Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Arne Fagerstrom

12 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig

Abstract:

In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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11 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system

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10 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel

Abstract:

This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, web services

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9 Role of Discrete Event Simulation in the Assessment and Selection of the Potential Reconfigurable Manufacturing Solutions

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Arne Bilberg, Thomas Ditlev Brunø, Ann-Louise Andersen, Filip SKärin

Abstract:

Shifting from a dedicated or flexible manufacturing system to a reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) requires a significant amount of time, money, and effort. Therefore, it is vital to verify beforehand that the potential reconfigurable solution will be able to achieve the organizational objectives. Discrete event simulation offers the opportunity of assessing several reconfigurable alternatives against the set objectives. This study signifies the importance of using discrete-event simulation as a tool to verify several reconfiguration options. Two different industrial cases have been presented in the study to elaborate on the role of discrete event simulation in the implementation methodology of RMSs. The study concluded that discrete event simulation is one of the important tools to consider in the RMS implementation methodology.

Keywords: reconfigurable manufacturing system, discrete event simulation, Tecnomatix plant simulation, RMS

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8 Family Caregiver Transitions and Health in Old Age: A Longitudinal Perspective

Authors: Cecilia Fagerstrom, Solve Elmstahl, Lena S. Wranker

Abstract:

The conditions of increased morbidity in an aging population cause the need for family care to become more common at an advanced age. The role of family caregivers may well last for a long time but may also change over time, from being caregivers to being non-caregivers or vice versa. Although demands associated with family caring change as individuals enter into, engage with, and exit from this role, the evidence regarding the impact of family caregiving transitions on the health of older carers is still limited. This study comprised individuals (n=2294, 60+years) from the southern part of Sweden included in the project Swedish National study of Aging and Care. Caregiving transitions are discussed in the categories: enter, exit, and continuing during a six-year period. Individuals who exited caregiving during the time were older than those who continued or entered into the role of caregiving. At the six-year follow-up, caregivers who were continuing or had exited caregiving were more often worried about their own health compared to baseline. Resembling findings were not found in those who entered caregiving. Family caregiving transitions of exiting, entering or continuing had no effect on the individuals’ functional, physical and mental health expect for participants who entered in caregiving. For them, entering the role of family caregiving was associated with an improvement in physical health during the six years follow up period. Conclusion: Although the health impact of different caregiving transitions in late life does not differ, individual conditions and health at baseline are important parameters to take into consideration to improve long-term health in family caregivers.

Keywords: family caregiving, health, old age, transition

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7 Hardware-in-the-Loop Test for Automatic Voltage Regulator of Synchronous Condenser

Authors: Ha Thi Nguyen, Guangya Yang, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Peter Højgaard Jensen

Abstract:

Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) plays an important role in volt/var control of synchronous condenser (SC) in power systems. Test AVR performance in steady-state and dynamic conditions in real grid is expensive, low efficiency, and hard to achieve. To address this issue, we implement hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) test for the AVR of SC to test the steady-state and dynamic performances of AVR in different operating conditions. Startup procedure of the system and voltage set point changes are studied to evaluate the AVR hardware response. Overexcitation, underexcitation, and AVR set point loss are tested to compare the performance of SC with the AVR hardware and that of simulation. The comparative results demonstrate how AVR will work in a real system. The results show HiL test is an effective approach for testing devices before deployment and is able to parameterize the controller with lower cost, higher efficiency, and more flexibility.

Keywords: automatic voltage regulator, hardware-in-the-loop, synchronous condenser, real time digital simulator

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6 Mechanical Treatment of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) As Potential Improvement of Their Quality Verified by Compressive Strength of Concrete with the Various Replacement Ratio of Natural Aggregates by RCA

Authors: Iveta Novakova, Martin-Andre Stormdalshei Husby, Boy-Arne Buyle

Abstract:

The building industry has one of the most significant contributions to global warming due to the production of building materials, transportation, building activities and demolition of structures when they reach the end of their life. Implementation of circular material flow and circular economy can significantly reduce greenhouse gasses and significantly reduce the need for natural resources. The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is one of the possibilities of reducing the depletion of raw materials for concrete production. Concrete is the most used building material worldwide, and aggregates constitute 70% of its volume. RCA can replace a certain amount of natural aggregates (NA), and concrete will still perform as required. The aim of this scientific paper is the evaluation of RCA properties with and without mechanical treatment. Analysis of RCA itself will be followed by compressive strength of concrete with their integration in various replacement ratios. Results showed improvement of compressive strength of the mix with mechanically treated RCA compared to standard RCA, and even the strength of concrete with mechanically treated RCA in dose 50% of coarse aggregates was higher than the reference mix by 4%. Therefore, based on obtained results can be concluded that integration of RCA in industrial concrete production is feasible.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates, concrete with recycled concrete aggregates, Mechanical treatment, compressive strength

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5 Automated Testing of Workshop Robot Behavior

Authors: Arne Hitzmann, Philipp Wentscher, Alexander Gabel, Reinhard Gerndt

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots can be found in a wide field of applications. Their types range from household robots over workshop robots to autonomous cars and many more. All of them undergo a number of testing steps during development, production and maintenance. This paper describes an approach to improve testing of robot behavior. It was inspired by the RoboCup @work competition that itself reflects a robotics benchmark for industrial robotics. There, scaled down versions of mobile industrial robots have to navigate through a workshop-like environment or operation area and have to perform tasks of manipulating and transporting work pieces. This paper will introduce an approach of automated vision-based testing of the behavior of the so called youBot robot, which is the most widely used robot platform in the RoboCup @work competition. The proposed system allows automated testing of multiple tries of the robot to perform a specific missions and it allows for the flexibility of the robot, e.g. selecting different paths between two tasks within a mission. The approach is based on a multi-camera setup using, off the shelf cameras and optical markers. It has been applied for test-driven development (TDD) and maintenance-like verification of the robot behavior and performance.

Keywords: supervisory control, testing, markers, mono vision, automation

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4 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral

Abstract:

Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: alcohol, cannabis, dependence, depression, medical students

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3 Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation

Authors: Lebea Nthunya, Arne Verliefde, Bhekie Mamba, Sabelo Mhlanga

Abstract:

A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.

Keywords: membrane distillation, modification, energy efficiency, desalination

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2 A Theoretical Framework of Patient Autonomy in a High-Tech Care Context

Authors: Catharina Lindberg, Cecilia Fagerstrom, Ania Willman

Abstract:

Patients in high-tech care environments are usually dependent on both formal/informal caregivers and technology, highlighting their vulnerability and challenging their autonomy. Autonomy presumes that a person has education, experience, self-discipline and decision-making capacity. Reference to autonomy in relation to patients in high-tech care environments could, therefore, be considered paradoxical, as in most cases these persons have impaired physical and/or metacognitive capacity. Therefore, to understand the prerequisites for patients to experience autonomy in high-tech care environments and to support them, there is a need to enhance knowledge and understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in this care context. The development of concepts and theories in a practice discipline such as nursing helps to improve both nursing care and nursing education. Theoretical development is important when clarifying a discipline, hence, a theoretical framework could be of use to nurses in high-tech care environments to support and defend the patient’s autonomy. A meta-synthesis was performed with the intention to be interpretative and not aggregative in nature. An amalgamation was made of the results from three previous studies, carried out by members of the same research group, focusing on the phenomenon of patient autonomy from a patient perspective within a caring context. Three basic approaches to theory development: derivation, synthesis, and analysis provided an operational structure that permitted the researchers to move back and forth between these approaches during their work in developing a theoretical framework. The results from the synthesis delineated that patient autonomy in a high-tech care context is: To be in control though trust, co-determination, and transition in everyday life. The theoretical framework contains several components creating the prerequisites for patient autonomy. Assumptions and propositional statements that guide theory development was also outlined, as were guiding principles for use in day-to-day nursing care. Four strategies used by patients to remain or obtain patient autonomy in high-tech care environments were revealed: the strategy of control, the strategy of partnership, the strategy of trust, and the strategy of transition. This study suggests an extended knowledge base founded on theoretical reasoning about patient autonomy, providing an understanding of the strategies used by patients to achieve autonomy in the role of patient, in high-tech care environments. When possessing knowledge about the patient perspective of autonomy, the nurse/carer can avoid adopting a paternalistic or maternalistic approach. Instead, the patient can be considered to be a partner in care, allowing care to be provided that supports him/her in remaining/becoming an autonomous person in the role of patient.

Keywords: autonomy, caring, concept development, high-tech care, theory development

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1 Precursor Muscle Cell’s Phenotype under Compression in a Biomimetic Mechanical Niche

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Arne Hofemeier, Timo Betz

Abstract:

Muscle growth and regeneration critically depend on satellite cells (SCs) which are muscle stem cells located between the basal lamina and myofibres. Upon damage, SCs become activated, enter the cell cycle, and give rise to myoblasts that form new myofibres, while a sub-population self-renew and re-populate the muscle stem cell niche. In aged muscle as well as in certain muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, some of the SCs lose their regenerative ability. Although it is demonstrated that the chemical composition of SCs quiescent niche is different from the activated niche, the mechanism initially activated in the SCs remains unknown. While extensive research efforts focused on potential chemical activation, no such factor has been identified to the author’s best knowledge. However, it is substantiated that niche mechanics affects SCs behaviors, such as stemness and engraftment. We hypothesize that mechanical stress in the healthy niche (homeostasis) is different from the regenerative niche and that this difference could serve as an early signal activating SCs upon fiber damage. To investigate this hypothesis, we develop a biomimetic system to reconstitute both, the mechanical and the chemical environment of the SC niche. Cells will be confined between two elastic polyacrylamide (PAA) hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli and functionalized surface chemistry. By controlling the distance between the PAA hydrogel surfaces, we vary the compression forces exerted by the substrates on the cells, while the lateral displacement of the upper hydrogel will create controlled shear forces. To establish such a system, a simplified system is presented. We engineered a sandwich-like configuration of two elastic PAA layer with stiffnesses between 1 and 10 kPa and confined a precursor myoblast cell line (C2C12) in between these layers. Our initial observations in this sandwich model indicate that C2C12 cells show different behaviors under mechanical compression if compared to a control one-layer gel without compression. Interestingly, this behavior is stiffness-dependent. While the shape of C2C12 cells in the sandwich consisting of two stiff (10 kPa) layers was much more elongated, showing almost a neuronal phenotype, the cell shape in a sandwich situation consisting of one stiff and one soft (1 kPa) layer was more spherical. Surprisingly, even in proliferation medium and at very low cell density, the sandwich situation stimulated cell differentiation with increased striation and myofibre formation. Such behavior is commonly found for confluent cells in differentiation medium. These results suggest that mechanical changes in stiffness and applied pressure might be a relevant stimulation for changes in muscle cell behavior.

Keywords: C2C12 cells, compression, force, satellite cells, skeletal muscle

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