Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Sinead Brophy

8 Use of Telehealth for Facilitating the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

Authors: Manahil Alfuraydan, Jodie Croxall, Lisa Hurt, Mike Kerr, Sinead Brophy

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition characterised by impairment in terms of social communication, social interaction, and a repetitive or restricted pattern of interest, behaviour, and activity. There is a significant delay between seeking help and a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. This may result in delay in receiving early intervention services, which are critical for positive outcomes. The long wait times also cause stress for the individuals and their families. Telehealth potentially offers a way of improving the diagnostic pathway for ASD. This review of the literature aims to examine which telehealth approaches have been used in the diagnosis and assessment of autism in children and adults, whether they are feasible and acceptable, and how they compare with face-to-face diagnosis and assessment methods. A comprehensive search of following databases- MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, Business Sources Complete, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and trail and systematic review databases including Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness and NHS Economic Evaluation was conducted, combining the terms of autism and telehealth from 2000 to 2018. A total of 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. This review of the literature found there to be two methods of using telehealth: (a) video conferencing to enable teams in different areas to consult with the families and to assess the child/adult in real time and (b) a video upload to a web portal that enables the clinical assessment of behaviours in the family home. The findings were positive, finding there to be high agreement in terms of the diagnosis between remote methods and face to face methods and with high levels of satisfaction among the families and clinicians. This field is in the very early stages, and so only studies with small sample size were identified, but the findings suggest that there is potential for telehealth methods to improve assessment and diagnosis of autism used in conjunction with existing methods, especially for those with clear autism traits and adults with autism. Larger randomised controlled trials of this technology are warranted.

Keywords: assessment, autism spectrum disorder, diagnosis, telehealth

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7 Eliciting and Confirming Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom in a Specialist Health Care Setting - The Wicked Method

Authors: Sinead Impey, Damon Berry, Selma Furtado, Miriam Galvin, Loretto Grogan, Orla Hardiman, Lucy Hederman, Mark Heverin, Vincent Wade, Linda Douris, Declan O'Sullivan, Gaye Stephens

Abstract:

Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment. This knowledge, while valuable, is not always accessible outside the borders of individual clinics. This research aims to address part of this problem (at a study site) by constructing a maximal data set (knowledge artefact) for motor neurone disease (MND). This data set is proposed as an initial knowledge base for a concurrent project to develop an MND patient data platform. It represents the domain knowledge at the study site for the duration of the research (12 months). A knowledge elicitation method was also developed from the lessons learned during this process - the WICKED method. WICKED is an anagram of the words: eliciting and confirming data, information, knowledge, wisdom. But it is also a reference to the concept of wicked problems, which are complex and challenging, as is eliciting expert knowledge. The method was evaluated at a second site, and benefits and limitations were noted. Benefits include that the method provided a systematic way to manage data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW) from various sources, including healthcare specialists and existing data sets. Limitations surrounded the time required and how the data set produced only represents DIKW known during the research period. Future work is underway to address these limitations.

Keywords: healthcare, knowledge acquisition, maximal data sets, action design science

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6 The Efficacy of Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint for Treating DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis: A feasible Study

Authors: Alduqsi Badr, Sheil Agnes, Haynes Sinead

Abstract:

The aim of this feasibility study is to determine the prospect of conducting a randomised controlled trial to study the efficacy of Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint for treating DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis. This study's objectives are to investigate the recruitment procedures and process, the implementation of interventions and treatment protocols and the applicability and appropriateness of outcome measures. Nine subjects, aged between 18 to 65 years old and who have a positive Finkelstien's test, were divided into two groups, Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint. The subjects participated in six weeks intervention. Due to the small sample size of subjects, descriptive analysis was employed using Excel (version 2009). The results were reported by comparing individuals’ scores and graphs based on the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) scores. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI), Pinch and Hand Strength, Numerical Rating Scale for Pain (NRSP), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were used to measure upper extremity functional status, pain, pinch and grip strength and performance and satisfaction in the most five important activities from the client’s perspective, respectively, before and after the intervention. The findings of this feasibility study indicated that there were components that need to be modified to conduct a successful main trial. In addition, the results of this feasibility study indicated that the Kinesio group demonstrated better functional status (DASH and ULFI), grip strength, pinch strength and less pain intensity (NRSP) in comparison to the Splint group. Further, both groups showed similar improvement in activities performance and satisfaction and pain severity and its interference with activities. In conclusion, this feasibility study suggested that Kinesio taping can be a feasible treatment approach in the treatment of DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis.

Keywords: DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis, DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, kinesio taping, thumb spica splint

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5 Translation And Cultural Adaptation Of The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test–3rd Edition Into the Arabic Language

Authors: Mai Alharthy, Agnes Shiel, Hynes Sinead

Abstract:

Objectives: The objectives of the study are to translate and culturally adapt the RBMT-3 to be appropriate for use within an Arabic-speaking population and to achieve maximum equivalency between the translated and original versions and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the RBMT-3. Participants' numbers are 16 (10 females and 6 males). All participants are bilingual speakers of Arabic and English, above 18 years old and with no current nor past memory impairment. Methods: The study was conducted in two stages: Translation and cultural adaptation stage: Forward and backward translations were completed by professional translators. Five out of the 14 RBMT-3 subtests required cultural adaptations. Half of the faces in the face recognition subtests were replaced with Arabic faces by a professional photographer. Pictures that are irrelevant to the Arabic culture in the picture recognition subtests were replaced. Names, story and orientations subtests were also adapted to suit the Arabic culture. An expert committee was formed to compare the translated and original versions and to advise on further changes required for test materials. Validation of the Arabic RBMT-3- pilot: 16 Participants were tested on version 1 of the English version and the two versions of the Arabic RBMT-3 ( counterbalanced ). The assessment period was 6 weeks long, with two weeks gap between tests. All assessments took place in a quiet room in the National University of Ireland Galway. Two qualified occupational therapists completed the assessments. Results: Wilcox signed-rank test was used to compare between subtest scores. Significant differences were found in the story, orientation and names subtests between the English and Arabic versions. No significant differences were found in subtests from both Arabic versions except for the story subtest. Conclusion: The story and orientation subtests should be revised by the expert committee members to make further adaptations. The rest of the Arabic RBMT-3 subtests are equivalent to the subtests of the English version. The psychometric properties of the Arabic RBMT-3 will be investigated in a larger Arabic-speaking sample in Saudi Arabia. The outcome of this research is to provide clinicians and researchers with a reliable tool to assess memory problems in Arabic speaking population.

Keywords: memory impairment, neuropsychological assessment, cultural adaptation, cognitive assessment

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4 Exploring the Motivations That Drive Paper Use in Clinical Practice Post-Electronic Health Record Adoption: A Nursing Perspective

Authors: Sinead Impey, Gaye Stephens, Lucy Hederman, Declan O'Sullivan

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Continued paper use in the clinical area post-Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption is regularly linked to hardware and software usability challenges. Although paper is used as a workaround to circumvent challenges, including limited availability of a computer, this perspective does not consider the important role paper, such as the nurses’ handover sheet, play in practice. The purpose of this study is to confirm the hypothesis that paper use post-EHR adoption continues as paper provides both a cognitive tool (that assists with workflow) and a compensation tool (to circumvent usability challenges). Distinguishing the different motivations for continued paper-use could assist future evaluations of electronic record systems. Methods: Qualitative data were collected from three clinical care environments (ICU, general ward and specialist day-care) who used an electronic record for at least 12 months. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 nurses. Data were transcribed, themes extracted using an inductive bottom-up coding approach and a thematic index constructed. Findings: All nurses interviewed continued to use paper post-EHR adoption. While two distinct motivations for paper use post-EHR adoption were confirmed by the data - paper as a cognitive tool and paper as a compensation tool - further finding was that there was an overlap between the two uses. That is, paper used as a compensation tool could also be adapted to function as a cognitive aid due to its nature (easy to access and annotate) or vice versa. Rather than present paper persistence as having two distinctive motivations, it is more useful to describe it as presenting on a continuum with compensation tool and cognitive tool at either pole. Paper as a cognitive tool referred to pages such as nurses’ handover sheet. These did not form part of the patient’s record, although information could be transcribed from one to the other. Findings suggest that although the patient record was digitised, handover sheets did not fall within this remit. These personal pages continued to be useful post-EHR adoption for capturing personal notes or patient information and so continued to be incorporated into the nurses’ work. Comparatively, the paper used as a compensation tool, such as pre-printed care plans which were stored in the patient's record, appears to have been instigated in reaction to usability challenges. In these instances, it is expected that paper use could reduce or cease when the underlying problem is addressed. There is a danger that as paper affords nurses a temporary information platform that is mobile, easy to access and annotate, its use could become embedded in clinical practice. Conclusion: Paper presents a utility to nursing, either as a cognitive or compensation tool or combination of both. By fully understanding its utility and nuances, organisations can avoid evaluating all incidences of paper use (post-EHR adoption) as arising from usability challenges. Instead, suitable remedies for paper-persistence can be targeted at the root cause.

Keywords: cognitive tool, compensation tool, electronic record, handover sheet, nurse, paper persistence

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3 Cognitive Deficits and Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Authors: Sinead Morrison, Ann Swillen, Therese Van Amelsvoort, Samuel Chawner, Elfi Vergaelen, Michael Owen, Marianne Van Den Bree

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22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the deletion of approximately 60 genes on chromosome 22 and is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The presentation of these disorders in 22q11.2DS is reported to be comparable to idiopathic forms and therefore presents a valuable model for understanding mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Cognitive deficits are thought to be a core feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, and possibly manifest in behavioural and emotional problems. There have been mixed findings in 22q11.2DS on whether the presence of ADHD or ASD is associated with greater cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the influence of developmental stage has never been taken into account. The aim was therefore to examine whether the presence of ADHD or ASD was associated with cognitive deficits in childhood and/or adolescence in 22q11.2DS. We conducted the largest study to date of this kind in 22q11.2DS. The same battery of tasks measuring processing speed, attention and spatial working memory were completed by 135 participants with 22q11.2DS. Wechsler IQ tests were completed, yielding Full Scale (FSIQ), Verbal (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ). Age-standardised difference scores were produced for each participant. Developmental stages were defined as children (6-10 years) and adolescents (10-18 years). ADHD diagnosis was ascertained from a semi-structured interview with a parent. ASD status was ascertained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. Interaction and main effects of cognitive performance of those with or without a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD in childhood or adolescence were conducted with 2x2 ANOVA. Significant interactions were followed up with t-tests of simple effects. Adolescents with ASD displayed greater deficits in all measures (processing speed, p = 0.022; sustained attention, p = 0.016; working memory, p = 0.006) than adolescents without ASD; there was no difference between children with and without ASD. There were no significant differences on IQ measures. Both children and adolescents with ADHD displayed greater deficits on sustained attention (p = 0.002) than those without ADHD. There were no significant differences on any other measures for ADHD. Magnitude of cognitive deficit in individuals with 22q11.2DS varied by cognitive domain, developmental stage and presence of neurodevelopmental disorder. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS and ASD showed greater deficits on all measures, which suggests there may be a sensitive period in childhood to acquire these domains, or reflect increasing social and academic demands in adolescence. The finding of poorer sustained attention in children and adolescents with ADHD supports previous research and suggests a specific deficit which can be separated from processing speed and working memory. This research provides unique insights into the association of ASD and ADHD with cognitive deficits in a group at high genomic risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Keywords: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cognitive development

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2 The ‘Fun, Move, Play’ Project: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings from Irish Primary School Children (6-8 Years), Parents and Teachers

Authors: Jemma McGourty, Brid Delahunt, Fiona Hackett, Sharon Courtney, Richard English, Graham Russell, Sinéad O’Connor

Abstract:

Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) mastery is considered essential for children’s ongoing, meaningful engagement in Physical Activity (PA). There has been a dearth of Irish research on baseline FMS and their development by means of intervention in young primary school children. In addition, as children’s participation in PA is heavily influenced by both parents and teachers, it is imperative to understand their attitudes and perceptions towards PA participation and its’ promotion in children. The ‘Fun, Move, Play’ Project investigated the effect of a 6-week play based PA intervention on primary school children’s (aged 6-8 years) FMS while also exploring the attitudes and perceptions of their parents and teachers towards PA participation. The FMS intervention utilised a pre-post quasi-experimental design to determine the effect of a 6-week play based PA intervention (devised from the iCoach Kids Programme) on 176 primary school children’s FMS (N = 176: 90 girls and 86 boys; M = 7.2 years; SD = 0.48). Objective measures of 7 FMS (run, skip, vertical jump, static balance, stationary dribble, catch, kick) were made using a combination of the TGMD2 and Get Skilled, Get Active resources. One hundred parents (87 mothers; 13 fathers; M=36 years; SD=5.45) and 90 teachers (67 females; 23 males) completed surveys investigating their attitudes and perceptions towards PA participation. In addition, 19 of these parents and 9 of these teachers participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore, in more depth, their views and perceptions of PA participation. Both the FMS data set and survey responses were analysed using SPSS version 23, using appropriate statistical analysis. A thematic analysis framework was used to analyse the qualitative findings. A significant improvement was observed in the children’s overall FMS score pre-post intervention (t = 16.67; df = 175; p < 0.001), while there were also significant improvements in each of the seven individual FMS measured in the children, pre-post intervention. Findings from the parent surveys and interviews indicated that parents had positive attitudes towards PA, viewed it as important and supported their child’s PA participation. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the amount and intensity of PA that children should participate in emerged as a recurrent finding. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between the PA levels of parents’ and their children (r = .41; n = 100; p < .001). Arising from the teachers’ surveys and interviews was a positive attitude towards PA and the impact that it has on a child’s health and well-being. They also reported feeling more confident teaching certain aspects of the PE curriculum (games and sports) compared to others (gymnastics, dance), where they appreciate working with specialist practitioners. Conclusion: A short-term PA intervention has a positive effect on children’s FMS. While parents are supportive of their child’s PA participation, there is a knowledge gap regarding National PA guidelines for children. Teachers appreciate the importance of PA in children, but face a number of challenges in its implementation and promotion.

Keywords: fundamental movement skills, parents attitudes to physical activity, short-term intervention, teachers attitudes to physical activity

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1 Capturing Healthcare Expert’s Knowledge Digitally: A Scoping Review of Current Approaches

Authors: Sinead Impey, Gaye Stephens, Declan O’Sullivan

Abstract:

Mitigating organisational knowledge loss presents challenges for knowledge managers. Expert knowledge is embodied in people and captured in ‘routines, processes, practices and norms’ as well as in the paper system. These knowledge stores have limitations in so far as they make knowledge diffusion beyond geography or over time difficult. However, technology could present a potential solution by facilitating the capture and management of expert knowledge in a codified and sharable format. Before it can be digitised, however, the knowledge of healthcare experts must be captured. Methods: As a first step in a larger project on this topic, a scoping review was conducted to identify how expert healthcare knowledge is captured digitally. The aim of the review was to identify current healthcare knowledge capture practices, identify gaps in the literature, and justify future research. The review followed a scoping review framework. From an initial 3,430 papers retrieved, 22 were deemed relevant and included in the review. Findings: Two broad approaches –direct and indirect- with themes and subthemes emerged. ‘Direct’ describes a process whereby knowledge is taken directly from subject experts. The themes identified were: ‘Researcher mediated capture’ and ‘Digital mediated capture’. The latter was further distilled into two sub-themes: ‘Captured in specified purpose platforms (SPP)’ and ‘Captured in a virtual community of practice (vCoP)’. ‘Indirect’ processes rely on extracting new knowledge using artificial intelligence techniques from previously captured data. Using this approach, the theme ‘Generated using artificial intelligence methods’ was identified. Although presented as distinct themes, some papers retrieved discuss combining more than one approach to capture knowledge. While no approach emerged as superior, two points arose from the literature. Firstly, human input was evident across themes, even with indirect approaches. Secondly, a range of challenges common among approaches was highlighted. These were (i) ‘Capturing an expert’s knowledge’- Difficulties surrounding capturing an expert’s knowledge related to identifying the ‘expert’ say from the very experienced and how to capture their tacit or difficult to articulate knowledge. (ii) ‘Confirming quality of knowledge’- Once captured, challenges noted surrounded how to validate knowledge captured and, therefore, quality. (iii) ‘Continual knowledge capture’- Once knowledge is captured, validated, and used in a system; however, the process is not complete. Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment with new evidence emerging frequently. As such, knowledge needs to be reviewed, updated, or removed (redundancy) as appropriate. Although some methods were proposed to address this, such as plausible reasoning or case-based reasoning, conclusions could not be drawn from the papers retrieved. It was, therefore, highlighted as an area for future research. Conclusion: The results described two broad approaches – direct and indirect. Three themes were identified: ‘Researcher mediated capture (Direct)’; ‘Digital mediated capture (Direct)’ and ‘Generated using artificial intelligence methods (Indirect)’. While no single approach was deemed superior, common challenges noted among approaches were: ‘capturing an expert’s knowledge’, ‘confirming quality of knowledge’, and ‘continual knowledge capture’. However, continual knowledge capture was not fully explored in the papers retrieved and was highlighted as an important area for future research. Acknowledgments: This research is partially funded by the ADAPT Centre under the SFI Research Centres Programme (Grant 13/RC/2106) and is co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund.

Keywords: expert knowledge, healthcare, knowledge capture and knowledge management

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