Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7854

Search results for: temperature dependent

7854 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan

Abstract:

Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
7853 Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied, though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties, as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling element.

Keywords: finite element, temperature dependency, wave dispersion characteristics, wave finite element, wave scattering properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
7852 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
7851 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
7850 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
7849 Prediction of Welding Induced Distortion in Thin Metal Plates Using Temperature Dependent Material Properties and FEA

Authors: Rehan Waheed, Abdul Shakoor

Abstract:

Distortion produced during welding of thin metal plates is a problem in many industries. The purpose of this research was to study distortion produced during welding in 2mm Mild Steel plate by simulating the welding process using Finite Element Analysis. Simulation of welding process requires a couple field transient analyses. At first a transient thermal analysis is performed and the temperature obtained from thermal analysis is used as input in structural analysis to find distortion. An actual weld sample is prepared and the weld distortion produced is measured. The simulated and actual results were in quite agreement with each other and it has been found that there is profound deflection at center of plate. Temperature dependent material properties play significant role in prediction of weld distortion. The results of this research can be used for prediction and control of weld distortion in large steel structures by changing different weld parameters.

Keywords: welding simulation, FEA, welding distortion, temperature dependent mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
7848 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin

Abstract:

The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
7847 Thermoelastic Analysis of a Tube Subjected to Internal Heating with Temperature Dependent Material Properties

Authors: Yasemin Kaya, Ahmet N. Eraslan

Abstract:

In this study, the thermoelastic behavior of a long tube is studied by taking into account the temperature dependency of all mechanical and thermal properties. As the tube is heated slowly, an uncoupled solution procedure is adopted under free and radially constrained boundary conditions. The nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved by a finite element collocation procedure and the corresponding distributions of stress and strain are computed by shooting iterations. The computational model is verified in comparison to the analytical solution by shutting down the temperature dependency of physical properties. In the analysis, experimental data available in the literature is used to describe the coefficient of thermal expansion $\alpha$, the thermal conductivity $k$, the modulus of rigidity $G$, the yield strength $\sigma_{0}$, and the Poisson's ratio $\nu$ of Nickel. Results of the analysis are presented in comparison to those having constant physical properties. As a result of the calculations, the temperature dependency of the material properties should be taken into account at higher temperature ranges.

Keywords: thermoelasticity, long tube, temperature-dependent properties, internal heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
7846 Models to Calculate Lattice Spacing, Melting Point and Lattice Thermal Expansion of Ga₂Se₃ Nanoparticles

Authors: Mustafa Saeed Omar

Abstract:

The formula which contains the maximum increase of mean bond length, melting entropy and critical particle radius is used to calculate lattice volume in nanoscale size crystals of Ga₂Se₃. This compound belongs to the binary group of III₂VI₃. The critical radius is calculated from the values of the first surface atomic layer height which is equal to 0.336nm. The size-dependent mean bond length is calculated by using an equation-free from fitting parameters. The size-dependent lattice parameter then is accordingly used to calculate the size-dependent lattice volume. The lattice size in the nanoscale region increases to about 77.6 A³, which is up to four times of its bulk state value 19.97 A³. From the values of the nanosize scale dependence of lattice volume, the nanoscale size dependence of melting temperatures is calculated. The melting temperature decreases with the nanoparticles size reduction, it becomes zero when the radius reaches to its critical value. Bulk melting temperature for Ga₂Se₃, for example, has values of 1293 K. From the size-dependent melting temperature and mean bond length, the size-dependent lattice thermal expansion is calculated. Lattice thermal expansion decreases with the decrease of nanoparticles size and reaches to its minimum value as the radius drops down to about 5nm.

Keywords: Ga₂Se₃, lattice volume, lattice thermal expansion, melting point, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7845 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
7844 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandari Shankar, Yohannes Yirga

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement

Keywords: unsteady, heat and mass transfer, manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
7843 Fecundity and Egg Laying in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Model Development and Field Validation

Authors: Muhammad Noor Ul Ane, Dong-Soon Kim, Myron P. Zalucki

Abstract:

Models can be useful to help understand population dynamics of insects under diverse environmental conditions and in developing strategies to manage pest species better. Adult longevity and fecundity of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 37.5ᵒC). The modified Sharpe and DeMichele model described adult aging rate and was used to estimate adult physiological age. Maximum fecundity of H. armigera was 973 egg/female at 25ᵒC decreasing to 72 eggs/female at 37.5ᵒC. The relationship between adult fecundity and temperature was well described by an extreme value function. Age-specific cumulative oviposition rate and age-specific survival rate were well described by a two-parameter Weibull function and sigmoid function, respectively. An oviposition model was developed using three temperature-dependent components: total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate. The oviposition model was validated against independent field data and described the field occurrence pattern of egg population of H. armigera very well. Our model should be a useful component for population modeling of H. armigera and can be independently used for the timing of sprays in management programs of this key pest species.

Keywords: cotton bollworm, life table, temperature-dependent adult development, temperature-dependent fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
7842 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi

Abstract:

Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7841 Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Co/Mo and Co/Mn Catalysts at Low Temperature

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, Jillian M. Thompson, David W. Rooney

Abstract:

Natural gas (the main constituent is Methane 95%) is considered as an alternative to petroleum for the production of synthetics fuels. Nowadays, methane combustion at low temperature has received much attention however; it is the most difficult hydrocarbon to be combusted. Co/Mo and (4:1 wt/wt) catalysts were prepared from a range of different precursors and used for the low temperature total methane oxidation (TMO). The catalysts were characterized by, XRD, BET and H2-TPR and tested under reaction temperatures of 250-400 °C with a GHSV= 36,000 mL g-1 h-1. It was found that the combustion temperature was dependent on the type of the precursor, and that those containing chloride led to catalysts with lower activity. The optimum catalyst was Co/Mo (4:1wt/wt) where greater than 20% methane conversion was observed at 250 °C. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability for TMO, showing no deactivation during 50 hours of time on stream.

Keywords: methane low temperature total oxidation, oxygen carrier, Co/Mo, Co/Mn

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
7840 Temperature-Dependent Structural Characterization of Type-II Dirac Semi-Metal nite₂ From Bulk to Exfoliated Thin Flakes Using Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Minna Theres James, Nirmal K Sebastian, Shoubhik Mandal, Pramita Mishra, R Ganesan, P S Anil Kumar

Abstract:

We report the temperature-dependent evolution of Raman spectra of type-II Dirac semimetal (DSM) NiTe2 (001) in the form of bulk single crystal and a nanoflake (200 nm thick) for the first time. A physical model that can quantitatively explain the evolution of out of plane A1g and in-plane E1g Raman modes is used. The non-linear variation of peak positions of the Raman modes with temperature is explained by anharmonic three-phonon and four-phonon processes along with thermal expansion of the lattice. We also observe prominent effect of electron-phonon coupling from the variation of FWHM of the peaks with temperature, indicating the metallicity of the samples. Raman mode E1 1g corresponding to an in plane vibration disappears on decreasing the thickness from bulk to nanoflake.

Keywords: raman spectroscopy, type 2 dirac semimetal, nickel telluride, phonon-phonon coupling, electron phonon coupling, transition metal dichalcogonide

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
7839 Out-of-Plane Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Circular Curved Beams with Temperature Dependent Material Properties in Thermal Environment

Authors: M. M. Atashi, P. Malekzadeh

Abstract:

A first known formulation for the out-of-plane free vibration analysis of functionally graded (FG) circular curved beams in thermal environment and with temperature dependent material properties is presented. The formulation is based on the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which includes the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia due to both torsional and flexural vibrations. The material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the direction normal to the plane of the beam curvature. The equations of motion and the related boundary conditions, which include the effects of initial thermal stresses, are derived using the Hamilton’s principle. Differential quadrature method (DQM), as an efficient and accurate numerical method, is adopted to solve the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and the equations of motion. The fast rate of convergence of the method is investigated and the formulations are validated by comparing the results in the limit cases with the available solutions in the literature for isotropic circular curved beams. In addition, for FG circular curved beams with soft simply supported edges, the results are compared with the obtained exact solutions. Then, the effects of temperature rise, boundary conditions, material and geometrical parameters on the natural frequencies are investigated.

Keywords: out of plane, free vibration, curved beams, functionally graded, thermal environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
7838 Temperature-Stable High-Speed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with Strong Carrier Confinement

Authors: Yun Sun, Meng Xun, Jingtao Zhou, Ming Li, Qiang Kan, Zhi Jin, Xinyu Liu, Dexin Wu

Abstract:

Higher speed short-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) working at high temperature are required for future optical interconnects. In this work, the high-speed 850 nm VCSELs are designed, fabricated and characterized. The temperature dependent static and dynamic performance of devices are investigated by using current-power-voltage and small signal modulation measurements. Temperature-stable high-speed properties are obtained by employing highly strained multiple quantum wells and short cavity length of half wavelength. The temperature dependent photon lifetimes and carrier radiative times are determined from damping factor and resonance frequency obtained by fitting the intrinsic optical bandwidth with the two-pole transfer function. In addition, an analytical theoretical model including the strain effect is development based on model-solid theory. The calculation results indicate that the better high temperature performance of VCSELs can be attributed to the strong confinement of holes in the quantum wells leading to enhancement of the carrier transit time.

Keywords: vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, high speed modulation, optical interconnects, semiconductor lasers

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7837 Solving the Nonlinear Heat Conduction in a Spherical Coordinate with Electrical Simulation

Authors: A. M. Gheitaghy, H. Saffari, G. Q. Zhang

Abstract:

Numerical approach based on the electrical simulation method is proposed to solve a nonlinear transient heat conduction problem with nonlinear boundary for a spherical body. This problem represents a strong nonlinearity in both the governing equation for temperature dependent thermal property and the boundary condition for combined convective and radiative cooling. By analysing the equivalent electrical model using the electrical circuit simulation program HSPICE, transient temperature and heat flux distributions at sphere can be obtained easily and fast. The solutions clearly illustrate the effect of the radiation-conduction parameter Nrc, the Biot number and the linear coefficient of temperature dependent conductivity and heat capacity. On comparing the results with corresponding numerical solutions, the accuracy and efficiency of this computational method are found to be good.

Keywords: convective and radiative boundary, electrical simulation method, nonlinear heat conduction, spherical coordinate

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
7836 Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Copper-Water Nanofluid with Temperature Dependent Viscosity past a Riga Plate

Authors: Fahad Abbasi

Abstract:

Flow of electrically conducting nanofluids is of pivotal importance in countless industrial and medical appliances. Fluctuations in thermophysical properties of such fluids due to variations in temperature have not received due attention in the available literature. Present investigation aims to fill this void by analyzing the flow of copper-water nanofluid with temperature dependent viscosity past a Riga plate. Strong wall suction and viscous dissipation have also been taken into account. Numerical solutions for the resulting nonlinear system have been obtained. Results are presented in the graphical and tabular format in order to facilitate the physical analysis. An estimated expression for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are obtained by performing linear regression on numerical data for embedded parameters. Results indicate that the temperature dependent viscosity alters the velocity, as well as the temperature of the nanofluid and, is of considerable importance in the processes where high accuracy is desired. Addition of copper nanoparticles makes the momentum boundary layer thinner whereas viscosity parameter does not affect the boundary layer thickness. Moreover, the regression expressions indicate that magnitude of rate of change in effective skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with respect to nanoparticles volume fraction is prominent when compared with the rate of change with variable viscosity parameter and modified Hartmann number.

Keywords: heat transfer, peristaltic flows, radially varying magnetic field, curved channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
7835 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy

Abstract:

Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in a nonhomogenous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of a nonhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: finite element model, nerve lesioning, pain relief, radiofrequency lesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
7834 Evaluating Mechanical Properties of CoNiCrAlY Coating from Miniature Specimen Testing at Elevated Temperature

Authors: W. Wen, G. Jackson, S. Maskill, D. G. McCartney, W. Sun

Abstract:

CoNiCrAlY alloys have been widely used as bond coats for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems because of low cost, improved control of composition, and the feasibility to tailor the coatings microstructures. Coatings are in general very thin structures, and therefore it is impossible to characterize the mechanical responses of the materials via conventional mechanical testing methods. Due to this reason, miniature specimen testing methods, such as the small punch test technique, have been developed. This paper presents some of the recent research in evaluating the mechanical properties of the CoNiCrAlY coatings at room and high temperatures, through the use of small punch testing and the developed miniature specimen tensile testing, applicable to a range of temperature, to investigate the elastic-plastic and creep behavior as well as ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) behavior. An inverse procedure was developed to derive the mechanical properties from such tests for the coating materials. A two-layer specimen test method is also described. The key findings include: 1) the temperature-dependent coating properties can be accurately determined by the miniature tensile testing within a wide range of temperature; 2) consistent DBTTs can be identified by both the SPT and miniature tensile tests (~ 650 °C); and 3) the FE SPT modelling has shown good capability of simulating the early local cracking. In general, the temperature-dependent material behaviors of the CoNiCrAlY coating has been effectively characterized using miniature specimen testing and inverse method.

Keywords: NiCoCrAlY coatings, mechanical properties, DBTT, miniature specimen testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
7833 Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids

Authors: G. N. Sekhar, P. G. Siddheshwar, G. Jayalatha, R. Prakash

Abstract:

The problem of thermal convection in temperature and magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow. Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1 and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the direction of flow.

Keywords: ferroconvection, magnetic field dependent viscosity, temperature dependent viscosity, throughflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7832 A Mathematical Model of Blood Perfusion Dependent Temperature Distribution in Transient Case in Human Dermal Region

Authors: Yogesh Shukla

Abstract:

Many attempts have been made to study temperature distribution problem in human tissues under normal environmental and physiological conditions at constant arterial blood temperature. But very few attempts have been made to investigate temperature distribution in human tissues under different arterial blood temperature. In view of above, a finite element model has been developed to unsteady temperature distribution in dermal region in human body. The model has been developed for one dimension unsteady state case. The variation in parameters like thermal conductivity, blood mass flow and metabolic activity with respect to position and time has been incorporated in the model. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. The central difference approach has been used in space variable and trapezoidal rule has been employed a long time variable. Numerical results have been obtained to study relationship among temperature and time.

Keywords: rate of metabolism, blood mass flow rate, thermal conductivity, heat generation, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7831 Free Convection from a Perforated Spinning Cone with Heat Generation, Temperature-Dependent Viscosity and Partial Slip

Authors: Gilbert Makanda

Abstract:

The problem of free convection from a perforated spinning cone with viscous dissipation, temperature-dependent viscosity, and partial slip was studied. The boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were numerically computed for different values of the spin, viscosity variation, inertia drag force, Eckert, suction/blowing parameters. The partial differential equations were transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations which were solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. This paper considered the effect of partial slip and spin parameters on the swirling velocity profiles which are rarely reported in the literature. The results obtained by this method was compared to those in the literature and found to be in agreement. Increasing the viscosity variation parameter, spin, partial slip, Eckert number, Darcian drag force parameters reduce swirling velocity profiles.

Keywords: free convection, suction/injection, partial slip, viscous dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
7830 Transient Heat Conduction in Nonuniform Hollow Cylinders with Time Dependent Boundary Condition at One Surface

Authors: Sen Yung Lee, Chih Cheng Huang, Te Wen Tu

Abstract:

A solution methodology without using integral transformation is proposed to develop analytical solutions for transient heat conduction in nonuniform hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition at the outer surface. It is shown that if the thermal conductivity and the specific heat of the medium are in arbitrary polynomial function forms, the closed solutions of the system can be developed. The influence of physical properties on the temperature distribution of the system is studied. A numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency and the accuracy of the solution methodology.

Keywords: analytical solution, nonuniform hollow cylinder, time-dependent boundary condition, transient heat conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
7829 Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures

Authors: Samir Al-Zobaidi

Abstract:

This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100°C. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.

Keywords: LDPE/MMt nanocomposites, crystallization, UV irradiation, intercalation

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
7828 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell

Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti

Abstract:

The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
7827 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
7826 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel

Abstract:

The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
7825 pH and Thermo-Sensitive Nanogels for Anti-Cancer Therapy

Authors: V. Naga Sravan Kumar Varma, H. G. Shivakumar

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to develop dual sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNA) nanogels(NGs) and studying its applications for Anti-Cancer therapy. NGs were fabricated by free radical polymerization using different amount of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid. A study for polymer composition over the effect on LCST in different pH was evaluated by measuring the absorbance at 500nm using UV spectrophotometer. Further selected NG’s were evaluated for change in hydrodynamic diameters in response to pH and temperature. NGs which could sharply respond to low pH value of cancer cells at body temperature were loaded with Fluorouracil (5-FU) using equilibrium swelling method and studied for drug release behaviour in different pH. A significant influence of NGs polymer composition over pH dependent LCST was observed. NGs which were spherical with an average particle size of 268nm at room temperature, shrinked forming an irregular shape when heated above to their respective LCST. 5FU loaded NGs did not intervene any difference in pH depended LCST behaviour of NGs. The in vitro drug release of NGs exhibited a pH and thermo-dependent control release. The cytoxicity study of blank carrier to MCF7 cell line showed no cytotoxicity. The results indicated that PNA NGs could be used as a potential drug carrier for anti-cancer therapy.

Keywords: pH and thermo-sensitive, nanogels, P(NIPAM-co-AAc), anti-cancer, 5-FU

Procedia PDF Downloads 292