Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

# Search results for: Renata Masarova

##### 47 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab. Downloads 381
##### 46 Tool for Analysing the Sensitivity and Tolerance of Mechatronic Systems in Matlab GUI

Abstract:

The article deals with the tool in Matlab GUI form that is designed to analyse a mechatronic system sensitivity and tolerance. In the analysed mechatronic system, a torque is transferred from the drive to the load through a coupling containing flexible elements. Different methods of control system design are used. The classic form of the feedback control is proposed using Naslin method, modulus optimum criterion and inverse dynamics method. The cascade form of the control is proposed based on combination of modulus optimum criterion and symmetric optimum criterion. The sensitivity is analysed on the basis of absolute and relative sensitivity of system function to the change of chosen parameter value of the mechatronic system, as well as the control subsystem. The tolerance is analysed in the form of determining the range of allowed relative changes of selected system parameters in the field of system stability. The tool allows to analyse an influence of torsion stiffness, torsion damping, inertia moments of the motor and the load and controller(s) parameters. The sensitivity and tolerance are monitored in terms of the impact of parameter change on the response in the form of system step response and system frequency-response logarithmic characteristics. The Symbolic Math Toolbox for expression of the final shape of analysed system functions was used. The sensitivity and tolerance are graphically represented as 2D graph of sensitivity or tolerance of the system function and 3D/2D static/interactive graph of step/frequency response. Downloads 348
##### 45 A Clinical Cutoff to Identify Metabolically Unhealthy Obese and Normal-Weight Phenotype in Young Adults

Abstract:

Rationale: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and functional capacity in young obese and normal-weight people are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether their metabolically healthy (MH) or at risk (AR) phenotype influences cardiorespiratory fitness in this vulnerable population such as obese adults but also in normal-weight people. HOMA insulin resistance index (HI) and leptin-adiponectin ratio (LA) are strong markers for characterizing those phenotypes that we hypothesized to be associated with physical fitness. We also hypothesized that an easy and feasible exercise test could identify a subpopulation at risk to develop metabolic and related disorders. Methods: Thirty-nine sedentary men and women (20-45y; 18.530 kg.m-2) underwent a clinical evaluation, including the six-minute step test (ST), a well-validated and reliable test for young people. Body composition assessment was done by a tetrapolar bioimpedance in a fasting state and in the folicular phase for women. A maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, as well as the ST, evaluated the oxygen uptake at the peak of the test (VO2peak) by an ergospirometer Oxycon Mobile. Lipids, glucose, insulin were analysed and the ELISA method quantified the serum leptin and adiponectin from blood samples. Volunteers were divided in two groups: AR or MH according to a HI cutoff of 1.95, which was previously determined in the literature. T-test for comparison between groups, Pearson´s test to correlate main variables and ROC analysis for discriminating AR from up-and-down cycles in ST (SC) were applied (p<0.05). Results: Higher LA, fat mass (FM) and lower HDL, SC, leg lean mass (LM) and VO2peak were found in AR than in MH. Significant correlations were found between VO2peak and SC (r= 0.80) as well as between LA and FM (r=0.87), VO2peak (r=-0.73), and SC (r=-0.65). Area under de curve showed moderate accuracy (0.75) of SC <173 to discriminate AR phenotype. Conclusion: Our study found that at risk obese and normal-weight subjects showed an unhealthy metabolism as well as a poor CRF and functional daily activity capacity. Additionally, a simple and less costly functional test associated with above-mentioned aspects is able to identify ‘at risk’ subjects for primary intervention with important clinical and health implications.

Keywords: aerobic capacity, exercise, fitness, metabolism, obesity, 6MST

##### 44 Evaluation and Selection of Construction Contractors by Polish Public Clients

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Contracting authorities in the public sector are obligated to apply the principles provided for in the Polish law for the evaluation and selection of contractors. To analyze the methods of contractors, applied in practice by public clients, the notices of contract award results for construction works were analyzed. The analysis shows that the procedure selected more and more often is open to competitive bidding, where the assessment of the competence of contractors is not very precise, as well as non-competitive bidding, i.e. single source procurement. The share of procurement procedures, where the only criterion is price, is increasing. The solution to the problems existing here might be the introduction of one of the forms of pre-selection of contractors. The article also briefly discusses verification systems for companies applying for public contracts used in EU countries. Downloads 204
##### 43 Assessment of Aminopolyether on 18F-FDG Samples

Abstract:

The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopeias consists of a thin layer chromatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) preparations. The approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and they showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in 18F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the reference method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of 18F-FDG. Downloads 112
##### 42 Green Synthesis of Red-Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Characterization and Application for Breast Cancer Detection

Abstract:

The use of biocompatible precursors for the synthesis and stabilization of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) with strong red photoluminescence creates an important link between natural sciences and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the cost-effective synthesis of Au nanoclusters by templating and reduction of chloroauric acid with the cheap amino acid food supplements. This synthesis under the optimized conditions leads to the formation of biocompatible Au NCs having good stability and intense red photoluminescence, peaked at 680 to 705 nm, with a quantum yield (QY) of ≈7% and the average lifetime of up to several µs. The composition and luminescent properties of the obtained NCs were compared with ones formed via well-known bovine serum albumin reduction approach. Our findings implied that synthesized Au NCs tend to accumulate in more tumorigenic breast cancer cells (line MDA-MB-213) and after dialysis can be prospective for bio imagining. Downloads 152
##### 41 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Abstract:

The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

##### 40 Modes of Seeing in Interactive Exhibitions: A Study on How Technology Can Affect the Viewer and Transform the Exhibition Spaces

Authors: Renata P. Lopes

Abstract:

The current art exhibit scenario presents a multitude of visualization features deployed in experiences that instigate a process of art production and design. The exhibition design through multimedia devices - from the audiovisual to the touch screen - has become a medium from which art can be understood and contemplated. Artistic practices articulated, during the modern period, the spectator's perception in the exhibition space, often challenging the architecture of museums and galleries. In turn, the museum institution seeks to respond to the challenge of welcoming the viewer whose experience is mediated by technological artifacts. When the beholder, together with the technology, interacts with the exhibition space, important displacements happen. In this work, we will analyze the migrations of the exhibition space to the digital environment through mobile devices triggered by the viewer. Based not on technological determinism, but on the conditions of the appearance of this spectator, this work is developed, with the aim of apprehending the way in which technology demarcates the differences between what the spectator was and what becomes in the contemporary atmosphere of the museums and galleries. These notions, we believe, will contribute to the formation of an exhibition design space in conformity with this participant.

Keywords: exhibition, museum, exhibition design, digital media

##### 39 The SOCI Strategy as a Method to Meet the Innovation Challenges of COVID-19

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The COVID-19 causes a worldwide crisis and has an impact in every dimension of the economy. Organizations with the ability to adapt to new developments and which innovate solutions for the disrupted world during and after the Corona crises have the opportunity to not only survive the crisis but rather to use new trends to implement new business models and gain advantage. In this context, startups seem to have better opportunities to manage the Corona crisis through their innovation-based nature. The main result of this paper is the understanding that by applying a startup orientated innovation (SOCI) strategy, established companies can be motivated to meet the challenge of COVID-19 in a similar way like startups. This result can be achieved by describing the role of innovation and a SOCI strategy as helpful methods for organizations to meet the coming challenges during and after the COVID-19 epidemics. In addition to this, this paper presents a practical application of SOCI through the PANDA approach of the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences in Germany and discuss it in the context of COVID-19 as an exemplary successful real-world implementation of SOCI strategy. Downloads 54
##### 38 The Simplicity of the Future: Plain Methods of Setting up a Company under the Freedom of Enterprise

Authors: Renata Hrecska

Abstract:

This research aims to present today's corporate law reforms in the micro, small and medium-sized enterprise sector. The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) currently deals with emerging issues in the sector in its Working Group I that has specifically focused on possible company law simplifications, including the creation of a fully unique company, the UNCITRAL Limited Liability Organization. However, beyond the work at the UN, the different states has also been focusing on simplification efforts and demands in the sphere of commercial law. We can observe that e.g. Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Croatia, Hungary, Romania and France are undergoing legal reforms aimed at restructuring the sector through simplification of registration or operation. An important objective of the research is to examine where the boundary is for the legal entity to be more transparent and accountable, while the legislator wants to bring the possibility of establishing a company closer to the citizen. The research material presents the advantages and disadvantages of different initiatives with comparative legal instruments and draws conclusions on the possible future vision. The researcher herself attended some of the meetings of the relevant UNCITRAL working group as a national delegated expert, giving her a personal insight into the UNLLO discourse.

Keywords: commercial law, company formation, MSME, UNCITRAL

##### 37 Exploring the Relationship between the Adoption of Environmental Processes, Policies, Techniques and Environmental Operational Performance

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, the concept of environmental management and its related issues have received increased attention in global discourse and on management research agenda due to climate change and other environmental challenges. To abate and avert these challenges, diverse environmental policies, strategies and practices have been adopted by businesses and economies as a whole. Extant literature has placed much emphasis on whether improved environmental operational performance improves firm performance. However, there is a huge gap in the literature with regards to whether the adoption of environmental management practices and policies has a direct relationship with environmental operational performance (EOP). The current paper is intended to provide a comprehensive perspective of how different aspects of environmental management can relate to firms EOP. Using a panel regression analysis of 149 large listed firms in the UK, the study found evidence of both negative and positive statistically significant link between some Environmental Policies (EP), Environmental Processes (EPR), Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and EOP. The findings suggest that in terms of relating EP, EPR and EMS to Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions for instance, the latter should be viewed separately in Scopes 1, 2 and 3 as developed by GHG protocol. The results have useful implication for policy makers and managers when designing strategies and policies to reduce negative environmental impacts. Downloads 177
##### 36 Development of Biotechnological Emulsion Based on Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil: A Preliminary Study

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain emulsion systems based on bullfrog oil (BO). The BO was extracted at 80ºC and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The critical Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLBc) Assay of the BO was performed through BO, Tween® 20, Span® 80 and deionized water mixtures using an Ultra-Turrax® and determined using dynamic light scattering, pH, electrical conductivity and creaming rate. Then, a pseudoternary phase diagram (PPD) was constructed by water titration. The GC/MS analysis of BO suggested Methyl Oleate (9.26%) as major compound. The HLBc was 12.1, wherein the correspondent emulsion showed a pH of 4.83±1.29, electrical conductivity of 103.65 µS, creaming rate of 2.51±0.54%, droplet size of 207.07±8.31 nm and polydispersity index of 0.212±0.005. The PPD showed different formulations characterized as O/W emulsions. Thus, the PPD proved to be a useful tool to produce BO emulsions, in which their constituents may vary within the range of the desired system. Downloads 418
##### 35 Anti-Proliferative Effect of Chanterelle (Cantharellus) Mushroom Extracts on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line U87MG

Abstract:

For centuries, mushrooms have been used in folk medicine; however, knowledge of the composition and properties of fungi comes from the last twenty years. Mushrooms show antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor and immune-stimulating properties; however, there is a lack of reports, on anticancer treatment of brain gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine influence of Chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus Adans. ex Fr.) ethanolic (CHE) and water (CHW) extracts, on glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). Anti-proliferative activity of CHE and CHW in concentration (50-1000 µg/mL) was determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [³H]-thymidine incorporation after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We examined that CHE extracts in all the tested concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL) after all hours of incubation significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) on U87MG cell line, which was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction of DNA synthesis. Our results suggest that only CHE extract a cytotoxic and anti-proliferation activities on U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, food, glioblastoma, mushroom

##### 34 Genetic Parameters as Indicators of Sustainability and Diversity of Schinus terebinthifolius Populations in the Riparian Area of the São Francisco River

Abstract:

There is growing interest in defining indicators of sustainability, which are important for monitoring the conservation of native forests, particularly in areas of permanent protection. These indicators are references for assessing the state of the forest and the status of the depredated area and its ability to maintain species populations. The aim of the present study was to select genetic parameters as indicators of sustainability for Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Fragments located in riparian areas between the Sergipe and Alagoas States in Brazil. This species has been exploited for traditional communities, which represent 20% of the incoming. This study was carried out using the indicators suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which were identified as Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) factors. The genetic parameters were obtained in five populations located on the shores and islands of the São Francisco River, one of the most important rivers in Brazil. The framework for Schinus conservation suggests seventeen indicators of sustainability. In accordance with genetic parameters, the populations are isolated, and these genetic parameters can be used to monitor the sustainability of those populations in riparian area with the aim of defining strategies for forest restoration. Downloads 213
##### 33 Nutrition of Preschool Children in the Aspect of Nutritional Status

Abstract:

Background. Nutrition plays an important role in the psychophysical growth of children and has effects on their health. Providing children with the appropriate supply of macro- and micro-nutrients requires dietary diversity across every food group. Meals in kindergartens should provide 70-75% of their daily food requirement. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin content in the food rations of children attending kindergarten in the wider aspect of nutritional status. Material and Methods. Kindergarten menus from the spring and autumn seasons of 2015 were analyzed. In these meals, fat content and levels of water-soluble vitamins were estimated. The vitamin content was evaluated using the diet calculator “Aliant”. Statistical analysis was done in MS Office Excel 2007. Results. Vitamin content in the analyzed menus in many cases is too high with reference to dietary intake, with only vitamin D intake being insufficient. Vitamin E intake was closest to the dietary reference intake. Conclusion. The results show that vitamin intake is usually too high, and menus should, therefore, be modified. Also, nutrition education among kindergarten staff is needed. The identified errors in the composition of meals will affect the nutritional status of children and their proper composition in the body.

Keywords: children, nutrition status, vitamins, preschool

##### 32 Anticancer Activity of Edible Coprinus Mushroom (Coprinus comatus) on Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines and Interaction with Temozolomide

Abstract:

Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.) Pers.) should not be confused with the common Ink Cap, which contains coprine and can induce coprine poisoning. We study the possibility of applying coprinus mushroom (Coprinus comatus), available in Poland, as food product supporting the treatment of human glioblastoma cells. The U87MG and T98 glioblastoma cell lines were exposed to water (CW) or ethanol 95° (CE) Cantharellus extracts (50-500 μg/ml), with or without temozolomide (TMZ) during 24, 48 or 72 hours. The cell division was examined by the H³-thymidine incorporation. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We found that both, CW and CE, administrated alone, had inhibitory effect on cell lines growth, but the CE extract had a higher degree of growth inhibition. The anti-tumor effect of TMZ (50 μM) on U87MG was enhanced by mushroom extracts, and the effect was lower to the effect after using Coprinus comatus extracts (CW and CE) alone. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pro-MMP2 (82.61 ± 6.3% of control) secretion in U87MG cells was observed after treated with CE (250 μg/ml). We conclude that extracts of Coprinus comatus, edible mushroom, present cytotoxic properties on U87MG and T98 cell lines and may cooperate with TMZ synergistically enhancing its growth inhibiting activity against glioblastoma U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, glioma, mushroom, temozolomide

##### 31 Determinants of Aggregate Electricity Consumption in Ghana: A Multivariate Time Series Analysis

Abstract:

In Ghana, electricity has become the main form of energy which all sectors of the economy rely on for their businesses. Therefore, as the economy grows, the demand and consumption of electricity also grow alongside due to the heavy dependence on it. However, since the supply of electricity has not increased to match the demand, there has been frequent power outages and load shedding affecting business performances. To solve this problem and advance policies to secure electricity in Ghana, it is imperative that those factors that cause consumption to increase be analysed by considering the three classes of consumers; residential, industrial and non-residential. The main argument, however, is that, export of electricity to other neighbouring countries should be included in the electricity consumption model and considered as one of the significant factors which can decrease or increase consumption. The author made use of multivariate time series data from 1980-2010 and econometric models such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Vector Error Correction Model. Findings show that GDP growth, urban population growth, electricity exports and industry value added to GDP were cointegrated. The results also showed that there is unidirectional causality from electricity export and GDP growth and Industry value added to GDP to electricity consumption in the long run. However, in the short run, there was found to be a directional causality among all the variables and electricity consumption. The results have useful implication for energy policy makers especially with regards to electricity consumption, demand, and supply. Downloads 350
##### 30 Isoflavone and Mineral Content in Conventional Commercial Soybean Cultivars and Transgenic Soybean Planted in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in composition between six brands of conventional soybean and six genetically modified cultivars (GM), all of them from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We focused on the isoflavones profile and mineral content questioning the substantial equivalence between conventional and GM organisms. The statement of compliance label for conventional grains was verified for the presence of genetic modified genes by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not detect the presence of the 35S promoter in commercial samples, indicating the absence of transgene insertion. For mineral analysis, we used the method of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Isoflavones quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed no statistical difference between the conventional and transgenic soybean groups concerning isoflavone content and mineral composition. The concentration of potassium, the main mineral component of soy, was the highest in conventional soybeans compared to that in GM soy, while GM samples presented the highest concentrations of iron. Downloads 374
##### 29 Japan as a Tourism Nation: Emerging Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Sector of Kyoto

Authors: Szabó Renáta Andrea

Abstract:

In 2012 Japan created a new plan in order to become a tourism nation. The number of foreign tourists rises rapidly year by year, and with the upcoming Olympics in 2020, tourism turned into a prioritized national strategy. This paper offers a new perspective of tourism research: instead of focusing on the host nation or the inbound tourists, it represents an emerging in-between group: foreign entrepreneur residents. Despite the fact that Japan continuously scores as one of the lowest in East and South Asia related to entrepreneurial activity, in recent years, the activity of foreign entrepreneur residents is on the rise. This study is focused on Kyoto - the former capital of Japan and a popular tourist destination - and applies the mixed embeddedness model, which was used to understand this new phenomena and explore this emerging mediator group between locals and foreign tourists. Immigrant entrepreneurship is often related to a disadvantageous situation, and the businesses are introduced as the sole purpose of making a profit. The study seeks to argue with this point of view and augment the standard approaches to immigrant entrepreneurship. The findings introduce the key factors of this lifestyle choice besides profit and present how entrepreneurship is becoming an escape route to avoid standard working environment while living in Japan. It also shows the gap in the visa system and raises awareness about the emerging trend. Downloads 49
##### 28 Privacy Protection Principles of Omnichannel Approach

Authors: Renata Mekovec, Dijana Peras, Ruben Picek

Abstract:

The advent of the Internet, mobile devices and social media is revolutionizing the experience of retail customers by linking multiple sources through various channels. Omnichannel retailing is a retailing that combines multiple channels to allow customers to seamlessly leverage all the distribution information online and offline while shopping. Therefore, today data are an asset more critical than ever for all organizations. Nonetheless, because of its heterogeneity through platforms, developers are currently facing difficulties in dealing with personal data. Considering the possibilities of omnichannel communication, this paper presents channel categorization that could enhance the customer experience of omnichannel center called hyper center. The purpose of this paper is fundamentally to describe the connection between the omnichannel hyper center and the customer, with particular attention to privacy protection. The first phase was finding the most appropriate channels of communication for hyper center. Consequently, a selection of widely used communication channels has been identified and analyzed with regard to the effect requirements for optimizing user experience. The evaluation criteria are divided into 3 groups: general, user profile and channel options. For each criterion the weight of importance for omnichannel communication was defined. The most important thing was to consider how the hyper center can make user identification while respecting the privacy protection requirements. The study carried out also shows what customer experience across digital networks would look like, based on an omnichannel approach owing to privacy protection principles. Downloads 61
##### 27 Impact of Air Pollution and Climate on the Incidence of Emergency Interventions in Slavonski Brod

Authors: Renata Josipovic, Ante Cvitkovic

Abstract:

Particulate matter belongs to pollutants that can lead to respiratory problems or premature death due to exposure (long-term, short-term) to these substances, all depending on the severity of the effects. The importance of the study is to determine whether the existing climatic conditions in the period from January 1st to August 31st, 2018 increased the number of emergency interventions in Slavonski Brod with regard to pollutants hydrogen sulfide and particles less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Analytical data of the concentration of pollutants are collected from the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, which monitors the operation of two meteorological stations in Slavonski Brod, as well as climatic conditions. Statistics data of emergency interventions were collected from the Emergency Medicine Department of Slavonski Brod. All data were compared (air pollution, emergency interventions) according to climatic conditions (air humidity and air temperature) and statistically processed. Statistical significance, although weak positive correlation PM2.5 (correlation coefficient 0.147; p = 0.036), determined PM10 (correlation coefficient 0.122; p = 0.048), hydrogen sulfide (correlation coefficient 0.141; p = 0.035) with max. temperature (correlation coefficient 0.202; p = 0.002) with number of interventions. The association between mean air humidity was significant but negative (correlation coefficient - 0.172; p = 0.007). The values of the influence of air pressure are not determined. As the problem of air pollution is very complex, coordinated action at many levels is needed to reduce air pollution in Slavonski Brod and consequences that can affect human health. Downloads 69
##### 26 Changing Trends and Attitudes towards Online Assessment

Abstract:

The presentation aims at eliciting insight into the results of ongoing research regarding evolving trends and attitudes towards online assessment of English for Medical Purposes. The focus pinpointsonline as one of the most trending formsavailable during the global pandemic. The study was first initiated in 2019 in which its main target was to reveal the intriguing question of students’ and assessors’ attitudes towards online assessment. The research questions the attitudes towards the latest trends, possible online task types, their advantagesand disadvantages through an in-depth experimental process currently undergoing implementation. Material and methods include surveys, needs and wants analysis, and thorough investigations regarding candidates’ and assessors’ attitudes towards online tests in the field of Medicine. The examined test tasks include various online tests drafted in both English and Hungarian by student volunteers at the Medical School of the University of Pécs, Hungary. Over 400 respondents from more than 28 countries participated in the survey, which gives us an international and intercultural insight into how students with different cultural and educational background deal with the evolving online world. The results show the pandemic’s impact, which brought the slumbering online world of assessing roaring alive, fully operational andnowbearsphenomenalrelevancein today’s global education. Undeniably, the results can be used as a perspective in a vast array of contents. The survey hypothesized the generation of the 21st century expect everything readily available online, however, questions whether they are ready for this challenge are lurking in the background.

Keywords: assessment, changes, english, ESP, online assessment, online, trends

##### 25 Characterization and Quantification of Relatives Amounts of Phosphorylated Glucosyl Residues in C6 and C3 Position in Banana Starch Granules by 31P-NMR

Abstract:

In the degradation transitory starch model, the enzymatic activity of glucan/water dikinase (GWD) and phosphoglucan/water dikinase (PWD) are essential for the granule degradation. GWD and PWD phosphorylate glucose molecules in the positions C6 and C3, respectively, in the amylopectin chains. This action is essential to allow that β-amylase degrade starch granules without previous action of α-amylase. During banana starch degradation, as part of banana ripening, both α- and β-amylases activities and proteins were already detected and, it is also known that there is a GWD and PWD protein bounded to the starch granule. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify both Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P in order to estimate the importance of the GWD-PWD-β-amylase pathway in banana starch degradation. Starch granules were isolated as described by Peroni-Okita et al (Carbohydrate Polymers, 81:291-299, 2010), from banana fruit at different stages of ripening, green (20.7%), intermediate (18.2%) and ripe (6.2%). Total phosphorus content was determinate following the Smith and Caruso method (1964). Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P quantifications were performed as described by Lim et al (Cereal Chemistry, 71(5):488-493, 1994). Total phosphorous content in green banana starch is found as 0.009%, intermediary banana starch 0.006% and ripe banana starch 0.004%, both by the colorimetric method and 31P-NMR. The NMR analysis showed the phosphorus content in C6 and C3. The results by NMR indicate that the amylopectin is phosphorylate by GWD and PWD before the bananas become ripen. Since both the total content of phosphorus and phosphorylated glucose molecules at positions C3 and C6 decrease with the starch degradation, it can be concluded that this phosphorylation occurs only in the surface of the starch granule and before the fruit be harvested.

Keywords: starch, GWD, PWD, 31P-NMR

##### 24 MAGE-A3 and PRAME Gene Expression and EGFR Mutation Status in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Abstract:

Background: The RNA-expression levels of cancer-testis antigens MAGE A3 and PRAME were determined in resected tissue from patients with primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and related to clinical outcome. EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutation status was determined in a subset to investigate associations with MAGE A3 and PRAME expression. Methods: We conducted a single-centre, uncontrolled, retrospective study of 1260 tissue-bank samples from stage IA-III resected NSCLC. The prognostic value of antigen expression (qRT-PCR) was determined by hazard-ratio and Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Thirty-seven percent (314/844) of tumours expressed MAGE-A3, 66% (723/1092) expressed PRAME and 31% (239/839) expressed both. Respective frequencies in squamous-cell tumours and adenocarcinomas were 43%/30% for MAGE A3 and 80%/44% for PRAME. No correlation with stage, tumour size or patient age was found. Overall, no prognostic value was identified for either antigen. A trend to poorer overall survival was associated with MAGE-A3 in stage IIIB and with PRAME in stage IB. EGFR and KRAS mutations were found in 10.1% (28/311) and 33.8% (97/311) of tumours, respectively. EGFR (but not KRAS) mutation status was negatively associated with PRAME expression. Conclusion: No clear prognostic value for either PRAME or MAGE A3 was observed in the overall population, although some observed trends may warrant further investigation.

Keywords: MAGE A3, PRAME, cancer-testis gene, NSCLC, survival, EGFR

##### 23 Subclinical Renal Damage Induced by High-Fat Diet in Young Rats

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical organ injuries induced by high-fat diet. Male wistar rats (n=5/group) were divided in control diet group (CD), commercial rat chow, and hyperlipidic diet (30% lipids) group (HD) administrated during 8 weeks, starting after weaning. All the procedures followed the rules of the Committee of Research and Ethics of the Mackenzie University (CEUA Nº 077/03/2011). At the end of protocol the animals were euthanized by anesthesia overload and the left kidney was removed. Intrarenal lipid deposition was evaluated by histological analyses with oilred. Kidney slices were stained with picrosirius red to evaluate the area of the Bowman's capsule (AB) and space (SB), and glomerular tuft area (GT). The renal expression of sterol regulatory element–binding protein (SREBP-2) was performed by Western Blotting. Creatinine concentration (serum and urine) and lipid profile were determined by colorimetric kit (Labtest). At the end of the protocol there was no differences in body weight between the groups, however the HD showed a marked increase in lipid deposits, glomeruli and tubules, and biochemical analysis for cholesterol and triglycerides. Moreover, in the kidney, the high-fat diet induced a reduction in the AB (13%), GT (18%) and SB (17%) associated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance). The renal SRBP2 expression was increased in HD group. These data suggests that consumption of high-fat diet starting in childhood is associated with subclinical renal damage and function. Downloads 209
##### 22 Toxicological Interactions of Silver Nanoparticles and Non-Essential Metals in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line

Abstract:

Synergetic and antagonistic effects of drugs are well-known concerns in pharmacological assessments of dose and toxicity. Similar approach should be used in assessing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Since nanoparticles are released into the aquatic environment they may interact with existing xenobiotics. Here we used biochemical assays and quantitative proteomics to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) when human hepatoma HepG2 cells were co-exposed to 2 nm AgNP together with either Cd2+ or Hg2+ ions. Time-course experiments (2h, 4h, and 24h) were conducted to assess the first response to the exposure studies. The general trend was that a synergetic toxicological response was observed in cells exposed to both AgNP and Cd2+ or Hg2+, with AgNP and Cd2+ being more toxic. This was observed by a significant increase in the ROS and superoxide level of >35% in the case of AgNP+Cd2+ compared to the sum of responses of AgNP and Cd2+, individually. Metabolic activity and viability also dropped more for AgNP+Cd2+ (>10%) than for AgNP and Cd2+ combined. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate if AgNP facilitates larger influx of toxic metal ions into HepG2 cells. Only Hg2+ ions was found to be more efficiently engulfed as the concentration of Hg2+ was found 2.8 times larger compared to exposure experiments with only Hg2+. This effect was not observed for Cd2+. We now continue with deep proteomics studies to obtain wider details on the mechanism of the toxicity related to AgNP, Cd2+, and AgNP+Cd2+, respectively. Downloads 260
##### 21 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

##### 20 Micropropagation of Rhododendron tomentosum (Ledum palustre): An Endangered Plant of Scientific Interest as the Example of Ex Situ Conservation

Abstract:

Rhododendron tomentosum (formerly Ledum palustre), an evergreen shrub grows in peaty soils in northern Europe, Asia and North America. In Poland, it is classified as an endangered species not only due to the drainage of wetlands, but also to the excessive collection of this repellent plant by human. The other valuable biological properties of R. tomentosum, used for years in folk medicine, include anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-microbial activity, conditioned by the essential oil content. Taking into account the importance of biodiversity and the potential therapeutic application, it was decided to establish, for the first time, the micropropagation protocol for R. tomentosum, for ex-situ conservation of this endangered species as well as to obtain the continuous source of in vivo and in-vitro plant material for further studies. This object was achieved by the selection of the explant and the media, which were modified within the scope of mineral composition, sugar content, pH and the growth regulators. As a result, the four-stage micropropagation protocol for R. tomentosum was specified, including shoot multiplication, elongation, rooting and ex-vitro adaptation. The genetic identification of the examined species and the compatibility of progeny plants with maternal ones was tested with molecular biology methods. Moreover, during the research process, the chemical composition of initial and regenerated plant and in vitro shoots was controlled in terms of volatile fraction by phytochemical analysis (GC and TLC methods). The correctness of the micropropagation procedure was confirmed by both types of studies. Downloads 369
##### 19 The Influence of Amygdalin on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines

Abstract:

Amygdalin is found in many fruit seeds, including apricot, peach, quince, apples, and almonds. Amygdalin (also named vitamin B17), as well as its sources, are commonly used as an alternative therapy or prevention of cancer. The potential activity of amygdalin is related to its enzymatic degradation to the hydrogen cyanide. Hydrogen cyanide is a toxic substance that causes liver and nerves damage, fever, coma or even death. Amygdalin is much better tolerated after intravenous than oral administration. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of amygdalin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Three glioblastoma multiforme cell lines – U87MG, T98, LN18 were incubated (48 h) with amygdalin in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test and DNA binding test by [3H]-thymidine incorporation were used to determine the anti-proliferative activity of amygdalin. The secretion of metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP-9) from U87MG cells was estimated by gelatin zymography. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. The data was presented as a % of control. Amygdalin did not show significant inhibition of viability of all the glioblastoma cells in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL. In 2000 µg/mL there were significant differences compared to the control, but inhibition of viability was less than 20% (more than 80% of control). The average viability of U87MG cells was 92,0±4%, T98G: 85,8±3% and LN18: 94,7±2% of the control. There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. DNA binding in U87MG cells was not inhibited (109,0±3 % of control). After treatment with amygdalin, we observed significantly increased secretion of MMP2 and MMP9 in U87MG cells (130,3±14% and 112,0±5% of control, respectively). Our results suggest that amygdalin has no anticancer activity in glioblastoma cell lines.

Keywords: amygdalin, anticancer, cell line, glioblastoma