Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 711

Search results for: Arabic translation

711 Problems of Translating Technical Terms from English into Arabic

Authors: Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh, Lara Ahmad Mansour El-Awar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the strategies MA translation students used for translating technical terms, the most common obstacles they encountered in translating such terms, and the motives behind using such terms as they are in their original form despite their translatability into Arabic. To achieve these objectives, a translation test was administered to 100 MA students specialising in translation at both Hashemite University and The University of Jordan. It consisted of two parts: (a) 50 English technical terms to be translated (b) two questions to be answered concerning the challenges or problems encountered while translating the previous technical terms and the motives that drive them to use most of the English technical terms as they are despite their translatability into Arabic. The analysis of the results revealed that MA translation students faced problems in translating technical terms, namely the inability to find the equivalent form for the given technical terms, the use of literal translation, and the wider use of loan-words type. Besides, the students used different strategies to translate the technical terms, namely borrowing (i.e., loan- words), paraphrasing, synonymy, naturalization, equivalence, and literal translation. Moreover, it was also revealed that most technical terms were used as they are in the source language despite their translatability into Arabic because these technical terms are easier to use in English rather than in Arabic. Also, when these terms were introduced to the Arab world, they were introduced in English, not in Arabic. So, the brain links these objects to their English terms.

Keywords: arabic, english, technical terms, translation strategies, translation problems

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710 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

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Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: poem, novel, Arabic, translation

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709 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

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Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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708 English Grammatical Errors of Arabic Sentence Translations Done by Machine Translations

Authors: Muhammad Fathurridho

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Grammar as a rule used by every language to be understood by everyone is always related to syntax and morphology. Arabic grammar is different with another languages’ grammars. It has more rules and difficulties. This paper aims to investigate and describe the English grammatical errors of machine translation systems in translating Arabic sentences, including declarative, exclamation, imperative, and interrogative sentences, specifically in year 2018 which can be supported with artificial intelligence’s role. The Arabic sample sentences which are divided into two; verbal and nominal sentence of several Arabic published texts will be examined as the source language samples. The translated sentences done by several popular online machine translation systems, including Google Translate, Microsoft Bing, Babylon, Facebook, Hellotalk, Worldlingo, Yandex Translate, and Tradukka Translate are the material objects of this research. Descriptive method that will be taken to finish this research will show the grammatical errors of English target language, and classify them. The conclusion of this paper has showed that the grammatical errors of machine translation results are varied and generally classified into morphological, syntactical, and semantic errors in all type of Arabic words (Noun, Verb, and Particle), and it will be one of the evaluations for machine translation’s providers to correct them in order to improve their understandable results.

Keywords: Arabic, Arabic-English translation, machine translation, grammatical errors

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707 Explicitation as a Non-Professional Translation Universal: Evidence from the Translation of Promotional Material

Authors: Julieta Alos

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Following the explicitation hypothesis, it has been proposed that explicitation is a translation universal, i.e., one of those features that characterize translated texts, and cannot be traced back to interference from a particular language. The explicitation hypothesis has been enthusiastically endorsed by some scholars, and firmly rejected by others. Focusing on the translation of promotional material from English into Arabic, specifically in the luxury goods market, the aims of this study are twofold: First, to contribute to the debate regarding the notion of explicitation in order to advance our understanding of what has become a contentious concept. Second, to add to the growing body of literature on non-professional translation by shedding light on this particular aspect of it. To this end, our study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore a corpus of brochures pertaining to the luxury industry, translated into Arabic at the local marketing agencies promoting the brands in question, by bilingual employees who have no translation training. Our data reveals a preference to avoid creative language choices in favor of more direct advertising messages, suggestive of a general tendency towards explicitation in non-professional translation, beyond what is dictated by the grammatical and stylistic constraints of Arabic. We argue, further, that this translation approach is at odds with the principles of luxury advertising, which emphasize implicitness and ambiguity, and view language as an extension of the creative process involved in the production of the luxury item.

Keywords: English-Arabic translation, explicitation, non-professional translation, promotional texts

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706 Functionality of Promotional and Advertising Texts: Pragmatic Implications for English-Arabic Translation

Authors: Jamal Gaber Abdalla

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In business promotion and advertising, language is used intentionally to create a powerful influence over people and their behavior. In commercial and marketing activities, the choice of language to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is pragmatically important. Design and visual content in promotional and advertising texts also have a great persuasive impact on consumers. It is the functional combination of design, language and visual content that helps people to identify a product or service and remember it. Translating promotional and advertising texts between structurally and culturally different languages, such as English and Arabic, usually involves pragmatic/functional shifts that decide the quality of translation. This study explores some of these shifts in translating promotional and advertising texts between English and Arabic and their implications for translation quality. The study is based on a contrastive analysis of data collected from real samples of English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The samples cover different promotional and advertising text types and different business domains. The aim is to identify the most recurrent translation shifts and most used translation approaches/strategies that achieve quality in view of the functional nature of promotional and advertising texts and target language culture conventions. The study shows that linguistic shifts and visual shifts are recurrent in English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The study also shows that the most commonly used translation approaches/strategies are functional translation, domestication, communicative translation.

Keywords: advertising, Arabic, English, functional translation, promotion

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705 Adaptation in Translation of 'Christmas Every Day' Short Story by William Dean Howells

Authors: Mohsine Khazrouni

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The present study is an attempt to highlight the importance of adaptation in translation. To convey the message, the translator needs to take into account not only the text but also extra-linguistic factors such as the target audience. The present paper claims that adaptation is an unavoidable translation strategy when dealing with texts that are heavy with religious and cultural themes. The translation task becomes even more challenging when dealing with children’s literature as the audience are children whose comprehension, experience and world knowledge are limited. The study uses the Arabic translation of the short story ‘Christmas Every Day’ as a case study. The short story will be translated, and the pragmatic problems involved will be discussed. The focus will be on the issue of adaptation. i.e., the source text should be adapted to the target language audience`s social and cultural environment.

Keywords: pragmatic adaptation, Arabic translation, children's literature, equivalence

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704 Retranslation of Orientalism: Reading Said in Arabic

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi

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Edward Said, in his book Culture and Imperialism, devotes the introduction to the Arabic translation. He claims that the fading echo of Orientalism in the Arab world is unlike the positive reflections of its counterpart elsewhere in the world. The probable reason behind his inquiry would be that the methodology Abu Deeb applied in translating Said's book contributed to the book having the limited impact which Said is referring to. The paper adds new insights to the body of theory and the effectiveness of the performance of translation from culture to culture. It presents a survey that can provide the reader with an overview of Said's Orientalism and the two Arabic translations of the book. It investigates some of the problems of translating cultural texts, more specifically translating features of Said's style.

Keywords: Orientalism, retranslation, Arabic Language, Muhammad Enani, Kamal Abu Deeb, Edward Said

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703 Corpus-Based Neural Machine Translation: Empirical Study Multilingual Corpus for Machine Translation of Opaque Idioms - Cloud AutoML Platform

Authors: Khadija Refouh

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Culture bound-expressions have been a bottleneck for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and comprehension, especially in the case of machine translation (MT). In the last decade, the field of machine translation has greatly advanced. Neural machine translation NMT has recently achieved considerable development in the quality of translation that outperformed previous traditional translation systems in many language pairs. Neural machine translation NMT is an Artificial Intelligence AI and deep neural networks applied to language processing. Despite this development, there remain some serious challenges that face neural machine translation NMT when translating culture bounded-expressions, especially for low resources language pairs such as Arabic-English and Arabic-French, which is not the case with well-established language pairs such as English-French. Machine translation of opaque idioms from English into French are likely to be more accurate than translating them from English into Arabic. For example, Google Translate Application translated the sentence “What a bad weather! It runs cats and dogs.” to “يا له من طقس سيء! تمطر القطط والكلاب” into the target language Arabic which is an inaccurate literal translation. The translation of the same sentence into the target language French was “Quel mauvais temps! Il pleut des cordes.” where Google Translate Application used the accurate French corresponding idioms. This paper aims to perform NMT experiments towards better translation of opaque idioms using high quality clean multilingual corpus. This Corpus will be collected analytically from human generated idiom translation. AutoML translation, a Google Neural Machine Translation Platform, is used as a custom translation model to improve the translation of opaque idioms. The automatic evaluation of the custom model will be compared to the Google NMT using Bilingual Evaluation Understudy Score BLEU. BLEU is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another. Human evaluation is integrated to test the reliability of the Blue Score. The researcher will examine syntactical, lexical, and semantic features using Halliday's functional theory.

Keywords: multilingual corpora, natural language processing (NLP), neural machine translation (NMT), opaque idioms

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702 Translating Silence: An Analysis of Dhofar University Student Translations of Elliptical Structures from English into Arabic

Authors: Ali Algryani

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Ellipsis involves the omission of an item or items that can be recovered from the preceding clause. Ellipsis is used as a cohesion marker; it enhances the cohesiveness of a text/discourse as a clause is interpretable only through making reference to an antecedent clause. The present study attempts to investigate the linguistic phenomenon of ellipsis from a translation perspective. It is mainly concerned with how ellipsis is translated from English into Arabic. The study covers different forms of ellipsis, such as noun phrase ellipsis, verb phrase ellipsis, gapping, pseudo-gapping, stripping, and sluicing. The primary aim of the study, apart from discussing the use and function of ellipsis, is to find out how such ellipsis phenomena are dealt with in English-Arabic translation and determine the implications of the translations of elliptical structures into Arabic. The study is based on the analysis of Dhofar University (DU) students' translations of sentences containing different forms of ellipsis. The initial findings of the study indicate that due to differences in syntactic structures and stylistic preferences between English and Arabic, Arabic tends to use lexical repetition in the translation of some elliptical structures, thus achieving a higher level of explicitness. This implies that Arabic tends to prefer lexical repetition to create cohesion more than English does. Furthermore, the study also reveals that the improper translation of ellipsis leads to interpretations different from those understood from the source text. Such mistranslations can be attributed to student translators’ lack of awareness of the use and function of ellipsis as well as the stylistic preferences of both languages. This has pedagogical implications on the teaching and training of translation students at DU. Students' linguistic competence needs to be enhanced through teaching linguistics-related issues with reference to translation and both languages, .i.e. source and target languages and with special emphasis on their use, function and stylistic preferences.

Keywords: cohesion, ellipsis, explicitness, lexical repetition

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701 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

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In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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700 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

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Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, translation techniques, untranslatability

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699 Corpus Linguistic Methods in a Theoretical Study of Quran Verb Tense and Aspect in Translations from Arabic to English

Authors: Jawharah Alasmari

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In inflectional morphology of verb, tense and aspect indicate action’s time either past/present or future and their period whether completed or not. The usage and meaning of tense and aspect differ in Arabic and English, therefore is no simple one -to- one mapping from an Arabic verb inflected form an appropriate English translation depends on a range of features, including immediate and wider context of use. The Quranic Arabic Corpus includes seven alternative expertly crafted English translations of each Arabic verses, which provides a test dataset for the study of appropriate Arabic to English translations of verb tense and aspect. We applied Corpus Linguistics Methods in a theoretical study of exemplary verbs, to elicit candidate verbal contexts which influence the choice of English inflection for each verse.

Keywords: Corpus linguistics methods, Arabic verb, tense and aspect, English translations

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698 Analysis of Feminist Translation in Subtitling from Arabic into English: A Case Study

Authors: Ghada Ahmed

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Feminist translation is one of the strategies adopted in the field of translation studies when a gendered content is being rendered from one language to another, and this strategy has been examined in previous studies on written texts. This research, however, addresses the practice of feminist translation in audiovisual texts that are concerned with the screen, dialogue, image and visual aspects. In this thesis, the objectives are studying feminist translation and its adaptation in subtitling from Arabic into English. It addresses the connections between gender and translation as one domain and feminist translation practices with particular consideration of feminist translation strategies in English subtitles. It examines the visibility of the translator throughout the process, assuming that feminist translation is a product directed by the translator’s feminist position, culture, and ideology as a means of helping unshadow women. It also discusses how subtitling constraints impact feminist translation and how the image that has a narrative value can be integrated into the content of the English subtitles. The reasons for conducting this research project are to study language sexism in English and look into Arabic into English gendered content, taking into consideration the Arabic cultural concepts that may lose their connotations when they are translated into English. This research is also analysing the image in an audiovisual text and its contribution to the written dialogue in subtitling. Thus, this research attempts to answer the following questions: To what extent is there a form of affinity between a gendered content and translation? Is feminist translation an act of merely working on a feminist text or feminising the language of any text, by incorporating the translator’s ideology? How can feminist translation practices be applied in an audiovisual text? How likely is it to adapt feminist translation looking into visual components as well as subtitling constraints? Moreover, the paper searches into the fields of gender and translation; feminist translation, language sexism, media studies, and the gap in the literature related to feminist translation practice in visual texts. For my case study, the "Speed Sisters" film has been chosen so as to analyze its English subtitles for my research. The film is a documentary that was produced in 2015 and directed by Amber Fares. It is about five Palestinian women who try to break the stereotypes about women, and have taken their passion about car-racing forward to be the first all-women car-racing driving team in the Middle East. It tackles the issue of gender in both content and language and this is reflected in the translation. As the research topic is semiotic-channelled, the choice for the theoretical approaches varies and combines between translation studies, audiovisual translation, gender studies, and media studies. Each of which will contribute to understanding a specific field of the research and the results will eventually be integrated to achieve the intended objectives in a way that demonstrates rendering a gendered content in one of the audiovisual translation modes from a language into another.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, feminist translation, films gendered content, subtitling conventions and constraints

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697 Developing House’s Model to Assess the Translation of Key Cultural Texts

Authors: Raja Al-Ghamdi

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This paper aims to systematically assess the translation of key cultural texts. The paper, therefore, proposes a modification of the discourse analysis model for translation quality assessment introduced by the linguist Juliane House (1977, 1997, 2015). The data for analysis has been chosen from a religious text that has never been investigated before. It is an overt translation of the biography of Prophet Mohammad. The book is written originally in Arabic and translated into English. A soft copy of the translation, entitled The Sealed Nectar, is posted on numerous websites including the Internet Archive library which offers a free access to everyone. The text abounds with linguistic and cultural phenomena relevant to Islamic and Arab lingua-cultural context which make its translation a challenge, as well as its assessment. Interesting findings show that (1) culturemes are rich points and both the translator’s subjectivity and intervention are apparent in mediating them, (2) given the nature of historical narration, the source text reflects the author’s positive shading, whereas the target text reflects the translator’s axiological orientation as neutrally shaded, and, (3) linguistic gaps, metaphorical expressions and intertextuality are major stimuli to compensation strategies.

Keywords: Arabic-English discourse analysis, key cultural texts, overt translation, quality assessment

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696 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani

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Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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695 Using Mining Methods of WEKA to Predict Quran Verb Tense and Aspect in Translations from Arabic to English: Experimental Results and Analysis

Authors: Jawharah Alasmari

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In verb inflection, tense marks past/present/future action, and aspect marks progressive/continues perfect/completed actions. This usage and meaning of tense and aspect differ in Arabic and English. In this research, we applied data mining methods to test the predictive function of candidate features by using our dataset of Arabic verbs in-context, and their 7 translations. Weka machine learning classifiers is used in this experiment in order to examine the key features that can be used to provide guidance to enable a translator’s appropriate English translation of the Arabic verb tense and aspect.

Keywords: Arabic verb, English translations, mining methods, Weka software

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694 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

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Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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693 A Preliminary Study for Building an Arabic Corpus of Pair Questions-Texts from the Web: Aqa-Webcorp

Authors: Wided Bakari, Patrce Bellot, Mahmoud Neji

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With the development of electronic media and the heterogeneity of Arabic data on the Web, the idea of building a clean corpus for certain applications of natural language processing, including machine translation, information retrieval, question answer, become more and more pressing. In this manuscript, we seek to create and develop our own corpus of pair’s questions-texts. This constitution then will provide a better base for our experimentation step. Thus, we try to model this constitution by a method for Arabic insofar as it recovers texts from the web that could prove to be answers to our factual questions. To do this, we had to develop a java script that can extract from a given query a list of html pages. Then clean these pages to the extent of having a database of texts and a corpus of pair’s question-texts. In addition, we give preliminary results of our proposal method. Some investigations for the construction of Arabic corpus are also presented in this document.

Keywords: Arabic, web, corpus, search engine, URL, question, corpus building, script, Google, html, txt

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692 Translation And Cultural Adaptation Of The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test–3rd Edition Into the Arabic Language

Authors: Mai Alharthy, Agnes Shiel, Hynes Sinead

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Objectives: The objectives of the study are to translate and culturally adapt the RBMT-3 to be appropriate for use within an Arabic-speaking population and to achieve maximum equivalency between the translated and original versions and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the RBMT-3. Participants' numbers are 16 (10 females and 6 males). All participants are bilingual speakers of Arabic and English, above 18 years old and with no current nor past memory impairment. Methods: The study was conducted in two stages: Translation and cultural adaptation stage: Forward and backward translations were completed by professional translators. Five out of the 14 RBMT-3 subtests required cultural adaptations. Half of the faces in the face recognition subtests were replaced with Arabic faces by a professional photographer. Pictures that are irrelevant to the Arabic culture in the picture recognition subtests were replaced. Names, story and orientations subtests were also adapted to suit the Arabic culture. An expert committee was formed to compare the translated and original versions and to advise on further changes required for test materials. Validation of the Arabic RBMT-3- pilot: 16 Participants were tested on version 1 of the English version and the two versions of the Arabic RBMT-3 ( counterbalanced ). The assessment period was 6 weeks long, with two weeks gap between tests. All assessments took place in a quiet room in the National University of Ireland Galway. Two qualified occupational therapists completed the assessments. Results: Wilcox signed-rank test was used to compare between subtest scores. Significant differences were found in the story, orientation and names subtests between the English and Arabic versions. No significant differences were found in subtests from both Arabic versions except for the story subtest. Conclusion: The story and orientation subtests should be revised by the expert committee members to make further adaptations. The rest of the Arabic RBMT-3 subtests are equivalent to the subtests of the English version. The psychometric properties of the Arabic RBMT-3 will be investigated in a larger Arabic-speaking sample in Saudi Arabia. The outcome of this research is to provide clinicians and researchers with a reliable tool to assess memory problems in Arabic speaking population.

Keywords: memory impairment, neuropsychological assessment, cultural adaptation, cognitive assessment

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691 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

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Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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690 Direct Translation vs. Pivot Language Translation for Persian-Spanish Low-Resourced Statistical Machine Translation System

Authors: Benyamin Ahmadnia, Javier Serrano

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In this paper we compare two different approaches for translating from Persian to Spanish, as a language pair with scarce parallel corpus. The first approach involves direct transfer using an statistical machine translation system, which is available for this language pair. The second approach involves translation through English, as a pivot language, which has more translation resources and more advanced translation systems available. The results show that, it is possible to achieve better translation quality using English as a pivot language in either approach outperforms direct translation from Persian to Spanish. Our best result is the pivot system which scores higher than direct translation by (1.12) BLEU points.

Keywords: statistical machine translation, direct translation approach, pivot language translation approach, parallel corpus

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689 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Kamran Malik

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"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: NLP, Quran, Computational Linguistics, E Learning

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688 Validating the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory for Assessing the Development of Language in Arabic-Speaking Children

Authors: Alshaimaa Abdelwahab, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia

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Assessing children’s language is fundamental for changing their developmental outcome as it gives a chance for a quick and early intervention with the suitable planning and monitoring program. The importance of language assessment lies in helping to find the right test fit for purpose, in addition to achievement and proficiency. This study examines the validity of a new Arabic assessment tool, the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory ‘Arabic CDI’. It assesses the development of language in Arabic children in different Arabic countries, allowing to detect children with language delay. A concurrent validity is set to compare the Arabic CDI to the Arabic Language test. Twenty-three typically developing Egyptian healthy children and their mothers participated in this study. Their age is 24 months (+ or -) two weeks. The sample included 13 males and 10 females. Mothers completed the Arabic CDI either before or after the Arabic Language Test was conducted with the child. The score for comprehension in the Arabic CDI (M= 52.7, SD= 9.7) and words understood in the Arabic Language Test (M= 59.6, SD= 12.5) were strongly and positively correlated (r= .62, p= .002). At the same time, the scores for production in the Arabic CDI (M= 38.4, SD= 14.8) and words expressed in the Arabic Language Test (M= 52.1, SD= 16.3) were also strongly and positively correlated (r= .82, p= .000). The new Arabic CDI is an adequate tool for assessing the development of comprehension and production at Arabic children. In addition, it could be used for detecting children with language impairment. Standardization of the Arabic CDI across 18 different Arabic dialects in children aged 8 to 30 months is underway.

Keywords: Arabic CDI, assessing children, language development, language impairment

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687 Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

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The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.

Keywords: superior level proficiency in Arabic as a foreign language, teaching Arabic as a foreign language, teaching idiomatic expressions, translation in foreign language teaching

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686 Colloquialism in Audiovisual Translation: English Subtitling of the Lebanese Film Capernaum as a Case Study

Authors: Fatima Saab

Abstract:

This paper attempts to study colloquialism in audio-visual translation, with particular emphasis given to investigating the difficulties and challenges encountered by subtitlers in translating Lebanese colloquial into English. To achieve the main objectives of this study, ample and thorough cultural and translational analysis of examples drawn from the subtitled movie Capernaum are presented in order to identify the strategies used to overcome cultural barriers and differences and to show the process of decision-making by the translator. Also, special attention is given to explain the technicalities in translating subtitles and how they affect the translation process. The research is a descriptive analytical study whereby the writer sets out empirical observations, consisting of descriptive and analytical examination of the difficulties and problems associated with translating Arabic colloquialisms, specifically Lebanese, into English in the subtitled film, Capernaum. The research methodology utilizes a qualitative approach to group the selected data into the subtitling strategies presented by Gottlieb under the domesticating or foreignizing strategies according to Venuti's Model. It is shown that producing the same meanings to a foreign audience is not an easy task. The background of cultural elements and the stories that make up the history and mindset of the Lebanese and Arabic peoples leads to the use of the transfer and paraphrase methodologies most of the time (81% of the sample used for analysis). The research shows that translating and subtitling colloquialism needs special skills by the translators to overcome the challenges imposed by the limited presentation space as well as cultural differences. Translation of colloquial Arabic/Lebanese can be achieved to a certain extent and delivering the meaning and effect of the source language culture is accomplished in as much as the translator investigates and relates to the target culture.

Keywords: Lebanese colloquial, audio-visual translation, subtitling, Capernaum

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685 Translation Quality Assessment: Proposing a Linguistic-Based Model for Translation Criticism with Considering Ideology and Power Relations

Authors: Mehrnoosh Pirhayati

Abstract:

In this study, the researcher tried to propose a model of Translation Criticism (TC) regarding the phenomenon of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA). With changing the general view on re/writing as an illegal act, the researcher defined a scale for the act of translation and determined the redline of translation with other products. This research attempts to show TC as a related phenomenon to TQA. This study shows that TQA with using the rules and factors of TC as depicted in both product-oriented analysis and process-oriented analysis, determines the orientation or the level of the quality of translation. This study also depicts that TC, regarding TQA’s perspective, reveals the aim of the translation of original text and the root of ideological manipulation and re/writing. On the other hand, this study stresses the existence of a direct relationship between the linguistic materials and semiotic codes of a text or book. This study can be fruitful for translators, scholars, translation criticizers, and translation quality assessors, and also it is applicable in the area of pedagogy.

Keywords: a model of translation criticism, a model of translation quality assessment, critical discourse analysis (CDA), re/writing, translation criticism (TC), translation quality assessment (TQA)

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684 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

Abstract:

This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

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683 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

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682 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

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