Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: D. Chronopoulos

7 Structural Identification for Layered Composite Structures through a Wave and Finite Element Methodology

Authors: Rilwan Kayode Apalowo, Dimitrios Chronopoulos


An approach for identifying the geometric and material characteristics of layered composite structures through an inverse wave and finite element methodology is proposed. These characteristics are obtained through multi-frequency single shot measurements. However, it is established that the frequency regime of the measurements does not matter, meaning that both ultrasonic and structural dynamics frequency spectra can be employed. Taking advantage of a full FE (finite elements) description of the periodic composite, the scheme is able to account for arbitrarily complex structures. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the presented scheme, it is applied to a sandwich composite panel and results are compared with that of experimental characterization techniques. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: structural identification, non-destructive evaluation, finite elements, wave propagation, layered structures, ultrasound

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6 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos


A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: layered structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element

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5 Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurized Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry


A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the dispersion properties as well as the wave interaction coefficients for one-dimensional structural system can be predicted. The structural system is discretized as a system comprising a number of waveguides connected by a coupling joint. Uniform nodes are ensured at the interfaces of the coupling element with each waveguide. Then, equilibrium and continuity conditions are enforced at the interfaces. Wave propagation properties of each waveguide are calculated using the WFE method and the coupling element is modelled using the FE method. The scattering of waves through the coupling element, on which damage is modelled, is determined by coupling the FE and WFE models. Furthermore, the central aim is to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the wave dispersion and scattering characteristics of the prestressed structural system compared to that which is not prestressed. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling joint.

Keywords: Finite Element, Prestressed Structures, Wave Finite Element, Wave Propagation Properties, Wave Scattering Coefficients.

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4 Effects of Pipe Curvature and Internal Pressure on Stiffness and Buckling Phenomenon of Circular Thin-Walled Pipes

Authors: V. Polenta, S. D. Garvey, D. Chronopoulos, A. C. Long, H. P. Morvan


A parametric study on circular thin-walled pipes subjected to pure bending is performed. Both straight and curved pipes are considered. Ratio D/t, initial pipe curvature and internal pressure are the parameters varying in the analyses. The study is mainly FEA-based. It is found that negative curvatures (opposite to bending moment) considerably increase stiffness and buckling limit of the pipe when no internal pressure is acting and, similarly, positive curvatures decrease the stiffness and buckling limit. For internal pressurised pipes the effects of initial pipe curvature are less relevant. Results show that this phenomenon is in relationship with the cross-section deformation due to bending moment, which undergoes relevant ovalisation for no pressurised pipes and little ovalisation for pressurised pipes.

Keywords: buckling, curved pipes, internal pressure, ovalisation, pure bending, thin-walled pipes

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3 Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry


There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied, though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties, as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling element.

Keywords: finite element, temperature dependency, wave dispersion characteristics, wave finite element, wave scattering properties

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2 Drastic Increase of Wave Dissipation within Metastructures Having Negative Stiffness Inclusions

Authors: D. Chronopoulos, I. Antoniadis, V. Spitas, D. Koulocheris, V. Polenta


A concept of a simple linear oscillator, incorporating a negative stiffness element is demonstrated to exhibit extraordinary damping properties. This oscillator shares the same overall (static) stiffness, the same mass and the same damping element with a reference classical linear SDOF oscillator. However, it differs from the original SDOF oscillator by appropriately redistributing the component spring stiffness elements and by re-allocating the damping element. Despite the fact that the proposed oscillator incorporates a negative stiffness element, it is designed to be both statically and dynamically stable. Once such an oscillator is optimally designed, it is shown to exhibit an extraordinary apparent damping ratio, which is even several orders of magnitude higher than that of the original SDOF system, especially in cases where the original damping of the SDOF system is low. This damping behavior is not a result of a novel additional extraordinary energy dissipation mechanism, but a result of the phase difference between the positive and the negative stiffness elastic forces, which is in turn a consequence of the proper re-distribution of the stiffness and the damper elements. This fact ensures that an adequate level of elastic forces exists throughout the entire frequency range, able to counteract the inertial and the excitation forces. Next, Acoustic or Phononic Meta-materials are considered, in which one atom is replaced by the concept of the above simple linear oscillator. The results indicate that not only the damping of the meta-material verifies and exceeds the one expected from the so-called "meta-damping" behavior, but also that the band gap of the meta-material can be significantly increased.

Keywords: wave propagation, periodic structures, wave damping, mechanical engineering

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1 Structural Monitoring of Externally Confined RC Columns with Inadequate Lap-Splices, Using Fibre-Bragg-Grating Sensors

Authors: Petros M. Chronopoulos, Evangelos Z. Astreinidis


A major issue of the structural assessment and rehabilitation of existing RC structures is the inadequate lap-splicing of the longitudinal reinforcement. Although prohibited by modern Design Codes, the practice of arranging lap-splices inside the critical regions of RC elements was commonly applied in the past. Today this practice is still the rule, at least for conventional new buildings. Therefore, a lot of relevant research is ongoing in many earthquake prone countries. The rehabilitation of deficient lap-splices of RC elements by means of external confinement is widely accepted as the most efficient technique. If correctly applied, this versatile technique offers a limited increase of flexural capacity and a considerable increase of local ductility and of axial and shear capacities. Moreover, this intervention does not affect the stiffness of the elements and does not affect the dynamic characteristics of the structure. This technique has been extensively discussed and researched contributing to vast accumulation of technical and scientific knowledge that has been reported in relevant books, reports and papers, and included in recent Design Codes and Guides. These references are mostly dealing with modeling and redesign, covering both the enhanced (axial and) shear capacity (due to the additional external closed hoops or jackets) and the increased ductility (due to the confining action, preventing the unzipping of lap-splices and the buckling of continuous reinforcement). An analytical and experimental program devoted to RC members with lap-splices is completed in the Lab. of RC/NTU of Athens/GR. This program aims at the proposal of a rational and safe theoretical model and the calibration of the relevant Design Codes’ provisions. Tests, on forty two (42) full scale specimens, covering mostly beams and columns (not walls), strengthened or not, with adequate or inadequate lap-splices, have been already performed and evaluated. In this paper, the results of twelve (12) specimens under fully reversed cyclic actions are presented and discussed. In eight (8) specimens the lap-splices were inadequate (splicing length of 20 or 30 bar diameters) and they were retrofitted before testing by means of additional external confinement. The two (2) most commonly applied confining materials were used in this study, namely steel and FRPs. More specifically, jackets made of CFRP wraps or light cages made of mild steel were applied. The main parameters of these tests were (i) the degree of confinement (internal and external), and (ii) the length of lap-splices, equal to 20, 30 or 45 bar diameters. These tests were thoroughly instrumented and monitored, by means of conventional (LVDTs, strain gages, etc.) and innovative (optic fibre-Bragg-grating) sensors. This allowed for a thorough investigation of the most influencing design parameter, namely the hoop-stress developed in the confining material. Based on these test results and on comparisons with the provisions of modern Design Codes, it could be argued that shorter (than the normative) lap-splices, commonly found in old structures, could still be effective and safe (at least for lengths more than an absolute minimum), depending on the required ductility, if a properly arranged and adequately detailed external confinement is applied.

Keywords: concrete, fibre-Bragg-grating sensors, lap-splices, retrofitting / rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 173