Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: municipal law

411 A Strategic Performance Control System for Municipal Organization

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Aysegul Yilmaz

Abstract:

Strategic performance control is a significant procedure in management. There are various methods to improve this procedure. This study introduces an information system that is developed to score performance for municipal management. The application of the system is clarified by exemplifying municipal processes.

Keywords: management information system, municipal management, performance control

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
410 An Information System for Strategic Performance Scoring in Municipal Management

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Aysegul Yilmaz

Abstract:

Strategic performance scoring is a significant procedure in management. There are various methods to improve this procedure. This study introduces an information system that is developed to score performance for municipal management. The application of the system is clarified by exemplifying municipal processes.

Keywords: management information system, municipal management, performance scoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
409 Trends of Municipal Council Members in Practicing His Role on Municipality's Main Municipal Activities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ameer Alalwan

Abstract:

Summary: The aim of this research is to identify trends of municipal council member in practicing his administrative control, decision-making, and counsultive role on municipalities' main municipal activities in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is conducted after the implementation of the new municipal system resolution no. (M\61) in 1435 in the work of municipal councils for the third session. To achieve the goal of this research, a questionnaire has been designed to obtain the opinion of municipal councils on this matter. This questionnaire has been tested for reliability and validity. The results of this research show that in general performance of municipal council is moderate after the implementation of the new municipal system resolution no. (M\61) in 1435 in the work of municipal councils for the third session. Also, extend that municipal council member practice his roles on the main municipality activities is moderate and weak. In addition, results show that municipal council member practice big role in decision-making, and moderate role in administrative control, and weaker role in giving opinion on municipality main issues. Furthermore, the results show that there is a significant difference between municipal council member's responses by the change of their Personal characteristics. Educated and appointed municipal council members practicing their role more than others do. In addition, municipal council presidents, and vice presidents, and in regional and sub-regional municipalities practice their role more than others do. Finally, this research in general recommened that muincialty council member must be empowered, so that he can practice his role on muicipality main activities. In addition, research suggest, granting municipal council member the authority, resources needed, training and appointment of qualified members, so that they will be able to practice their roles. Furthermore, this research suggest for the time being maintain certain percent of municipal council's appointed until this experience mature in the kingdom.

Keywords: municipal council, municipal council member, municipality, decision-making role

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
408 Sub-Municipal Government as a Tool for Decentralization

Authors: Mirko Klaric

Abstract:

In different countries, sub-municipal units have different organizational and political positions. In some countries, the role of sub-municipal units is important; in others, it is marginal. That depends on the organization of the local government system in different countries, and the political role of local self-government units, their size, public authorities, and the possibility for managing various local public tasks. This paper attempts to analyze the sub-municipal government as an organizational form of local governance participation of citizens in the local community with a comparative perspective. Secondly, it presents elements that generally format sub-municipal government as a tool for strengthening of democratization processes in local government units. Those elements are crucial for the understanding of the dynamic in relation to local government vs. sub-municipal government. Special focus is put on the sub-municipal government in South-Eastern European countries, which have a common history and institutional framework, with this main question: how can sub-municipal government contribute to strengthening democratic processes in these countries. In centralized countries, the sub-municipal government usually has a reduced role, which relates to managing public tasks connected with local community needs. The purpose of this comparative research methodology is used for analyzing the present organization and role of sub-municipal government in local government systems in Croatia and other significant countries in Europe, with a special focus on the states in South-Eastern Europe and Croatia. Comparative analyses attempt to show that local government systems with bigger local government units have more significant sub-municipal government. On the other hand, local government systems with small local government units don’t have a strong sub-municipal government. Finally, this paper aims to present ideas on how the sub-municipal government can improve decentralization and contribute to better development of the local community and the whole of society.

Keywords: public administration, local government, sub-municipal government, decentralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
407 Compaction of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Jovana Jankovic Pantic, Dragoslav Rakic, Tina Djuric, Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Snezana Bogdanovic

Abstract:

Regardless of the numerous activities undertaken to reduce municipal solid waste, its annual volumes continue to grow. In Serbia, the most common and the only one form of waste disposal is at municipal landfills with daily compaction and soil covering. Municipal waste compacting is one of the basic components of the disposal process. Well compacted waste takes up less volume and allows much safer storage. In order to better predict the behavior of municipal waste at landfills, it is necessary to define compaction parameters: the maximum dry unit weight and optimal moisture content. In current geotechnical practice, the most common method of determination compaction parameters is by the standard method (Proctor compaction test) used in soil mechanics, with an eventual reduction of compaction energy. Although this methodology is accepted in newer geotechnical scientific discipline "waste mechanics", different treatments of municipal waste at the landfill itself (including pretreatment), indicate the need to change this classical approach. The main reason for that is the simulation of the operation of compactors (hedgehogs) at the landfill. Therefore, during the research, various innovative solutions are introduced, such as changing the classic flat Proctor hammer, by adding spikes, whose function is, in addition to compaction, destruction and shredding of municipal waste. The paper presents the behavior of municipal waste for four synthetic waste samples with different waste compositions (Plandište landfill). The samples were tested in standard Proctor apparatus at the same compaction energy, but with two different hammers: standard flat hammer and hammer with spikes.

Keywords: compaction, hammer with spikes, landfill, municipal solid waste, proctor compaction test

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
406 Constitutive Model for Analysis of Long-Term Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement

Authors: Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Dragoslav Rakic, Mirjana Vukicevic, Sanja Jockovic, Jovana Jankovic Pantic

Abstract:

Large long-term settlement occurs at the municipal solid waste landfills over an extended period of time which may lead to breakage of the geomembrane, damage of the cover systems, other protective systems or facilities constructed on top of a landfill. Also, municipal solid waste is an extremely heterogeneous material and its properties vary over location and time within a landfill. These material characteristics require the formulation of a new constitutive model to predict the long-term settlement of municipal solid waste. The paper presents a new constitutive model which is formulated to describe the mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste. Model is based on Modified Cam Clay model and the critical state soil mechanics framework incorporating time-dependent components: mechanical creep and biodegradation of municipal solid waste. The formulated constitutive model is optimized and defined with eight input parameters: five Modified Cam Clay parameters, one parameter for mechanical creep and two parameters for biodegradation of municipal solid waste. Thereafter, the constitutive model is implemented in the software suite for finite element analysis (ABAQUS) and numerical analysis of the experimental landfill settlement is performed. The proposed model predicts the total settlement which is in good agreement with field measured settlement at the experimental landfill.

Keywords: constitutive model, finite element analysis, municipal solid waste, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
405 The Quality of Working Life and the Organizational Commitment of Municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon Province

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate: (1) Relationship between the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province. (2) To compare the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province by the gender, age, education, official experience, position, division, and income. This study is a quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the municipal employee in Samut Sakhon province for 241 sample by stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including t-test, F-test and Pearson correlation for hypothesis testing. Finding showed that the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon province in terms of compensation and fair has a positive correlation (r = 0.673) and the comparison of the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employees in Samut Sakhon province by gender. We found that the overall difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level and we also found stability and progress in career path and the characteristics are beneficial to society has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.01 level, and the participation and social acceptance has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Keywords: quality of working life, organizational commitment, municipal employee, Samut Sakhon province

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
404 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
403 Estimation and Utilization of Landfill Gas from Egyptian Municipal Waste: A Case Study

Authors: Ali A. Hashim Habib, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim

Abstract:

Assuredly, massive amounts of wastes that are not utilized and dumped in uncontrolled dumpsites will be one of the major sources of diseases, fires, and emissions. With easy steps and minimum effort, energy can be produced from these gases. The present work introduces an experimental and theoretical analysis to estimate the amount of landfill gas and the corresponding energy which can be produced based on actual Egyptian municipal wastes composition. Two models were utilized and compared, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) model and CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) model to estimate methane generation rates and total CH4 emissions based on a particular landfill. The results showed that for every ton of municipal waste, 140 m3 of landfill gas can be produced. About 800 kW of electricity for a minimum of 24 years can be generated form one million ton of municipal waste. A total amount of 549,025 ton of carbon emission can be avoided during these 24 years.

Keywords: energy from landfill gases, landfill biogas, methane emission, municipal solid waste, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
402 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian

Abstract:

One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
401 A Conceptual Framework for Managing Municipal Finances in South Africa

Authors: Abongile Zweni

Abstract:

As a post-apartheid strategy to redress the social imbalances of the past, local governments are tasked with the role of delivering crucial services to their constituents. Apart from political instability, evidence shows that managers in South African municipalities lack effective financial management skills and competencies. This resulted in a failure to fulfill its administrative obligations, particularly municipal financial management. Most municipalities have, however, failed in this role, which has led them to be placed under administration by the provincial government in terms of Section 139 of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Thus, this study proposed a leadership conceptual framework for effectively managing ever-eroding municipal finances in South Africa. The study adopted a desktop research approach to explore the key components of leadership and municipal financial management toward the development of the conceptual framework. The study fostered a better understanding of the need for transformation in relation to the current financial management practices and sustainability of a municipality. Moreover, the conceptual framework applies not only to municipalities but also to other government departments and public authorities in the country for financial management.

Keywords: leadership, municipal finance, financial performance, management skills, municipality

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
400 Intended and Unintended Outcomes of Partnerships at the Local Level in Slovakia

Authors: Daniel Klimovský

Abstract:

Slovakia belongs to the most fragmented countries if one looks at its local government structure. The Slovak central governments implemented both broad devolution and fiscal decentralization some decades ago. However, neither territorial consolidation nor size categorization of local competences and powers has been implemented yet. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that the local governments are challenged not only by their citizens as customers but also by effectiveness as well as efficiency of delivered services. The paper is focused on behavior of the local governments in Slovakia and their approaches towards other local partners, including other local governments. Analysis of set of interviews shows that inter-municipal cooperation is the most common local partnership in Slovakia, but due to diversity of the local governments, this kind of cooperation leads to both intended and unintended outcomes. While in many cases the local governments are more efficient as well as effective in delivery of local services thanks to inter-municipal cooperation, there are many cases where inter-municipal cooperation fails, and it brings rather questionable or even negative outcomes.

Keywords: local governments, local partnerships, inter-municipal cooperation, delivery of local services

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
399 Capital Punishment as a Contradiction to International Law and Indonesian Constitution

Authors: Akbar

Abstract:

Pros and cons of the capital punishment in Indonesia have been out of the date. The discourse of capital punishment has no relevance to the theory of punishment and theories of cultural relativism. In fact, the provisions of exceptions to the right to life by administering the death penalty against the perpetrators of serious crimes in Indonesia is a narrow perspective that does not pay attention to the development of the punishment of the crime. This thing is aggravated by an error to understand the natural right and legal right where the prohibition of those rights is result from a failure to distinguish the characteristic of the rights and to remember the raison d’être of law. To parse the irrational above, this paper will try to analyze normatively the error referring to the complementary theory between the sources of international law and the sources of municipal law of Indonesia. Both sources of the law above should be understood in the mutually reinforcing relationship enforceability because of false perceptions against those will create the disintegration between international law and municipal law of Indonesia. This disintegration is explicit not only contrary to the integrative theory of international law but also integrative theory of municipal law of Indonesia.

Keywords: capital punishment, municipal law, right to life, international law, the raison d’être of law, complementary theory, integrative theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
398 Challenges for Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A Case Study of Eluru, Andhra Pradesh

Authors: V. V. Prasada Rao P., K. Venkata Subbaiah, J. Sudhir Kumar

Abstract:

Most Indian cities or townships are facing greater challenges in proper disposal of their municipal solid wastes, which are growing exponentially with the rising urban population and improvement in the living standards. As per the provisional figures, 377 million people live in the urban areas accounting for 31.16 % of the Country’s total population, and expected to grow by 3.74% every year. In India, the municipal authority is liable for the safe management & disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes. However, even with the current levels of MSW generation, a majority of the local governments are unable to comply with their constitutional responsibility due to reasons ranging from cultural aspects to technological and financial constraints. In contrast, it is expected that the MSW generation in India is likely to increase from 68.8 MTD in 2011 to 160.5 MTD by 2041. Thus, the immediate challenge before the urban local bodies in India is to evolve suitable strategies not only to cope up with the current levels, but also to address the anticipated generation levels of MSW. This paper discusses the reasons for the low levels of enforcement of MSW Rules and suggests effective management strategies for the safe disposal of MSW.

Keywords: biodegradable waste, dumping sites, management strategy, municipal solid waste (MSW), MSW rules, vermicompost

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
397 Factors Affecting Cost Efficiency of Municipal Waste Services in Tuscan Municipalities: An Empirical Investigation by Accounting for Different Management

Authors: María Molinos-Senante, Giulia Romano

Abstract:

This paper aims at investigating the effect of ownership in the efficiency assessment of municipal solid waste management. In doing so, the Data Envelopment Analysis meta-frontier approach integrating unsorted waste as undesirable output was applied. Three different clusters of municipalities have been created on the basis of the ownership type of municipal waste operators. In the second stage of analysis, the paper investigates factors affecting efficiency, in order to provide an outlook of levers to be used by policy and decision makers to improve efficiency, taking into account different management models in force. Results show that public waste management firms have better performance than mixed and private ones since their efficiency scores are significantly larger. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the efficiency of waste management firms is statistically influenced by the age of population, population served, municipal size, population density and tourism rate. It evidences the importance of economies of scale on the cost efficiency of waste management. This issue is relevant for policymakers to define and implement policies aimed to improve the long-term sustainability of waste management in municipalities.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, municipal solid waste, ownership, undesirable output

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
396 Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Nida Rabab

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to assess the Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi. Some vegetables are grown using sewage and industrial wastewater laden with alarmingly high levels of heavy metals and bacteriological contamination. Maximum concentration of lead was found in spinach 8.20 mg/l as against safe limits of 0.01 mg/l and maximum nickel concentration was found in banana 3.114 mg/l as against 0.02 mg/l, whereas all vegetables were invariably bacteriologically contaminated much beyond safe limits. Appropriate legislations in Sindh and competent manpower for rigorous monitoring to gage the harmful impact on vegetables grown with untreated municipal and industrial wastewater to effectively combat the problems of growing vegetables. The emptying of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater through Korangi Drain in fresh water bodies into Karachi cost should be banned to save the coast becoming hypoxic causing irreparable loss to marine life.

Keywords: laden, concentration, hypoxic, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
395 Experiences of Being a Manager in the Municipal Sector in Rural Northern Sweden

Authors: S. Asplund, J. Åhlin, S. Åström, B. M. Lindgren

Abstract:

The aim of this qualitative study was to describe experiences of work-related stress among highly stressed municipal employees in rural northern Sweden. We interviewed 15 employees in the municipal sector in rural northern Sweden using a semi-structured guide and subjected the interviews to qualitative content analysis. Under the main theme of Suffering Though Endless Chaos, we summarized four themes: facing incompatible interests and high demands due to lack of time and resources; feeling powerless, trapped, and ignored due to lack of control; feeling insufficient, insecure, and guilty due to challenging relations and high expectations; and struggling with consequences such as health problems, spillover effects on family life, and difficulty coping. Findings from this study suggest the importance of acknowledging suffering among municipal employees in a stressful work environment. An imbalance between job demands and resources is affecting both the health and family lives of employees and also their ability to work. It seems important to improve the work environment through supportive leadership, job control, and reasonable job demands to prevent stress, reduce suffering, and create a healthy organization.

Keywords: manager, municipal sector, occupational health, qualitative content analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
394 Solid Waste Management in the Town of Maradi in Niger Republic

Authors: Hassidou Saidou, Soulé Aminou

Abstract:

As in many towns of African countries, the waste management, in particularly solid constitutes a major problem for the municipal authorities of Maradi. The aim of this study is to make a diagnosis of the present system of waste management in the town of Maradi. The approach was consisted to some interviews with the municipal authorities, cleaning up and health technicians and some housewives investigations. According to the health technicians of the town, the causes due to the problem of waste management in Maradi town are: collecting capacity insufficient, lack of effective sensitization of people, undeveloped and uncontrolled rubbish dumps, lack of gutter and its maintenance, and insufficient and unqualified human resources. As to the authorities, they denounce always the attitude and the behavior of citizens on the waste issue. The waste evacuation is doing by municipal collecting or by depositing in wild rubbish dump. Some people eliminate their waste by burning or duping in the streets or in their houses. According to our investigations, 52% of population evacuates their waste daily. The satisfaction rate of municipal collecting is for 32%. The analysis showed that the present system of waste management in Maradi town is failing. As solutions, we proposed to equip the technical offices with appropriated material and financial means, reinforce the involved actor’s capacities and making in application the operatives regulations for the waste management.

Keywords: maradi, municipal authorities, Niger Republic, solid waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
393 Characterization and the Study of Energy Potential of Municipal Solid Waste Disposed in Bauchi Town and Environs

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal, Dahiru Yau Gital

Abstract:

The characterisation and the energy potential of the municipal solid wastes in Bauchi town and environs were studied. It was found that, 35,000 tonnes of waste was generated annually at 0.19 kg/capital/day of which, the combination of plastics, rubber, polyethene bags constituted about 33%, followed by textile materials, leathers, wood 26%, combination of papers, cartons 19%, crop stalks/grass 11% and the remaining incombustible materials 11%. The heating value or calorific value of the wastes was determined using a digital calorimeter to be 6.43 MJ/kg, almost one-third of the energy content of peat which has a value of 15.9 MJ/kg. The calorific value of the fuel was found to be significant; hence, the waste could be used for energy generation.

Keywords: calorific value, characterization, digital calorimeter, incombustible, municipal solid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
392 Design of Collection and Transportation System of Municipal Solid Waste in Meshkinshahr City

Authors: Ebrahim Fataei, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Zahra Arabi, Habib farhadi, Mehdi Aalipour Erdi, Seiied Taghi Seiied Safavian

Abstract:

Solid waste production is an integral part of human life and management of waste require full scientific approach and essential planning. The allocation of most management cost to collection and transportation and also the necessity of operational efficiency in this system, by limiting time consumption, and on the other hand optimum collection system and transportation is the base of waste design and management. This study was done to optimize the exits collection and transportation system of solid waste in Meshkinshahr city. So based on the analyzed data of municipal solid waste components in seven zones of Meshkinshahr city, and GIS software, applied to design storage place based on origin recycling and a route to collect and transport. It was attempted to represent an appropriate model to store, collect and transport municipal solid waste. The result shows that GIS can be applied to locate the waste container and determine a waste collection direction in an appropriate way.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, transportation, optimizing, GIS, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
391 Financial Administration of Urban Local Governance: A Comparative Study of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Bhavnagar Municipal Corporation(BMC)

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

Financial administration is part of government which deals with collection, preservation and distribution of public funds, with the coordination of public revenue and expenditure, with the management of credit operation on behalf of the state and with the general control of the financial affairs of public households. The researcher has taken the prime body of the local self government viz. Municipal Corporation. However, the number of municipal corporations in India has rapidly increased in recent years. Countries 27% of the total population are living in urban area & in recent it increasing very fast. People are moving very fast from rural area to urban area. Their demand, awareness is increasing day by day. The Municipal Corporations render many services for the development of the urban area. Thus, researcher has taken a step to know the accounting practices of the municipal corporations of Gujarat state (AMC & BMC ). The research will try to show you the status of finance of municipal corporations. Article 243(w) of the constitution of India envisaged that the state government maybe, by law , endow the municipalities with such powers and authorities as may be necessary to enable them to function as institution of self government and such law may contain provision for devolution of powers and responsibilities upon municipalities subjects to such condition as may be specified there in with respect to (i) the peroration of plans for economic development and social justice and (ii) the performance of the function and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the twelfth schedule. The three tier structure of the Indian Government i.e. Union, State & Local Self Government is the scenario of the Indian constitution. Local Self Government performs or renders many services under the direct control of state government. They (local bodies) possess autonomy within its limited sphere, raise revenue through local taxation and spend its income on local services.

Keywords: financial administration, urban local bodies, local self government, constitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
390 Innovative Waste Management Practices in Remote Areas

Authors: Dolores Hidalgo, Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín, Francisco Corona

Abstract:

Municipal waste consist of a variety of items that are everyday discarded by the population. They are usually collected by municipalities and include waste generated by households, commercial activities (local shops) and public buildings. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from place to place, being mostly related to levels and patterns of consumption, rates of urbanization, lifestyles, and local or national waste management practices. Each year, a huge amount of resources is consumed in the EU, and according to that, also a huge amount of waste is produced. The environmental problems derived from the management and processing of these waste streams are well known, and include impacts on land, water and air. The situation in remote areas is even worst. Difficult access when climatic conditions are adverse, remoteness of centralized municipal treatment systems or dispersion of the population, are all factors that make remote areas a real municipal waste treatment challenge. Furthermore, the scope of the problem increases significantly because the total lack of awareness of the existing risks in this area together with the poor implementation of advanced culture on waste minimization and recycling responsibly. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing situation in remote areas in reference to the production of municipal waste and evaluate the efficiency of different management alternatives. Ideas for improving waste management in remote areas include, for example: the implementation of self-management systems for the organic fraction; establish door-to-door collection models; promote small-scale treatment facilities or adjust the rates of waste generation thereof.

Keywords: door to door collection, islands, isolated areas, municipal waste, remote areas, rural communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
389 A Method Development for Improving the Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection System Using Network Analyst

Authors: Dhvanidevi N. Jadeja, Daya S. Kaul, Anurag A. Kandya

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection in a city is performed in less effective manner which results in the poor management of the environment and natural resources. Municipal corporation does not possess efficient waste management and recycling programs because of the complex task involving many factors. Solid waste collection system depends upon various factors such as manpower, number and size of vehicles, transfer station size, dustbin size and weight, on-road traffic, and many others. These factors affect the collection cost, energy and overall municipal tax for the city. Generally, different types of waste are scattered throughout the city in a heterogeneous way that poses changes for efficient collection of solid waste. Efficient waste collection and transportation strategy must be effectively undertaken which will include optimization of routes, volume of waste, and manpower. Being these optimized, the overall cost can be reduced as the fuel and energy requirements would be less and also the municipal waste taxes levied will be less. To carry out the optimization study of collection system various data needs to be collected from the Ahmedabad municipal corporation such as amount of waste generated per day, number of workers, collection schedule, road maps, number of transfer station, location of transfer station, number of equipment (tractors, machineries), number of zones, route of collection etc. The ArcGis Network Analyst is introduced for the best routing identification applied in municipal waste collection. The simulation consists of scenarios of visiting loading spots in the municipality of Ahmedabad, considering dynamic factors like network traffic changes, closed roads due to natural or technical causes. Different routes were selected in a particular area of Ahmedabad city, and present routes were optimized to reduce the length of the routes, by using ArcGis Network Analyst. The result indicates up to 35% length minimization in the routes.

Keywords: collection routes, efficiency, municipal solid waste, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
388 Changing Governance and the Role of People's Involvement in Municipal Solid Waste Management: Study of Two Municipal Corporations in Kerala

Authors: Prathibha Ganesan

Abstract:

This paper discusses discontents of inhabitants in the landfills and its culmination into resistance against centralised waste disposal during the last three decades in Kerala. The study is based on a sample survey of 175 households located in the landfill sites and city limits of two Municipal Corporations viz. Thrissur and Cochin. The study found that waste is dumped in the periphery of the urban area where economically and socially vulnerable people are densely populated. Moreover, landfill sites are unscientifically managed to cause severe socio-economic and health issues to the local people, finally leading to their mobilisation and persistent struggle. The struggles often culminate in the closure of landfills or forced relocation or abandonment of the region by the community. The study concluded that persistent people’s struggles compel the local state to either find alternatives to centralised solid waste management system or use political power to subsume the local resistance. The persistence of the struggles determined the type waste governance adopted by the local governments.

Keywords: solid waste management, municipal corporation, resistance movements, urban, Kerala

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
387 Design of Low-Maintenance Sewer Pump Stations with High-Security Measures for Municipal Applications

Authors: H. V. Smit, V. H. J. de Wet

Abstract:

South African municipalities are dealing with aging and dilapidated infrastructure while faced with challenges in the form of expanding informal settlements, vandalism, theft, and a lack of maintenance which place even more pressure on existing infrastructure. The existing infrastructure was never designed to cater to these challenges, and this becomes evident when evaluating the current state of many municipal sewer pump stations. A need has thus arisen to develop a sewer pump station design concept that will address these challenges and allow for a long-term sustainable solution. This article deals with the design concepts which have been developed for sewer pump stations for an effective reduction in maintenance, improved grit handling, improvement to the operation and maintenance working conditions, and the adoption of high-security design philosophy.

Keywords: high security, low maintenance, municipal application, sewer pump station

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
386 Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria

Authors: Anisa Gumel

Abstract:

This study examines the present condition of solid waste management in Nigeria. The author explores the challenges and opportunities affecting municipal solid waste management in "Nigeria" and determines the most profound challenges by analysing the interdependence and interrelationship among identified variables. In this study, multiple stakeholders, including 15 waste management professionals interviewed online, were utilised to identify the difficulties and opportunities affecting municipal solid waste in Nigeria. The interviews were transcribed and coded using NVivo to produce pertinent variables. An online survey of Nigerian internet and social media users was done to validate statements made by experts on the identified variable. In addition, a panel of five experts participated in a focus group discussion to discover the most influential factors that influence municipal solid waste management in Nigeria by analysing the interrelationships as well as the driving and reliant power of variables. The results show significant factors affecting municipal solid waste in Nigeria, including inadequate funding, lack of knowledge, and absence of legislation, as well as behavioural, financial, technological, and legal concerns grouped into five categories. Some claims stated by experts in the interview are supported by the survey data, while others are not. In addition, the focus group reveals patterns, correlations, and driving forces between variables that have been analysed. This study will provide decision-makers with a roadmap for resolving important waste management concerns in Nigeria and managing scarce resources effectively. It will also help non-governmental organisations combat malaria in Nigeria and other underdeveloped nations. In addition, the work contributes to the literature for future scholars to consult.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, stakeholders, public, experts

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
385 Service Delivery Disparity Conundrum at Winnie Madikizela Mandela Local Municipality: Exploration of the Enhanced Future

Authors: Mandisi Matyana

Abstract:

Although the South African local government is doing all the best in ensuring improved service delivery for the citizens, service delivery disparity still remains the real challenge for other municipalities. The unequal distribution of services within municipal wards is causing unequal happiness among the citizens; hence others do enjoy different provided municipal services, while others do not. It is acknowledged that less access to municipal services infringes one’s rights, such as the right to human dignity and the right to life. Some of the municipal services are basic services and they are the mainstay of human survival, such as water, housing, etc. It is quite evident that the service delivery disparity could be caused by the various factors within the local municipality affairs, including both administrative and political factors. Therefore, this study is undertaken to check and evaluate the main foundations of service delivery disparity in ensuring equal development of the state, particularly for local communities. The study used the qualitative method to collect the data from the citizens of Winnie Madikizela Mandela Local Municipality. An extensive literature was also conducted in understanding the causes of service delivery disparity. Study findings prove that the service delivery disparity could be caused by factors such as political interference in administration, corruption and fraud, elevated unemployment levels, inadequate institutional capacity, etc. Therefore, the study recommends strong community participation and constant external supervision in the local government so as to encourage openness in local government to ensure fair administration towards services to be provided.

Keywords: administration, development, municipal services, service delivery disparity, Winnie Madikizela Mandela local municipality

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
384 Screening Microalgae Strains Which Were Isolated from Agriculture and Municipal Wastewater Drain, Reno, Nevada and Reuse of Effluent Water from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuel Feedstock

Authors: Nita Rukminasari

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to select microalgae strains, which were isolated from agriculture and municipal wastewater drain, Reno, Nevada that has highest growth rate and lipid contents. The experiments in this study were carried out in two consecutive stages. The first stage is aimed at testing the survival capability of all isolated microalgae strains and determining the best candidates to grow in centrate cultivation system. The second stage was targeted at determination the highest growth rate and highest lipid content of the selected top performing algae strain when cultivated on centrate wastewater. 26 microalgae strains, which were isolated from municipal and agriculture waste water, were analyzed using Flow cytometer for FACS of lipid with BODIPY and Nile Red as a lipid dyes and they grew on 96 wells plate for 31 days to determine growth rate as a based line data for growth rate. The result showed that microalgae strains which showed a high mean of fluorescence for BODIPY and Nile Red were F3.BP.1, F3.LV.1, T1.3.1, and T1.3.3. Five microalgae strains which have high growth rate were T1.3.3, T2.4.1. F3.LV.1, T2.12.1 and T3.3.1. In conclusion, microalgae strain which showed the highest starch content was F3.LV.1. T1.3.1 had the highest mean of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY. Microalgae strains were potential for biofuel feedstock such as F3.LV.1 and T1.3.1, those microalgae strains showed a positive correlation between growth rate at stationary phase, biomass and meant of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY.

Keywords: agriculture and municipal wastewater, biofuel, centrate, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
383 Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children Aged 4-6 Years by Municipal Maternal and Child Health Physicians: An Educational Intervention Study

Authors: M. Van 'T Hof, R. V. Pasma, J. T. Bailly, H. W. Hoek, W. A. Ester

Abstract:

Background: The transition into primary school can be challenging for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Due to the new demands that are made to children in this period, their limitations in social functioning and school achievements may manifest and appear faster. Detection of possible ASD signals mainly takes place by parents, teachers and during obligatory municipal maternal and child health centre visits. Physicians of municipal maternal and child health centres have limited education and instruments to detect ASD. Further education on detecting ASD is needed to optimally equip these doctors for this task. Most research aims to increase the early detection of ASD in children aged 0-3 years and shows positive results. However, there is a lack of research on educational interventions to detect ASD in children aged 4-6 years by municipal maternal and child health physicians. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the online educational intervention: Detection of ASD in children aged 4-6 years for municipal maternal and child health physicians. This educational intervention is developed within The Reach-Aut Academic Centre for Autism; Transitions in education, and will be available throughout The Netherlands. Methods: Ninety-two participants will follow the educational intervention: Detection of ASD in children aged 4-6 years for municipal maternal and child health centre physicians. The educational intervention consists of three, one and a half hour sessions, which are offered through an online interactive classroom. The focus and content of the course has been developed in collaboration with three groups of stakeholders; autism scientists, clinical practitioners (municipal maternal and child health doctors and ASD experts) and parents of children with ASD. The primary outcome measure is knowledge about ASD: signals, early detection, communication with parents and referrals. The secondary outcome measures are the number of ASD related referrals, the attitude towards the mentally ill (CAMI), perceived competency about ASD knowledge and detection skills, and satisfaction about the educational intervention. Results and Conclusion: The study started in January 2016 and data collection will end mid 2017.

Keywords: ASD, child, detection, educational intervention, physicians

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
382 Provision of Basic Water and Sanitation Services in South Africa through the Municipal Infrastructure Grant Programme

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni

Abstract:

Although South Africa has made good progress in providing basic water and sanitation services to its citizens, there is still a large section of the population that has no access to these services. This paper reviews the performance of the government’s municipal infrastructure grant programme in providing basic water and sanitation services which are part of the constitutional requirements to the citizens. The method used to gather data and information was a desk top study which sought to review the progress made in rolling out the programme. The successes and challenges were highlighted and possible solutions were identified that can accelerate the elimination of the remaining backlogs and improve the level of service to the citizens. Currently, approximately 6.5 million citizens are without access to basic water services and approximately 10 million are without access to basic sanitation services.

Keywords: grant, municipal infrastructure, sanitation, services, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 60