Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Mike Kerr

80 Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil

Authors: Hongda Guo, Wenxia Sima


Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

Keywords: electric field, Kerr, space charge, transformer oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
79 Wind Wave Modeling Using MIKE 21 SW Spectral Model

Authors: Pouya Molana, Zeinab Alimohammadi


Determining wind wave characteristics is essential for implementing projects related to Coastal and Marine engineering such as designing coastal and marine structures, estimating sediment transport rates and coastal erosion rates in order to predict significant wave height (H_s), this study applies the third generation spectral wave model, Mike 21 SW, along with CEM model. For SW model calibration and verification, two data sets of meteorology and wave spectroscopy are used. The model was exposed to time-varying wind power and the results showed that difference ratio mean, standard deviation of difference ratio and correlation coefficient in SW model for H_s parameter are 1.102, 0.279 and 0.983, respectively. Whereas, the difference ratio mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient in The Choice Experiment Method (CEM) for the same parameter are 0.869, 1.317 and 0.8359, respectively. Comparing these expected results it is revealed that the Choice Experiment Method CEM has more errors in comparison to MIKE 21 SW third generation spectral wave model and higher correlation coefficient does not necessarily mean higher accuracy.

Keywords: MIKE 21 SW, CEM method, significant wave height, difference ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
78 Effect of Interlayer Coupling in Co/Al2O3/Co

Authors: Niru Chowdhury, Subhankar Bedanta, Alexander Weber, Thomas Brueckel


We show the effect of interlayer coupling on magnetization reversal in purely dipolar coupled magnetic multilayers. Longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr microscopy (LMOKE) has been performed on [Co(10nm)/Al2O3(t)/Co(10nm)] for various thicknesses of Al2O3(t). We will show that inter-layer coupling interactions lead to layer-by-layer reversal in the magnetic multilayers. Also transverse component of magnetization was observed for higher thickness of the spacer layer.

Keywords: Interlayer coupling, Magnetic domains, Magneto – Optic Kerr effect microscopy, Magnetization reversal, Magnetic thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
77 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan


A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
76 Foliation and the First Law of Thermodynamics for the Kerr Newman Black Hole

Authors: Syed M. Jawwad Riaz


There has been a lot of interest in exploring the thermodynamic properties at the horizon of a black hole geometry. Earlier, it has been shown, for different spacetimes, that the Einstein field equations at the horizon can be expressed as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper, considering r = constant slices, for the Kerr-Newman black hole, shown that the Einstein field equations for the induced 3-metric of the hypersurface is expressed in thermodynamic quantities under the virtual displacements of the hypersurfaces. As expected, it is found that the field equations of the induced metric corresponding to the horizon can only be written as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. It is to be mentioned here that the procedure adopted is much easier, to obtain such results, as here one has to essentially deal with (n - 1)-dimensional induced metric for an n-dimensional spacetime.

Keywords: black hole space-times, Einstein's field equation, foliation, hyper-surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
75 Development of an Automatic Calibration Framework for Hydrologic Modelling Using Approximate Bayesian Computation

Authors: A. Chowdhury, P. Egodawatta, J. M. McGree, A. Goonetilleke


Hydrologic models are increasingly used as tools to predict stormwater quantity and quality from urban catchments. However, due to a range of practical issues, most models produce gross errors in simulating complex hydraulic and hydrologic systems. Difficulty in finding a robust approach for model calibration is one of the main issues. Though automatic calibration techniques are available, they are rarely used in common commercial hydraulic and hydrologic modelling software e.g. MIKE URBAN. This is partly due to the need for a large number of parameters and large datasets in the calibration process. To overcome this practical issue, a framework for automatic calibration of a hydrologic model was developed in R platform and presented in this paper. The model was developed based on the time-area conceptualization. Four calibration parameters, including initial loss, reduction factor, time of concentration and time-lag were considered as the primary set of parameters. Using these parameters, automatic calibration was performed using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). ABC is a simulation-based technique for performing Bayesian inference when the likelihood is intractable or computationally expensive to compute. To test the performance and usefulness, the technique was used to simulate three small catchments in Gold Coast. For comparison, simulation outcomes from the same three catchments using commercial modelling software, MIKE URBAN were used. The graphical comparison shows strong agreement of MIKE URBAN result within the upper and lower 95% credible intervals of posterior predictions as obtained via ABC. Statistical validation for posterior predictions of runoff result using coefficient of determination (CD), root mean square error (RMSE) and maximum error (ME) was found reasonable for three study catchments. The main benefit of using ABC over MIKE URBAN is that ABC provides a posterior distribution for runoff flow prediction, and therefore associated uncertainty in predictions can be obtained. In contrast, MIKE URBAN just provides a point estimate. Based on the results of the analysis, it appears as though ABC the developed framework performs well for automatic calibration.

Keywords: automatic calibration framework, approximate bayesian computation, hydrologic and hydraulic modelling, MIKE URBAN software, R platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
74 A Comparison between the Results of Hormuz Strait Wave Simulations Using WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW and Satellite Altimetry Observations

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi


In the present study, the capabilities of WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW for predicting the characteristics of wind waves in Hormuz Strait are evaluated. The GFS wind data (Global Forecast System) were derived. The bathymetry of gride with 2 arc-minute resolution, also were extracted from the ETOPO1. WAVEWATCH-III findings illustrate more valid prediction of wave features comparing to the MIKE-21 SW in deep water. Apparently, in shallow area, the MIKE-21 provides more uniformities with altimetry measurements. This may be due to the merits of the unstructured grid which are used in MIKE-21, leading to better representations of the coastal area. The findings on the direction of waves generated by wind in the modeling area indicate that in some regions, despite the increase in wind speed, significant wave height stays nearly unchanged. This is fundamental because of swift changes in wind track over the Strait of Hormuz. After discussing wind-induced waves in the region, the impact of instability of the surface layer on wave growth has been considered. For this purpose, the average monthly mean air temperature has been used. The results in cold months, when the surface layer is unstable, indicates an acceptable increase in the accuracy of prediction of the indicator wave height.

Keywords: numerical modeling, WAVEWATCH-III, Strait of Hormuz, MIKE21-SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
73 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini


Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
72 Soil-Structure Interaction Models for the Reinforced Foundation System – A State-of-the-Art Review

Authors: Ashwini V. Chavan, Sukhanand S. Bhosale


Challenges of weak soil subgrade are often resolved either by stabilization or reinforcing it. However, it is also practiced to reinforce the granular fill to improve the load-settlement behavior of over weak soil strata. The inclusion of reinforcement in the engineered granular fill provided a new impetus for the development of enhanced Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) models, also known as mechanical foundation models or lumped parameter models. Several researchers have been working in this direction to understand the mechanism of granular fill-reinforcement interaction and the response of weak soil under the application of load. These models have been developed by extending available SSI models such as the Winkler Model, Pasternak Model, Hetenyi Model, Kerr Model etc., and are helpful to visualize the load-settlement behavior of a physical system through 1-D and 2-D analysis considering beam and plate resting on the foundation respectively. Based on the literature survey, these models are categorized as ‘Reinforced Pasternak Model,’ ‘Double Beam Model,’ ‘Reinforced Timoshenko Beam Model,’ and ‘Reinforced Kerr Model.’ The present work reviews the past 30+ years of research in the field of SSI models for reinforced foundation systems, presenting the conceptual development of these models systematically and discussing their limitations. Special efforts are taken to tabulate the parameters and their significance in the load-settlement analysis, which may be helpful in future studies for the comparison and enhancement of results and findings of physical models.

Keywords: geosynthetics, mathematical modeling, reinforced foundation, soil-structure interaction, ground improvement, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
71 Bathymetric Change of Brahmaputra River and Its Influence on Flooding Scenario

Authors: Arup Kumar Sarma, Rohan Kar


The development of physical model of River like Brahmaputra, which finds its origin in the Chema Yundung glacier of Tibet and flows through India and Bangladesh, is always expensive and very much time consuming. With the advancement of computational technique, mathematical modeling has found wide application. MIKE 21C is one such commercial software, developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), with the depth-averaged approach and a two-dimensional curvilinear finite-difference model, which is capable of modeling hydrodynamic and morphological processes with some limitations. The main purpose of this study are to generate bathymetry of the River Brahmaputra starting from “Sadia” at upstream to “Dhubri,” at downstream stretching a distance of approximately 695 km, for four different years: 1957, 1971, 1977, and 1981 over the grid generated in the MIKE 21C and to carry out the hydrodynamic simulation for these years to analyze the effect of bathymetry change on the surface water elevation. The study has established that bathymetric change can influence the flood level significantly in some of the river reaches and therefore the modification or updating of regular bathymetry is very much essential for the reliable flood routing in alluvial rivers.

Keywords: bathymetry, brahmaputra river, hydrodynamic model, surface water elevation

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
70 Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for the Management of Stormwater on the Cape Flats, Cape Town

Authors: Benjamin Mauck, Kevin Winter


The city of Cape Town in South Africa, has shown consistent economic and population growth in the last few decades and that growth is expected to continue to increase into the future. These projected economic and population growth rates are set to place additional pressure on the city’s already strained water supply system. Thus, given Cape Town’s water scarcity, increasing water demands and stressed water supply system, coupled with global awareness around the issues of sustainable development, environmental protection and climate change, alternative water management strategies are required to ensure water is sustainably managed. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is an approach to sustainable urban water management that attempts to assign a resource value to all forms of water in the urban context, viz. stormwater, wastewater, potable water and groundwater. WSUD employs a wide range of strategies to improve the sustainable management of urban water such as the water reuse, developing alternative available supply sources, sustainable stormwater management and enhancing the aesthetic and recreational value of urban water. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one WSUD strategy which has proven to be a successful reuse strategy in a number of places around the world. MAR is the process where an aquifer is intentionally or artificially recharged, which provides a valuable means of water storage while enhancing the aquifers supply potential. This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing MAR in the sandy, unconfined Cape Flats Aquifer (CFA) in Cape Town. The main objective of the study is to assess if MAR is a viable strategy for stormwater management on the Cape Flats, aiding the prevention or mitigation of the seasonal flooding that occurs on the Cape Flats, while also improving the supply potential of the aquifer. This involves the infiltration of stormwater into the CFA during the wet winter months and in turn, abstracting from the CFA during the dry summer months for fit-for-purpose uses in order to optimise the recharge and storage capacity of the CFA. The fully-integrated MIKE SHE model is used in this study to simulate both surface water and groundwater hydrology. This modelling approach enables the testing of various potential recharge and abstraction scenarios required for implementation of MAR on the Cape Flats. Further MIKE SHE scenario analysis under projected future climate scenarios provides insight into the performance of MAR as a stormwater management strategy under climate change conditions. The scenario analysis using an integrated model such as MIKE SHE is a valuable tool for evaluating the feasibility of the MAR as a stormwater management strategy and its potential to contribute towards improving Cape Town’s water security into the future.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, stormwater management, cape flats aquifer, MIKE SHE

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
69 Use of Telehealth for Facilitating the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

Authors: Manahil Alfuraydan, Jodie Croxall, Lisa Hurt, Mike Kerr, Sinead Brophy


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition characterised by impairment in terms of social communication, social interaction, and a repetitive or restricted pattern of interest, behaviour, and activity. There is a significant delay between seeking help and a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. This may result in delay in receiving early intervention services, which are critical for positive outcomes. The long wait times also cause stress for the individuals and their families. Telehealth potentially offers a way of improving the diagnostic pathway for ASD. This review of the literature aims to examine which telehealth approaches have been used in the diagnosis and assessment of autism in children and adults, whether they are feasible and acceptable, and how they compare with face-to-face diagnosis and assessment methods. A comprehensive search of following databases- MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, Business Sources Complete, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and trail and systematic review databases including Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness and NHS Economic Evaluation was conducted, combining the terms of autism and telehealth from 2000 to 2018. A total of 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. This review of the literature found there to be two methods of using telehealth: (a) video conferencing to enable teams in different areas to consult with the families and to assess the child/adult in real time and (b) a video upload to a web portal that enables the clinical assessment of behaviours in the family home. The findings were positive, finding there to be high agreement in terms of the diagnosis between remote methods and face to face methods and with high levels of satisfaction among the families and clinicians. This field is in the very early stages, and so only studies with small sample size were identified, but the findings suggest that there is potential for telehealth methods to improve assessment and diagnosis of autism used in conjunction with existing methods, especially for those with clear autism traits and adults with autism. Larger randomised controlled trials of this technology are warranted.

Keywords: assessment, autism spectrum disorder, diagnosis, telehealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
68 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie


The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
67 Validating Quantitative Stormwater Simulations in Edmonton Using MIKE URBAN

Authors: Mohamed Gaafar, Evan Davies


Many municipalities within Canada and abroad use chloramination to disinfect drinking water so as to avert the production of the disinfection by-products (DBPs) that result from conventional chlorination processes and their consequential public health risks. However, the long-lasting monochloramine disinfectant (NH2Cl) can pose a significant risk to the environment. As, it can be introduced into stormwater sewers, from different water uses, and thus freshwater sources. Little research has been undertaken to monitor and characterize the decay of NH2Cl and to study the parameters affecting its decomposition in stormwater networks. Therefore, the current study was intended to investigate this decay starting by building a stormwater model and validating its hydraulic and hydrologic computations, and then modelling water quality in the storm sewers and examining the effects of different parameters on chloramine decay. The presented work here is only the first stage of this study. The 30th Avenue basin in Southern Edmonton was chosen as a case study, because the well-developed basin has various land-use types including commercial, industrial, residential, parks and recreational. The City of Edmonton has already built a MIKE-URBAN stormwater model for modelling floods. Nevertheless, this model was built to the trunk level which means that only the main drainage features were presented. Additionally, this model was not calibrated and known to consistently compute pipe flows higher than the observed values; not to the benefit of studying water quality. So the first goal was to complete modelling and updating all stormwater network components. Then, available GIS Data was used to calculate different catchment properties such as slope, length and imperviousness. In order to calibrate and validate this model, data of two temporary pipe flow monitoring stations, collected during last summer, was used along with records of two other permanent stations available for eight consecutive summer seasons. The effect of various hydrological parameters on model results was investigated. It was found that model results were affected by the ratio of impervious areas. The catchment length was tested, however calculated, because it is approximate representation of the catchment shape. Surface roughness coefficients were calibrated using. Consequently, computed flows at the two temporary locations had correlation coefficients of values 0.846 and 0.815, where the lower value pertained to the larger attached catchment area. Other statistical measures, such as peak error of 0.65%, volume error of 5.6%, maximum positive and negative differences of 2.17 and -1.63 respectively, were all found in acceptable ranges.

Keywords: stormwater, urban drainage, simulation, validation, MIKE URBAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
66 Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser

Authors: Marilou Cadatal-Raduban, Minh Hong Pham, Duong Van Pham, Tu Nguyen Xuan, Mui Viet Luong, Kohei Yamanoi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Nobuhiko Sarukura, Hung Dai Nguyen


There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.

Keywords: rare-earth-doped fluoride gain medium, transient cavity, ultrashort laser, ultraviolet laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
65 Investigation of Projected Organic Waste Impact on a Tropical Wetland in Singapore

Authors: Swee Yang Low, Dong Eon Kim, Canh Tien Trinh Nguyen, Yixiong Cai, Shie-Yui Liong


Nee Soon swamp forest is one of the last vestiges of tropical wetland in Singapore. Understanding the hydrological regime of the swamp forest and implications for water quality is critical to guide stakeholders in implementing effective measures to preserve the wetland against anthropogenic impacts. In particular, although current field measurement data do not indicate a concern with organic pollution, reviewing the ways in which the wetland responds to elevated organic waste influx (and the corresponding impact on dissolved oxygen, DO) can help identify potential hotspots, and the impact on the outflow from the catchment which drains into downstream controlled watercourses. An integrated water quality model is therefore developed in this study to investigate spatial and temporal concentrations of DO levels and organic pollution (as quantified by biochemical oxygen demand, BOD) within the catchment’s river network under hypothetical, projected scenarios of spiked upstream inflow. The model was developed using MIKE HYDRO for modelling the study domain, as well as the MIKE ECO Lab numerical laboratory for characterising water quality processes. Model parameters are calibrated against time series of observed discharges at three measurement stations along the river network. Over a simulation period of April 2014 to December 2015, the calibrated model predicted that a continuous spiked inflow of 400 mg/l BOD will elevate downstream concentrations at the catchment outlet to an average of 12 mg/l, from an assumed nominal baseline BOD of 1 mg/l. Levels of DO were decreased from an initial 5 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l. Though a scenario of spiked organic influx at the swamp forest’s undeveloped upstream sub-catchments is currently unlikely to occur, the outcomes nevertheless will be beneficial for future planning studies in understanding how the water quality of the catchment will be impacted should urban redevelopment works be considered around the swamp forest.

Keywords: hydrology, modeling, water quality, wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
64 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim


Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
63 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: Olomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, H. K. Hwang


Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection, resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO Uniformly-Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, Pseudo Random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: MIMO radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
62 Numerical Modeling of Storm Swells in Harbor by Boussinesq Equations Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani


The purpose of work is to study the phenomenon of agitation of storm waves at basin caused by different directions of waves relative to the current provision thrown numerical model based on the equation in shallow water using Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW. According to the diminishing effect of penetration of a wave optimal solution will be available to be reproduced in reduced model. Another alternative arrangement throws will be proposed to reduce the agitation and the effects of the swell reflection caused by the penetration of waves in the harbor.

Keywords: agitation, Boussinesq equations, combination, harbor

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
61 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 554
60 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde


We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: ferrite-garnet films, ion implantation, magneto-optical, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
59 Fuzzy Set Approach to Study Appositives and Its Impact Due to Positional Alterations

Authors: E. Mike Dison, T. Pathinathan


Computing with Words (CWW) and Possibilistic Relational Universal Fuzzy (PRUF) are the two concepts which widely represent and measure the vaguely defined natural phenomenon. In this paper, we study the positional alteration of the phrases by which the impact of a natural language proposition gets affected and/or modified. We observe the gradations due to sensitivity/feeling of a statement towards the positional alterations. We derive the classification and modification of the meaning of words due to the positional alteration. We present the results with reference to set theoretic interpretations.

Keywords: appositive, computing with words, possibilistic relational universal fuzzy (PRUF), semantic sentiment analysis, set-theoretic interpretations

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
58 Computer Simulation Studies of Aircraft Wing Architectures on Vibration Responses

Authors: Shengyong Zhang, Mike Mikulich


Vibration is a crucial limiting consideration in the analysis and design of airplane wing structures to avoid disastrous failures due to the propagation of existing cracks in the material. In this paper, we build CAD models of aircraft wings to capture the design intent with configurations. Subsequent FEA vibration analysis is performed to study the natural vibration properties and impulsive responses of the resulting user-defined wing models. This study reveals the variations of the wing’s vibration characteristics with respect to changes in its structural configurations. Integrating CAD modelling and FEA vibration analysis enables designers to improve wing architectures for implementing design requirements in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: aircraft wing, CAD modelling, FEA, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
57 Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults

Authors: L. Lindsay, S. A. Coleman, D. Kerr, B. J. Taylor, A. Moorhead


Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.

Keywords: classification, falls, health risk factors, machine learning, older adults

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56 Variation of Phenolic Compounds in Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Fredijs Dimins, Inta Krasnova, Daina Karklina


Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples total phenolic compounds, tannins and individual phenolic compounds content were determined. The total phenolic content of different variety apple juices ranged from 650mg L-1 to 4265mg L-1. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic compound in all juice samples and ranged from 143.99mg L-1 in ‘Quaker Beauty’ apple juice to 617.66mg L-1 in ‘Kerr’ juice. Some dessert and crab apple juices have similar phenolic composition, but in several varieties such as ‘Cornelie’, ‘Hyslop’ and ‘Riku’ it was significantly higher. For cider production it is better to blend different kinds of apple juices including apples rich in high phenol content ('Rick', 'Cornelie') and also, for successful fermentation, apples rich in sugars and soluble solids content should be used in blends.

Keywords: apple juice, phenolic compounds, hierarchical cluster analysis, cider production

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55 Effect of Al Contents on Magnetic Domains of {100} Grains in Electrical Steels

Authors: Hyunseo Choi, Jaewan Hong, Seil Lee, Yang Mo Koo


Non-oriented (NO) electrical steel is one of the most important soft magnetic materials for rotating machines. Si has usually been added to electrical steels to reduce eddy current loss by increasing the electrical resistivity. Si content more than 3.5 wt% causes cracks during cold rolling due to increase of brittleness. Al also increases the electrical resistivity of the materials as much as Si. In addition, cold workability of Fe-Al is better than Fe-Si, so that Al can be added up to 6.0 wt%. However, the effect of Al contents on magnetic properties of electrical steels has not been studied in detail. Magnetic domains of {100} grains in electrical steels, ranging from 1.85 to 6.54 wt% Al, were observed by magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. Furthermore, the correlation of magnetic domains with magnetic properties was investigated. As Al contents increased, the magnetic domain size of {100} grains decreased due to lowered domain wall energy. Reorganization of magnetic domain structure became more complex as domain size decreased. Therefore, the addition of Al to electrical steel caused hysteresis loss to increase. Anomalous loss decreased and saturated after 4.68% Al.

Keywords: electrical steel, magnetic domain structure, Al addition, core loss, rearrangement of domains

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54 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal


This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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53 Thermoelectrical Properties of Cs Doped BiCuSeO as Promising Oxide Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Converter

Authors: Abdenour Achour, Kan Chen, Mike Reece, Zhaorong Huang


Here we report the synthesis of pure and cost effective of BiCuSeO by a flux method in air, and the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance by Cs doping. The comparison between our synthesis and the usual vacuum furnace method has been studied for the pristine oxyselenides BiCuSeO. We report for very high Seebeck coefficients up to 516 μV K⁻¹ at room temperature with the electrical conductivity of 5.20 S cm⁻¹ which lead to a high power factor of 140 µWm⁻¹K⁻². We also report at the high temperatures the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.42 µWm⁻¹K⁻¹. Upon doping with Cs, enhanced electrical conductivity coupled with a moderate Seebeck coefficient lead to a power factor of 338 µWm⁻¹K⁻² at 682 K. Moreover, it shows a very low thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300 to 682 K (0.75 to 0.35 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹). By optimizing the power factor and reducing the thermal conductivity, this results in a high ZT of ~ 0.66 at 682 K for Bi0.995Cs0.005CuSeO.

Keywords: BiCuSeO, Cs doping, thermoelectric, oxyselenide

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52 Oil Reservoirs Bifurcation Analysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Fractal Characterization Approach of Makelekese MS-25 Field

Authors: Leonard Mike McNelly Longwa, Divine Kusosa Musiku, D. Nahum Kabeya


In this paper the bifurcation analysis of oilfield in Democratic Republic of Congo is presented in order to enhance petroleum production in an intense tectonic evolution characterized by distinct compressive and extensive phases and the digenetic transformation in the reservoirs during burial geological configuration. The use of porous media in Makelekese MS-25 field has been established to simulate the boundaries within 3 sedimentary basins open to exploration including the coastal basin with an area of 5992 km2, a central basin with an area of 800,000 km2, the western branch of the East African Rift in which there are 50,000 km2. The fractal characterization of complex hydro-dynamic fractures in oilfield is developed to facilitate oil production process based on reservoirs bifurcation model.

Keywords: reservoir bifurcation, fractal characterisation, permeability, conductivity, skin effect

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51 Oil Reservoirs Bifurcation Analysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Fractal Characterization Approach of Makelekese MS-25 Field

Authors: Leonard Mike McNelly Longwa, Divine Kusosa Musiku, Dieudonne Nahum Kabeya


In this paper, the bifurcation analysis of oilfields in the Democratic Republic of Congo is presented in order to enhance petroleum production in an intense tectonic evolution characterized by distinct compressive and extensive phases and the digenetic transformation in the reservoirs during burial geological configuration. The use of porous media in the Makelekese MS-25 field has been established to simulate the boundaries within 3 sedimentary basins open to exploration including the coastal basin with an area of 5992 km², a central basin with an area of 800,000 km², the western branch of the East African Rift in which there are 50,000 km². The fractal characterization of complex hydro-dynamic fractures in oilfields is developed to facilitate the oil production process based on the reservoirs bifurcation model.

Keywords: reservoir bifurcation, fractal characterization, permeability, conductivity, skin effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 45