Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12499

Search results for: synergic effect

12499 Nonconventional Method for Separation of Rosmarinic Acid: Synergic Extraction

Authors: Lenuta Kloetzer, Alexandra C. Blaga, Dan Cascaval, Alexandra Tucaliuc, Anca I. Galaction

Abstract:

Rosmarinic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid, is considered a valuable compound for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It can be obtained by extraction from vegetable or animal materials, by chemical synthesis and biosynthesis. Indifferent of the method used for rosmarinic acid production, the separation and purification process implies high amount of raw materials and laborious stages leading to high cost for and limitations of the separation technology. This study focused on separation of rosmarinic acid by synergic reactive extraction with a mixture of two extractants, one acidic (acid di-(2ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, D2EHPA) and one with basic character (Amberlite LA-2). The studies were performed in experimental equipment consisting of an extraction column where the phases’ mixing was made by mean of a perforated disk with 45 mm diameter and 20% free section, maintained at the initial contact interface between the aqueous and organic phases. The vibrations had a frequency of 50 s⁻¹ and 5 mm amplitude. The extraction was carried out in two solvents with different dielectric constants (n-heptane and dichloromethane) in which the extractants mixture of varying concentration was dissolved. The pH-value of initial aqueous solution was varied between 1 and 7. The efficiency of the studied extraction systems was quantified by distribution and synergic coefficients. For calculating these parameters, the rosmarinic acid concentration in the initial aqueous solution and in the raffinate have been measured by HPLC. The influences of extractants concentrations and solvent polarity on the efficiency of rosmarinic acid separation by synergic extraction with a mixture of Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA have been analyzed. In the reactive extraction system with a constant concentration of Amberlite LA-2 in the organic phase, the increase of D2EHPA concentration leads to decrease of the synergic coefficient. This is because the increase of D2EHPA concentration prevents the formation of amine adducts and, consequently, affects the hydrophobicity of the interfacial complex with rosmarinic acid. For these reasons, the diminution of synergic coefficient is more important for dichloromethane. By maintaining a constant value of D2EHPA concentration and increasing the concentration of Amberlite LA-2, the synergic coefficient could become higher than 1, its highest values being reached for n-heptane. Depending on the solvent polarity and D2EHPA amount in the solvent phase, the synergic effect is observed for Amberlite LA-2 concentrations over 20 g/l dissolved in n-heptane. Thus, by increasing the concentration of D2EHPA from 5 to 40 g/l, the minimum concentration value of Amberlite LA-2 corresponding to synergism increases from 20 to 40 g/l for the solvent with lower polarity, namely, n-heptane, while there is no synergic effect recorded for dichloromethane. By analysing the influences of the main factors (organic phase polarity, extractant concentration in the mixture) on the efficiency of synergic extraction of rosmarinic acid, the most important synergic effect was found to correspond to the extractants mixture containing 5 g/l D2EHPA and 40 g/l Amberlite LA-2 dissolved in n-heptane.

Keywords: Amberlite LA-2, di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, rosmarinic acid, synergic effect

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12498 Facial Design of Combined Photoelectrocehmcial-Fenton Coupling Nanocomposites for Antibiotic Eliminations

Authors: Xinyong Li

Abstract:

A new coupling system was constructed by combining photo-electrochemical cell with eletro-fenton cell (PEC-EF). The electrode material in this system was derived from MnyFe₁₋yCo Prussian-Blue-Analog (PBA). Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] spin-coated on carbon paper behaved as the gas diffusion cathode and Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ spin-coated on fluorine-tin oxide glass (FTO) as anode. The two separated cells could degrade Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) simultaneously and some coupling mechanisms by PEC and EF enhancing the degradation efficiency were investigated. The continuous on-site generation of H₂O₂ at cathode through an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was realized over rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The electron transfer number (n) of the ORR with Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] was 2.5 in the selected potential and pH range. The photo-electrochemical properties of Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ were systematically studied, which displayed good response towards visible light. The photo-induced electrons at anode can transfer to cathode for further use. Efficient photo-electro-catalytic performance was observed in degrading SMX. Almost 100% SMX removal was achieved in 120 min. This work not only provided a highly effective technique for antibiotic treatment but also revealed the synergic effect between PEC and EF.

Keywords: Electro-Fenton, photo-electrochemical, synergic effect, sulfamethoxazole

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12497 Photo-Electrochemical/Electro-Fenton Coupling Oxidation System with Fe/Co-Based Anode and Cathode Metal-Organic Frameworks Derivative Materials for Sulfamethoxazole Treatment

Authors: Xin Chen, Xinyong Li, Qidong Zhao, Dong Wang

Abstract:

A new coupling system was constructed by combining photo-electrochemical cell with electro-fenton cell (PEC-EF). The electrode material in this system was derived from MnyFe₁₋yCo Prussian-Blue-Analog (PBA). Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] spin-coated on carbon paper behaved as the gas diffusion cathode and Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ spin-coated on fluorine-tin oxide glass (FTO) as anode. The two separated cells could degrade Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) simultaneously and some coupling mechanisms by PEC and EF enhancing the degradation efficiency were investigated. The continuous on-site generation of H₂O₂ at cathode through an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was realized over rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The electron transfer number (n) of the ORR with Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] was 2.5 in the selected potential and pH range. The photo-electrochemical properties of Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ were systematically studied, which displayed good response towards visible light. The photoinduced electrons at anode can transfer to cathode for further use. Efficient photo-electro-catalytic performance was observed in degrading SMX. Almost 100% SMX removal was achieved in 120 min. This work not only provided a highly effective technique for antibiotic treatment but also revealed the synergic effect between PEC and EF.

Keywords: electro-fenton, photo-electrochemical, synergic effect, sulfamethoxazole

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12496 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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12495 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

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12494 Vitamin B9 Separation by Synergic Pertraction

Authors: Blaga Alexandra Cristina, Kloetzer Lenuta, Bompa Amalia Stela, Galaction Anca Irina, Cascaval Dan

Abstract:

Vitamin B9 is an important member of vitamins B group, being a growth factor, important for making genetic material as DNA and RNA, red blood cells, for building muscle tissues, especially during periods of infancy, adolescence and pregnancy. Its production by biosynthesis is based on the high metabolic potential of mutant Bacillus subtilis, due to a superior biodisponibility compared to that obtained by chemical pathways. Pertraction, defined as the extraction and transport through liquid membranes consists in the transfer of a solute between two aqueous phases of different pH-values, phases that are separated by a solvent layer of various sizes. The pertraction efficiency and selectivity could be significantly enhanced by adding a carrier in the liquid membrane, such as organophosphoric compounds, long chain amines or crown-ethers etc., the separation process being called facilitated pertraction. The aim of the work is to determine the impact of the presence of two extractants/carriers in the bulk liquid membrane, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and lauryltrialkylmetilamine (Amberlite LA2) on the transport kinetics of vitamin B9. The experiments have been carried out using two pertraction equipments for a free liquid membrane or bulk liquid membrane. One pertraction cell consists on a U-shaped glass pipe (used for the dichloromethane membrane) and the second one is an H-shaped glass pipe (used for h-heptane), having 45 mm inner diameter of the total volume of 450 mL, the volume of each compartment being of 150 mL. The aqueous solutions are independently mixed by means of double blade stirrers with 6 mm diameter and 3 mm height, having the rotation speed of 500 rpm. In order to reach high diffusional rates through the solvent layer, the organic phase has been mixed with a similar stirrer, at a similar rotation speed (500 rpm). The area of mass transfer surface, both for extraction and for reextraction, was of 1.59x10-³ m2. The study on facilitated pertraction with the mixture of two carriers, namely D2EHPA and Amberlite LA-2, dissolved in two solvents with different polarities: n-heptane and dichloromethane, indicated the possibility to obtain the synergic effect. The synergism has been analyzed by considering the vitamin initial and final mass flows, as well as the permeability factors through liquid membrane. The synergic effect has been observed at low D2EHPA concentrations and high Amberlite LA-2 concentrations, being more important for the low-polar solvent (n-heptane). The results suggest that the mechanism of synergic pertraction consists on the reaction between the organophosphoric carrier and vitamin B9 at the interface between the feed and membrane phases, while the aminic carrier enhances the hydrophobicity of this compound by solvation. However, the formation of this complex reduced the reextraction rate and, consequently, affects the synergism related to the final mass flows and permeability factor. For describing the influences of carriers concentrations on the synergistic coefficients, some equations have been proposed by taking into account the vitamin mass flows or permeability factors, with an average deviations between 4.85% and 10.73%.

Keywords: pertraction, synergism, vitamin B9, Amberlite LA-2, di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

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12493 The Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Aflatoxin M1 Detoxification in Phosphate Buffer Saline

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. Probiotics can be biological agent to remove AFM1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of probiotic bacteria on AFM1 detoxification in phosphate buffer saline. The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA. The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p < 0.05). Consequently, results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, ELISA, probiotics, storage

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12492 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth

Abstract:

Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: cow urine, hypoglycemic effect, synergic effect, type 2 diabetes, vijaysar

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12491 Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Chitosan Films: Effect of Essential Oils and Storage

Authors: N. Valderrama, W. Albarracín, N. Algecira

Abstract:

It was studied the effect of the inclusion of thyme and rosemary essential oils into chitosan films, as well as the microbiological and physical properties when storing chitosan film with and without the mentioned inclusion. The film forming solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan (2%, w/v), polysorbate 80 (4% w/w CH) and glycerol (16% w/w CH) in aqueous lactic acid solutions (control). The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils (EOs) were included 1:1 w/w (EOs:CH) on their combination 50/50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and a relative humidity of 75% during four weeks. The films with essential oil inclusion did not show an antimicrobial activity against strains. This behavior could be explained because the chitosan only inhibits the growth of microorganisms in direct contact with the active sites. However, the inhibition capacity of TEO was higher than the REO and a synergic effect between TEO:REO was found for S. enteritidis strains in the chitosan solution. Some physical properties were modified by the inclusion of essential oils. The addition of essential oils does not affect the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation), the water solubility, the swelling index nor the DSC behavior. However, the essential oil inclusion can significantly decrease the thickness, the moisture content, and the L* value of films whereas the b* value increased due to molecular interactions between the polymeric matrix, the loosing of the structure, and the chemical modifications. On the other hand, the temperature and time of storage changed some physical properties on the chitosan films. This could have occurred because of chemical changes, such as swelling in the presence of high humidity air and the reacetylation of amino groups. In the majority of cases, properties such as moisture content, tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation, a*, b*, chrome, ΔE increased whereas water resistance, swelling index, L*, and hue angle decreased.

Keywords: chitosan, food additives, modified films, polymers

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12490 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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12489 Synergistic Effect of Curcumin and Insulin on GLUT4 Translocation in C2C12 Cell

Authors: Javad Mohiti-Ardekani, Shabodin Asadii, Ali Moradi

Abstract:

Introduction: Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown as an anti-diabetic agent for centuries but only in recent few years, its mechanism of action has been under investigation. Some studies showed that curcumin might exert its anti-diabetic effect via increasing glucose transporter isotype-4 (GLUT4) gene and glycoprotein contents in cells. To investigate this possibility, we investigate the effects of extract and commercial curcumin with and without insulin on GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments of nuclear or endoplasmic reticulum membranes (N/ER) into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). Methods and Material: C2C12 myoblastic cell line were seeded in DMEM plus 20 % FBS and differentiated to myotubes using 2 % horse serum. After myotubes formation, 40 µmolar Extract and Commercial curcumin, with or without insulin as intervention, and as control 1 % DMSO were added for 3 h. Cells were washed and homogenized followed by ultracentrifuge fractionation, protein separation by SDS-PAGE and GLUT4 detection using semi-quantitative Western blotting. Data analysis was done by two independent samples t-test for comparison of mean ± SD of GLUT4 percent in categories. GLUT4 contents were higher in CM groups curcumin and curcumin with insulin in comparison to 1 % DMSO-treated myotubes control group. Results: As our results have shown extract and commercial curcumin induces GLUT4 translocation from intra-cell into cell surface. The results have also shown synergic effect of curcumin on translocation of GLUT4 from intra-cell into cell surface in the presence of 100 nm insulin. Discussion: We conclude that curcumin may be a choice of type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment because its extract and commercial enhances GLUT4 contents in CM where it facilitates glucose entrance into the cell. However, it is necessary to trace the signaling pathways which are activated by curcumin.

Keywords: Curcumin, insulin, Diabetes type-2, GLUT4

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12488 Anti-Angiogenic Effects of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snake Crude Venom and Obtustatin

Authors: Narine Ghazaryan, Joana Catarina Macedo, Sara Vaz, Naira Ayvazyan, Elsa Logarinho

Abstract:

Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) is a poisonous snake in Armenia. Obtustatin represents the shortest known monomeric disintegrin, isolated from the snake venom of MLO, and is known to specifically inhibit α1β1 integrin. Its oncostatic effect is due to the inhibition of angiogenesis, which likely arises from α1β1 integrin inhibition in the endothelial cells. To explore the therapeutic potential of the MLO snake venom and obtustatin, we studied activity of obtustatin and MLO venom in vitro, by testing their efficacy in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) and in vivo, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Our in vitro results showed that obtustatin in comparison with MLO venom did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in HMVEC-D cells in comparison to MLO venom. But in vivo results have shown that 4µg /embryo (90 µM) of obtustatin inhibited angiogenesis induced by FGF2 by 17% while MLO snake venom induced 22% reduction of the angiogenic index. The concentration of obtustatin in the crude MLO venom was 0.3 nM, which is 300.000 times less than the concentration of the obtustatin itself. Given this enormous difference in concentration, it is likely that some components of the crude venom contribute to the observed anti-angiogenic effect. Hypotheses will be ascertained to justify this action: components in the MLO venom may increase obtustatin efficacy or have independent but synergic anti-angiogenic activities.

Keywords: angiogenesis, alpa1 beta 1 integrin, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, obtustatin

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12487 Evaluation of Lead II Adsorption in Porous Structures Manufactured from Chitosan, Hydroxiapatite and Moringa

Authors: Mishell Vaca, Gema Gonzales, Francisco Quiroz

Abstract:

Heavy metals present in wastewater constitute a danger for living beings in general. In Ecuador, one of the sources of contamination is artisanal mining whose liquid effluents, in many of the cases without prior treatment, are discharged to the surrounding rivers. Lead is a pollutant that accumulated in the body causes severe health effects. Nowadays, there are several treatment methods to reduce this pollutant. The aim of this study is to reduce the concentration of lead II through the use of a porous material formed by a matrix of chitosan, in which hydroxyapatite and moringa particles smaller than 53 um are suspended. These materials are not toxic to the environment, and each one adsorbs metals independently, so the synergic effect between them will be evaluated. The synthesized material has a cylindrical design that allows increasing the surface area, which is expected to have greater capacity of adsorption. It has been determined that the best conditions for its preparation are to dissolve the chitosan in 1% v/v acetic acid with a pH = 5, then the hydroxyapatite and moringa are added to the mixture with magnetic stirring. This suspension is frozen, lyophilized and finally dried. In order to evaluate the performance of the synthesized material, synthetic solutions of lead are prepared at different concentrations, and the percentage of removal is evaluated. It is expected to have an effluent whose lead content is less than 0.2 mg/L which is the limit maximum allowable according to established environmental standards.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, lead, moringa, water treatment

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12486 Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Pakistan: A Decomposition Analysis Using LMDI

Authors: Arsalan Khan, Faisal Jamil

Abstract:

The unprecedented increase in anthropogenic gases in recent decades has led to climatic changes worldwide. CO2 emissions are the most important factors responsible for greenhouse gases concentrations. This study decomposes the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan for the period 1990-2012 using Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). LMDI enables to decompose the changes in CO2 emissions into five factors namely; activity effect, structural effect, intensity effect, fuel-mix effect, and emissions factor effect. This paper confirms an upward trend of overall emissions level of the country during the period. The study finds that activity effect, structural effect and intensity effect are the three major factors responsible for the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan with activity effect as the largest contributor to overall changes in the emissions level. The structural effect is also adding to CO2 emissions, which indicates that the economic activity is shifting towards more energy-intensive sectors. However, intensity effect has negative sign representing energy efficiency gains, which indicate a good relationship between the economy and environment. The findings suggest that policy makers should encourage the diversification of the output level towards more energy efficient sub-sectors of the economy.

Keywords: energy consumption, CO2 emissions, decomposition analysis, LMDI, intensity effect

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12485 Yarkovsky Effect on the Orbital Dynamics of the Asteroid (101955) Bennu

Authors: Sanjay Narayan Deo, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

Bennu(101955) is a half kilometer potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid. We analyze the influence of Yarkovsky effect and relativistic effect of the Sun on the motion of the asteroid Bennu. The transverse model is used to compute Yarkovsky force on asteroid Bennu. Our dynamical model includes Newtonian perturbations of eight planets, the Moon, the Sun and three massive asteroid (1Ceres, 2Palas and 4Vesta). We showed the variation in orbital elements of nominal orbit of the asteroid. In the presence of Yarkovsky effect, the Semi-major axis of the orbit of the asteroid is decreases by 350 m over one period of orbital motion. The magnitude of Yarkovsky force is computed. We find that maximum magnitude of Yarkovsky force is 0.09 N at the perihelion . We also found that the magnitude of the Sun relativity effect is greater than the Yarkovsky effect on the motion the asteroid Bennu.

Keywords: Bennu, orbital elements, relativistic effect, Yarkovsky effect

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12484 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay

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12483 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell

Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti

Abstract:

The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristics

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12482 The Effect of Media Effect, Conformity, and Personality on Customers’ Purchase Intention under the Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Tsai-Yun Liao, Fang-Yi Hsu

Abstract:

Consumer behavior and consumption patterns have changed in reacting to the threat of COVID-19 pandemic situations. In order to explore the factors affecting customers’ purchase intention under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, this research uses structural equation modeling to explore the effect of media effect, conformity, and personality on customers’ purchase intention. Four essential objectives are investigated: how does media affect the conformity and perceived value of customers; the effect of media effect, conformity, and personality on customers’ purchase intention; the moderating effect of personality; and the mediating effect of perceived value toward purchase intention. By convenience sampling method, 428 questionnaires were collected, and the total number of valid samples was 406. Data analysis and results indicate that: (1) The media effect positively affects conformity. (2) The media effect positively affects perceived value. (3) Both conformity and perceived value positively affect purchase intention. (4) Consumer’s personality of openness to experience moderates the relationship between conformity and purchase intention. (5) Media effect affects purchase intention through the mediating effect of perceived value. This study contributes to the research by providing the factors affecting customers’ purchase intention and to the enterprises by maintaining incumbent customers and attracting potential customers.

Keywords: COVID-19, media effect, conformity, personality, purchase intention

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12481 BOX Effect Sensitivity to Fin Width in SOI-Multi-FinFETs

Authors: A. N. Moulai Khatir

Abstract:

SOI-Multifin-FETs are placed to be the workhorse of the industry for the coming few generations, and thus, in a few years because their excellent transistor characteristics, ideal sub-threshold swing, low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) without pocket implantation, and negligible body bias dependency. The corner effect may also exist in the two lower corners; this effect is called the BOX effect, which can also occur in the direction X-Z. The electric field lines from the source and drain cross the bottom oxide and arrive in the silicon. This effect is also called DIVSB (Drain Induced Virtual Substrate Basing). The potential in the silicon film in particular near the drain is increased by the drain bias. It is similar to DIBL and result in a decrease of the threshold voltage. This work provides an understanding of the limitation of this effect by reducing the fin width for components with increased fin number.

Keywords: SOI, finFET, corner effect, dual-gate, tri-gate, BOX, multi-finFET

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12480 Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Non-Thermal Plasma

Authors: Jan Masak, Eva Kvasnickova, Vladimir Scholtz, Olga Matatkova, Marketa Valkova, Alena Cejkova

Abstract:

Microbial colonization of medical instruments, catheters, implants, etc. is a serious problem in the spread of nosocomial infections. Biofilms exhibit enormous resistance to environment. The resistance of biofilm populations to antibiotic or biocides often increases by two to three orders of magnitude in comparison with suspension populations. Subjects of interests are substances or physical processes that primarily cause the destruction of biofilm, while the released cells can be killed by existing antibiotics. In addition, agents that do not have a strong lethal effect do not cause such a significant selection pressure to further enhance resistance. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is defined as neutral, ionized gas composed of particles (photons, electrons, positive and negative ions, free radicals and excited or non-excited molecules) which are in permanent interaction. In this work, the effect of NTP generated by the cometary corona with a metallic grid on the formation and stability of biofilm and metabolic activity of cells in biofilm was studied. NTP was applied on biofilm populations of Staphylococcus epidermidis DBM 3179, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DBM 3081, DBM 3777, ATCC 15442 and ATCC 10145, Escherichia coli DBM 3125 and Candida albicans DBM 2164 grown on solid media on Petri dishes and on the titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surface used for the production joint replacements. Erythromycin (for S. epidermidis), polymyxin B (for E. coli and P. aeruginosa), amphotericin B (for C. albicans) and ceftazidime (for P. aeruginosa) were used to study the combined effect of NTP and antibiotics. Biofilms were quantified by crystal violet assay. Metabolic activity of the cells in biofilm was measured using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) colorimetric test based on the reduction of MTT into formazan by the dehydrogenase system of living cells. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to visualize the biofilm on the surface of the titanium alloy; SYTO 13 was used as a fluorescence probe to stain cells in the biofilm. It has been shown that biofilm populations of all studied microorganisms are very sensitive to the type of used NTP. The inhibition zone of biofilm recorded after 60 minutes exposure to NTP exceeded 20 cm², except P. aeruginosa DBM 3777 and ATCC 10145, where it was about 9 cm². Also metabolic activity of cells in biofilm differed for individual microbial strains. High sensitivity to NTP was observed in S. epidermidis, in which the metabolic activity of biofilm decreased after 30 minutes of NTP exposure to 15% and after 60 minutes to 1%. Conversely, the metabolic activity of cells of C. albicans decreased to 53% after 30 minutes of NTP exposure. Nevertheless, this result can be considered very good. Suitable combinations of exposure time of NTP and the concentration of antibiotic achieved in most cases a remarkable synergic effect on the reduction of the metabolic activity of the cells of the biofilm. For example, in the case of P. aeruginosa DBM 3777, a combination of 30 minutes of NTP with 1 mg/l of ceftazidime resulted in a decrease metabolic activity below 4%.

Keywords: anti-biofilm activity, antibiotic, non-thermal plasma, opportunistic pathogens

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12479 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
12478 Governance Challenges for the Management of Water Resources in Agriculture: The Italian Way

Authors: Silvia Baralla, Raffaella Zucaro, Romina Lorenzetti

Abstract:

Water management needs to cope with economic, societal, and environmental changes. This could be guaranteed through 'shifting from government to governance'. In the last decades, it was applied in Europe through and within important legislative pillars (Water Framework Directive and Common Agricultural Policy) and their measures focused on resilience and adaptation to climate change, with particular attention to the creation of synergies among policies and all the actors involved at different levels. Within the climate change context, the agricultural sector can play, through sustainable water management, a leading role for climate-resilient growth and environmental integrity. A recent analysis on the water management governance of different countries identified some common gaps dealing with administrative, policy, information, capacity building, funding, objective, and accountability. The ability of a country to fill these gaps is an essential requirement to make some of the changes requested by Europe, in particular the improvement of the agro-ecosystem resilience to the effect of climatic change, supporting green and digital transitions, and sustainable water use. This research aims to contribute in sharing examples of water governances and related advantages useful to fill the highlighted gaps. Italy has developed a strong and exhaustive model of water governance in order to react with strategic and synergic actions since it is one of the European countries most threatened by climate change and its extreme events (drought, floods). In particular, the Italian water governance model was able to overcome several gaps, specifically as concerns the water use in agriculture, adopting strategies as a systemic/integrated approach, the stakeholder engagement, capacity building, the improvement of planning and monitoring ability, and an adaptive/resilient strategy for funding activities. They were carried out, putting in place regulatory, structural, and management actions. Regulatory actions include both the institution of technical committees grouping together water decision-makers and the elaboration of operative manuals and guidelines by means of a participative and cross-cutting approach. Structural actions deal with the funding of interventions within European and national funds according to the principles of coherence and complementarity. Finally, management actions regard the introduction of operational tools to support decision-makers in order to improve planning and monitoring ability. In particular, two cross-functional and interoperable web databases were introduced: SIGRIAN (National Information System for Water Resources Management in Agriculture) and DANIA (National Database of Investments for Irrigation and the Environment). Their interconnection allows to support sustainable investments, taking into account the compliance about irrigation volumes quantified in SIGRIAN, ensuring a high level of attention on water saving, and monitoring the efficiency of funding. Main positive results from the Italian water governance model deal with a synergic and coordinated work at the national, regional, and local level among institutions, the transparency on water use in agriculture, a deeper understanding from the stakeholder side of the importance of their roles and of their own potential benefits and the capacity to guarantee continuity to this model, through a sensitization process and the combined use of management operational tools.

Keywords: agricultural sustainability, governance model, water management, water policies

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
12477 Effect of Shrinkage on Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters of Solar Dried Potato Samples of Variable Diameter

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

Abstract:

Potato is chosen as the food product for carrying out the natural convection mixed-mode solar drying experiments since they are easily available and globally consumed. The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients along with effective diffusivity were calculated considering both shrinkage and without shrinkage for the potato cylinders of different geometry (8, 10 and 13 mm diameters and a constant length of 50 mm). The convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) without considering shrinkage effect were 24.28, 18.69, 15.89 W/m2˚C and hc considering shrinkage effect were 37.81, 29.21, 25.72 W/m2˚C for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Similarly, the effective diffusivity (Deff) without considering shrinkage effect were 3.20×10-9, 4.82×10-9, 2.48×10-8 m2/s and Deff considering shrinkage effect were 1.68×10-9, 2.56×10-9, 1.34×10-8 m2/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively and the mass transfer coefficient (hm) without considering the shrinkage effect were 5.16×10-7, 2.93×10-7, 2.59×10-7 m/s and hm considering shrinkage effect were 3.71×10-7, 2.04×10-7, 1.80×10-7 m/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Increased values of hc were obtained by considering shrinkage effect in all diameter samples because shrinkage results in decreasing diameter with time achieving in enhanced rate of water loss. The average values of Deff determined without considering the shrinkage effect were found to be almost double that with shrinkage effect. The reduction in hm values is due to the fact that with increasing sample diameter, the exposed surface area per unit mass decreases, resulting in a slower moisture removal. It is worth noting that considering shrinkage effect led to overestimation of hc values in the range of 55.72-61.86% and neglecting the shrinkage effect in the mass transfer analysis, the values of Deff and hm are overestimated in the range of 85.02-90.27% and 39.11-45.11%, respectively, for the range of sample diameter investigated in the present study.

Keywords: shrinkage, convective heat transfer coefficient, effectivive diffusivity, convective mass transfer coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
12476 Direct Measurements of the Electrocaloric Effect in Solid Ferroelectric Materials via Thermoreflectance

Authors: Layla Farhat, Mathieu Bardoux, Stéphane Longuemart, Ziad Herro, Abdelhak Hadj Sahraoui

Abstract:

Electrocaloric (EC) effect refers to the isothermal entropy or adiabatic temperature changes of a dielectric material induced by an external electric field. This phenomenon has been largely ignored for application because only modest EC effects (2.6

Keywords: electrocaloric effect, thermoreflectance, ferroelectricity, cooling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
12475 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim

Abstract:

Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
12474 Behavioral Finance: Anomalies at Real Markets, Weekday Effect

Authors: Vera Jancurova

Abstract:

The financial theory is dominated by the believe that weekday effect has disappeared from current markets. The purpose of this article is to study anomalies, especially weekday effect, at real markets that disrupt the efficiency of financial markets. The research is based on the analyses of historical daily exchange rates of significant world indices to determine the presence of weekday effects on financial markets. The methodology used for the study is based on the analyzes of daily averages of particular indexes for different time periods. Average daily gains were analyzed for their whole time interval and then for particular five and ten years periods with the aim to detect the presence on current financial markets. The results confirm the presence of weekday effect at the most significant indices - for example: Nasdaq, S & P 500, FTSE 100 and the Hang Seng. It was confirmed that in the last ten years, the weekend effect disappeared from financial markets. However in last year’s the indicators show that weekday effect is coming back. The study shows that weekday effect has to be taken into consideration on financial markets, especially in the past years.

Keywords: indices, anomalies, behavioral finance, weekday effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
12473 Economic Stability in a Small Open Economy with Income Effect on Leisure Demand

Authors: Yu-Shan Hsu

Abstract:

This paper studies a two-sector growth model with a technology of social constant returns and with a utility that features either a zero or a positive income effect on the demand for leisure. The purpose is to investigate how the existence of aggregate instability or equilibrium indeterminacy depends on both the intensity of the income effect on the demand for leisure and the value of the labor supply elasticity. The main finding is that when there is a factor intensity reversal between the private perspective and the social perspective, indeterminacy arises even if the utility has a positive income effect on leisure demand. Moreover, we find that a smaller value of the labor supply elasticity increases the range of the income effect on leisure demand and thus increases the possibility of equilibrium indeterminacy. JEL classification: E3; O41

Keywords: indeterminacy, non-separable preferences, income effect, labor supply elasticity

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12472 Study of Inhibition of the End Effect Based on AR Model Predict of Combined Data Extension and Window Function

Authors: Pan Hongxia, Wang Zhenhua

Abstract:

In this paper, the EMD decomposition in the process of endpoint effect adopted data based on AR model to predict the continuation and window function method of combining the two effective inhibition. Proven by simulation of the simulation signal obtained the ideal effect, then, apply this method to the gearbox test data is also achieved good effect in the process, for the analysis of the subsequent data processing to improve the calculation accuracy. In the end, under various working conditions for the gearbox fault diagnosis laid a good foundation.

Keywords: gearbox, fault diagnosis, ar model, end effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
12471 Epicatechin Metabolites and Its Effect on ROS Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan

Abstract:

The action of (-)-epicatechin, a cocoa (Theobroma cacao) flavanol that modulates redox/oxidative stress are contributed mainly to their antioxidant properties. The present study investigates the concentration and time dependent effect of (-)-epicatechin metabolites 3MeEc, 4MeEc, and 4SulEc on the production of ROS on BAEC using L-012, Lucigenin as chemiluminescence dye and XO/HX system. Our result demonstrates that 3MeEc shows significant (P <0.05) lowering effect of ROS production in BAEC with increasing concentration of metabolite while L-012 was used as chemiluminescence dye but not in the case of Lucigenin. In XO/HX system, using L-012 as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc and 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect on ROS production with increasing concentration from 100-500nM as compared to the positive control (SOD). When Lucigenin was used as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc exerted significant lowering effect with increasing concentration when compared to the positive control (SOD) whereas 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect in ROS production from 250 nM on as compared to positive control. For 4SulEc, a significant lowering effect of ROS production was only observed at 100 and 250 nM. Overall, although each metabolite shows considerable effect, 3MeEc exhibited more pronounced effect on decreasing the production of ROS as compared to other two metabolites.

Keywords: epicatechin metabolites, HO-1, Nrf2, ROS

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
12470 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

Abstract:

The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

Procedia PDF Downloads 656