Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1447

Search results for: optical interconnects

1447 Performance Analysis of Carbon Nanotube for VLSI Interconnects and Their Comparison with Copper Interconnects

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Prashant Gupta


This paper investigates the performance of the bundle of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for low-power and high-speed interconnects for future VLSI applications. The power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP) of SWCNT bundle interconnects are examined and compared with that of the Cu interconnects at 22 nm technology node for both intermediate and global interconnects. The results show that SWCNT bundle consume less power and also faster than Cu for intermediate and global interconnects. It is concluded that the metallic SWCNT has been regarded as a viable candidate for intermediate and global interconnects in future technologies.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, SWCNT, low power, delay, power delay product, global and intermediate interconnects

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1446 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar


Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation

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1445 Temperature-Stable High-Speed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with Strong Carrier Confinement

Authors: Yun Sun, Meng Xun, Jingtao Zhou, Ming Li, Qiang Kan, Zhi Jin, Xinyu Liu, Dexin Wu


Higher speed short-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) working at high temperature are required for future optical interconnects. In this work, the high-speed 850 nm VCSELs are designed, fabricated and characterized. The temperature dependent static and dynamic performance of devices are investigated by using current-power-voltage and small signal modulation measurements. Temperature-stable high-speed properties are obtained by employing highly strained multiple quantum wells and short cavity length of half wavelength. The temperature dependent photon lifetimes and carrier radiative times are determined from damping factor and resonance frequency obtained by fitting the intrinsic optical bandwidth with the two-pole transfer function. In addition, an analytical theoretical model including the strain effect is development based on model-solid theory. The calculation results indicate that the better high temperature performance of VCSELs can be attributed to the strong confinement of holes in the quantum wells leading to enhancement of the carrier transit time.

Keywords: vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, high speed modulation, optical interconnects, semiconductor lasers

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1444 Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Yang Xu, Bin Yu


The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h- BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h- BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

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1443 Horizontal-Vertical and Enhanced-Unicast Interconnect Testing Techniques for Network-on-Chip

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry, Razali Ismail, F. Fotovati


One of the most important and challenging tasks in testing network-on-chip based system-on-chips (NoC based SoCs) is to verify the communication entity. It is important because of its usage for transferring both data packets and test patterns for intellectual properties (IPs) during normal and test mode. Hence, ensuring of NoC reliability is required for reliable IPs functionality and testing. On the other hand, it is challenging due to the required time to test it and the way of transferring test patterns from the tester to the NoC components. In this paper, two testing techniques for mesh-based NoC interconnections are proposed. The first one is based on one-by-one testing and the second one divides NoC interconnects into three parts, horizontal links of switches in even columns, horizontal links of switches in odd columns and all vertical. A design for testability (DFT) architecture is represented to send test patterns directly to each switch under test and also support the proposed testing techniques by providing a loopback path in each switch. The simulation results shows the second proposed testing mechanism outperforms in terms of test time because this method test all the interconnects in only three phases, independent to the number of existed interconnects in the network, while test time of other methods are highly dependent to the number of switches and interconnects in the NoC.

Keywords: on chip, interconnection testing, horizontal-vertical testing, enhanced unicast

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1442 Two-Dimensional Nanostack Based On Chip Wiring

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Bin Yu


The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1441 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi


Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: all-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk

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1440 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga


In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

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1439 Enhanced Constraint-Based Optical Network (ECON) for Enhancing OSNR

Authors: G. R. Kavitha, T. S. Indumathi


With the constantly rising demands of the multimedia services, the requirements of long haul transport network are constantly changing in the area of optical network. Maximum data transmission using optimization of the communication channel poses the biggest challenge. Although there has been a constant focus on this area from the past decade, there was no evidence of a significant result that has been accomplished. Hence, after reviewing some potential design of optical network from literatures, it was understood that optical signal to noise ratio was one of the elementary attributes that can define the performance of the optical network. In this paper, we propose a framework termed as ECON (Enhanced Constraint-based Optical Network) that primarily optimize the optical signal to noise ratio using ROADM. The simulation is performed in Matlab and optical signal to noise ratio is extracted considering the system matrix. The outcome of the proposed study shows that optimized OSNR as compared to the existing studies.

Keywords: component, optical network, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer, optical signal-to-noise ratio

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1438 Fabrication of Optical Tissue Phantoms Simulating Human Skin and Their Application

Authors: Jihoon Park, Sungkon Yu, Byungjo Jung


Although various optical tissue phantoms (OTPs) simulating human skin have been actively studied, their completeness is unclear because skin tissue has the intricate optical property and complicated structure disturbing the optical simulation. In this study, we designed multilayer OTP mimicking skin structure, and fabricated OTP models simulating skin-blood vessel and skin pigmentation in the skin, which are useful in Biomedical optics filed. The OTPs were characterized with the optical property and the cross-sectional structure, and analyzed by using various optical tools such as a laser speckle imaging system, OCT and a digital microscope to show the practicality. The measured optical property was within 5% error, and the thickness of each layer was uniform within 10% error in micrometer scale.

Keywords: blood vessel, optical tissue phantom, optical property, skin tissue, pigmentation

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1437 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini


In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: all-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator

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1436 Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models

Authors: Mudavath Raju, Bhaskar Gugulothu, B. Rajendra Naik


The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.

Keywords: VLSI, interconnects, signal integrity, crosstalk, shield insertion, guard trace, deep sub micron

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1435 Characterization of Optical Communication Channels as Non-Deterministic Model

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford


Increasingly telecommunications sectors are adopting optical technologies, due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects, telecommunication

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1434 Study of the Optical Illusion Effects of Color Contrasts on Body Image Perception

Authors: A. Hadj Taieb, H. Ennouri


The current study aimed to investigate the effect that optical illusion garments have on a woman’s self-perception of her own body shape. First, we created different optical illusion garment by using color contrasts. Second, a short survey based on visual perception is addressed to women in order to compare the different optical illusion garments to determine if they met the established 'ideal' body shape. A ‘visual analysis method’ was used to investigate the clothing models with optical illusions. The theories in relation with the optical illusion were used through this method. The effects of the optical illusion of color contrast on body shape in the fashion sector were tried to be revealed.

Keywords: optical illusion, color contrasts, body image perception, self-esteem

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1433 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta


All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: all optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modultation

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1432 Optical Whitening of Textiles: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan


This study examines the results of optical whitening process of different textiles such as cotton, wool and polyester. The optical whitening agents used are commercially available products, and the optical whitening agents were applied to the textiles with manufacturers’ suggested methods. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application methods of optical whitening agent to different textiles and hence to provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, optical whitening agent, wool, cotton, polyester

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1431 Magnetic and Optical Properties of Quaternary GaFeMnN

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, A. Abbad, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: optical properties, DFT, Spintronic, wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
1430 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai


Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication

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1429 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar


Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

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1428 Theoretical Investigations on Optical Properties of GaFeMnN Quaternary Compound

Authors: H. A. Bentounes, A. Abbad, W. Benstaali


Using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory and local spin density approximation, we investigate optical properties of GaFeMnN quaternary compound. Results show that optical properties confirm that GaFeMnN can be a good candidate in the design of thin film solar cells in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum, and a good sensor in the infrared

Keywords: GaN, optical absorption, semi-metallic, dielectric function

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1427 Connected Objects with Optical Rectenna for Wireless Information Systems

Authors: Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli


Harvesting and transport of optical and radiofrequency signals are a topical subject with multiple challenges. In this paper, we present a Optical RECTENNA system. We propose here a hybrid system solar cell antenna for 5G mobile communications networks. Thus, we propose rectifying circuit. A parametric study is done to follow the influence of load resistance and input power on Optical RECTENNA system performance. Thus, we propose a solar cell antenna structure in the frequency band of future 5G standard in 2.45 GHz bands.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, optical rectenna, solar cell

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1426 Observation of Inverse Blech Length Effect during Electromigration of Cu Thin Film

Authors: Nalla Somaiah, Praveen Kumar


Scaling of transistors and, hence, interconnects is very important for the enhanced performance of microelectronic devices. Scaling of devices creates significant complexity, especially in the multilevel interconnect architectures, wherein current crowding occurs at the corners of interconnects. Such a current crowding creates hot-spots at the respective corners, resulting in non-uniform temperature distribution in the interconnect as well. This non-uniform temperature distribution, which is exuberated with continued scaling of devices, creates a temperature gradient in the interconnect. In particular, the increased current density at corners and the associated temperature rise due to Joule heating accelerate the electromigration induced failures in interconnects, especially at corners. This has been the classic reliability issue associated with metallic interconnects. Herein, it is generally understood that electromigration induced damages can be avoided if the length of interconnect is smaller than a critical length, often termed as Blech length. Interestingly, the effect of non-negligible temperature gradients generated at these corners in terms of thermomigration and electromigration-thermomigration coupling has not attracted enough attention. Accordingly, in this work, the interplay between the electromigration and temperature gradient induced mass transport was studied using standard Blech structure. In this particular sample structure, the majority of the current is forcefully directed into the low resistivity metallic film from a high resistivity underlayer film, resulting in current crowding at the edges of the metallic film. In this study, 150 nm thick Cu metallic film was deposited on 30 nm thick W underlayer film in the configuration of Blech structure. Series of Cu thin strips, with lengths of 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μm, were fabricated. Current density of ≈ 4 × 1010 A/m² was passed through Cu and W films at a temperature of 250ºC. Herein, along with expected forward migration of Cu atoms from the cathode to the anode at the cathode end of the Cu film, backward migration from the anode towards the center of Cu film was also observed. Interestingly, smaller length samples consistently showed enhanced migration at the cathode end, thus indicating the existence of inverse Blech length effect in presence of temperature gradient. A finite element based model showing the interplay between electromigration and thermomigration driving forces has been developed to explain this observation.

Keywords: Blech structure, electromigration, temperature gradient, thin films

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1425 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan


The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM

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1424 The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Optical Properties of (PVP-PEG) Blend

Authors: Hussein Hakim, Zainab Al-Ramadhan, Ahmed Hashim


Polymer nano composites of polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly-ethylene glycol with different concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano particles have been prepared by solution cast method. The optical characterizations have been done by analyzing the absorption (A) spectra in the 300–800 nm spectral region. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with the increasing of Al2O3 nano particles content. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) are changing with increasing aluminum oxide nano particle concentrations.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polyvinylpyrrolidone, optical constants, polymers, blend

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1423 Semiconductor Device of Tapered Waveguide for Broadband Optical Communications

Authors: Keita Iwai, Isao Tomita


To expand the optical spectrum for use in broadband optical communications, we study the properties of a semiconductor waveguide device with a tapered structure including its third-order optical nonlinearity. Spectral-broadened output by the tapered structure has the potential to create a compact, built-in device for optical communications. Here we deal with a compound semiconductor waveguide, the material of which is the same as that of laser diodes used in the communication systems, i.e., InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, which has large optical nonlinearity. We confirm that our structure widens the output spectrum sufficiently by controlling its taper form factor while utilizing the large nonlinear refraction of InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ. We also examine the taper effect for nonlinear optical loss.

Keywords: InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, waveguide, nonlinear refraction, spectral spreading, taper device

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1422 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi


The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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1421 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based on Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani


We introduced an all-optical multi-casting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier

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1420 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma


The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

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1419 Magnetic and Optical Properties of GaFeMnN

Authors: A.Abbad, H.A.Bentounes, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, LSDA, magnetic moment, reflectivity

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1418 Study on Angle Measurement Interferometer around Any Axis Direction Selected by Transmissive Liquid Crystal Device

Authors: R. Furutani, G. Kikuchi


Generally, the optical interferometer system is too complicated and difficult to change the measurement items, pitch, yaw, and row, etc. In this article, the optical interferometer system using the transmissive Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) as the switch of the optical path was proposed. At first, the normal optical interferometer, Michelson interferometer, was constructed to measure the pitch angle and the yaw angle. In this optical interferometer, the ball lenses with the refractive indices of 2.0 were used as the retroreflectors. After that, the transmissive LCD was introduced as the switch to select the adequate optical path. In this article, these optical systems were constructed. Pitch measurement interferometer and yaw measurement interferometer were switched by the transmissive LCD. When the LCD was open for the yaw measurement, the yaw was sufficiently measured and optical path for the pitch measurement was blocked. On the other hand, when the LCD was open for the pitch measurement, the pitch was measured and the optical path for the yaw measurement was also blocked. In this article, the results of both of pitch measurement and yaw measurement were shown, and the result of blocked yaw measurement and pitch measurement were shown. As this measurement system was based on Michelson interferometer, the other measuring items, the deviation along the optical axis, the vertical deviation to the optical axis and row angle, could be measured by the additional ball lenses and the additional switching in future work.

Keywords: any direction angle, ball lens, laser interferometer, transmissive liquid crystal device

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