this raises the question of whether this particle deflection is caused only by the ARF as adopted so far or by the ASF or the sum of both forces. To investigate this fact a 0% - 24% saline solution was used and thus the mismatch between the compressibility of the PS particle and the working fluid could be changed. Therefore it is possible to change the relative strength between ARF and ASF and consequently the particle deflection. We observed a decreasing in the particle deflection for an increased NaCl content up to a 12% saline solution and subsequently an increasing of the particle deflection. Our observation could be explained by the acoustic contrast factor Φ, which depends on the compressibility mismatch. The compressibility of water is increased by the NaCl and the range of a 0% - 24% saline solution covers the PS particle compressibility. Hence the particle deflection reaches a minimum value for the accordance between compressibility of PS particle and saline solution. This minimum value can be estimated as the particle deflection only caused by the ASF. Knowing the particle deflection due to the ASF the particle deflection caused by the ARF can be calculated and thus finally the relation between both forces. Concluding, the particle deflection and therefore the size selective particle separation generated by a tSAW can be achieved for values κ < 1, simplifying actual setups by adjusting the electrical power level. Beyond we studied for the first time the relative strength between ARF and ASF to characterise the particle deflection in a microchannel.

Keywords: ARF, ASF, particle separation, saline solution, tSAW

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1599 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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1598 Simulation of Complex - Shaped Particle Breakage with a Bonded Particle Model using the Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Platzer, Eric Fimbinger


In Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations, particle breakage behavior is possible to be simulated in different ways. In the case of relatively large and furthermore complex-shaped particles that show various breakage patterns depending on the scenario leading to the failure and which often only show breakage appearing locally instead of a full fracture of the particle, some DEM simulation methods do not lead to realistic results. This is due to the fact that in those methods, such as the Particle Replacement Method (PRM) or Voronoi Fracture, the initial particle is completely replaced by sub-particles when certain breakage criteria are reached, for instance, when exceeding a certain predefined fracture energy level. This aspect highlights why those methods are commonly used for the simulation of materials that fracture completely instead of breaking locally. For enabling particle models to allow local failure, it is advisable to pre-build the initial particle from sub-particles that are bonded together. The dimensions of these sub-particles automatically define the minimum size of the fracture results. This structure of bonded sub-particles enables the initial particle conglomerate to break at the location of the highest local bonding load due to the failure of these bonds in those areas; correspondingly, with several sub-particle clusters being the result of the fracture, which further again allow breakage. In this project, different methods for the generation and calibration of complex-shaped particle conglomerates, further with the ability to depict realistic fracture behavior, were evaluated based on the example of filter cake fragments. The method that proved to be suited best for this purpose is presented in this paper, thus enabling an efficient and realistic simulation of the breakage behavior of complex-shaped particles, which moreover allows the application to industrial-sized simulations due to their computational-efficient characteristics as revealed.

Keywords: bonded particle model, DEM, filter cake, particle breakage

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