Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Navin Sheth

16 Assessment of Mammary Gland Immunity and Therapeutic Potential of Topical Herbal Gel against Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Mukesh N. Kher, Anju P. Kunjadia, Dev S. Nauriyal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Navin R. Sheth, Vaibhav D. Bhatt


In-vivo immunotherapeutic potential on cytokines production and antibacterial activity of a topical herbal gel was evaluated in two breeds of cattle in bovine subclinical mastitis. The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial count and studying the expression of different cytokines like (interleukin 6, 8, 12, GMCSF, interferon–γ and TNF‑α). The pre‑ and post‑treatment SCC in mastitic quarters did not differ statistically-significantly. However, total bacterial count declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all types of cytokines production on day 0, 5, and 21 post last treatments in both the breeds. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle affirmed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The topical herbal gel showed immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities in subclinical mastitis, and therefore the work supports its use as substitute herbal therapy against subclinical mastitis in bovines.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, immunomodulation, herbal gel, subclinical mastitis

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15 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth


Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: cow urine, hypoglycemic effect, synergic effect, type 2 diabetes, vijaysar

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14 Formulation and Invivo Evaluation of Salmeterol Xinafoate Loaded MDI for Asthma Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Paresh Patel, Priya Patel, Vaidehi Sorathiya, Navin Sheth


The aim of present work was to fabricate Salmeterol Xinafoate (SX) metered dose inhaler (MDI) for asthma and to evaluate the SX loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for pulmonary delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles can be used to deliver particles to the lungs via MDI. A modified solvent emulsification diffusion technique was used to prepare Salmeterol Xinafoate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by using compritol 888 ATO as lipid, tween 80 as surfactant, D-mannitol as cryoprotecting agent and L-leucine was used to improve aerosolization behaviour. Box-Behnken design was applied with 17 runs. 3-D surface response plots and contour plots were drawn and optimized formulation was selected based on minimum particle size and maximum % EE. % yield, in vitro diffusion study, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, DSC, FTIR also characterized. Particle size, zeta potential analyzed by Zetatrac particle size analyzer and aerodynamic properties was carried out by cascade impactor. Pre convulsion time was examined for control group, treatment group and compare with marketed group. MDI was evaluated for leakage test, flammability test, spray test and content per puff. By experimental design, particle size and % EE found to be in range between 119-337 nm and 62.04-76.77% by solvent emulsification diffusion technique. Morphologically, particles have spherical shape and uniform distribution. DSC & FTIR study showed that no interaction between drug and excipients. Zeta potential shows good stability of SLNs. % respirable fraction found to be 52.78% indicating reach to the deep part of lung such as alveoli. Animal study showed that fabricated MDI protect the lungs against histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. MDI showed sphericity of particle in spray pattern, 96.34% content per puff and non-flammable. SLNs prepared by Solvent emulsification diffusion technique provide desirable size for deposition into the alveoli. This delivery platform opens up a wide range of treatment application of pulmonary disease like asthma via solid lipid nanoparticles.

Keywords: salmeterol xinafoate, solid lipid nanoparticles, box-behnken design, solvent emulsification diffusion technique, pulmonary delivery

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13 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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12 An Evaluation on the Methodology of Manufacturing High Performance Organophilic Clay at the Most Efficient and Cost Effective Process

Authors: Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Zatil Afifah Omar, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Organophilic Clays, also known as Organoclays, is used as a viscosifier in Oil based Drilling fluids. Most often, Organophilic clay are produced from modified Sodium and Calcium based Bentonite. Many studies and data show that Organophilic Clay using Hectorite based clays provide the best yield and good fluid loss properties in an oil-based drilling fluid at a higher cost. In terms of the manufacturing process, the two common methods of manufacturing organophilic clays are a Wet Process and a Dry Process. Wet process is known to produce better performance product at a higher cost while Dry Process shorten the production time. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the various formulation of an organophilic clay and its performance vs. the cost, as well as to determine the most efficient and cost-effective method of manufacturing organophilic clays.

Keywords: organophilic clay, viscosifier, wet process, dry process

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11 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar


Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

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10 Model Based Simulation Approach to a 14-Dof Car Model Using Matlab/Simulink

Authors: Ishit Sheth, Chandrasekhar Jinendran, Chinmaya Ranjan Sahu


A fourteen degree of freedom (DOF) ride and handling control mathematical model is developed for a car using generalized boltzmann hamel equation which will create a basis for design of ride and handling controller. Mathematical model developed yield equations of motion for non-holonomic constrained systems in quasi-coordinates. The governing differential equation developed integrates ride and handling control of car. Model-based systems engineering approach is implemented for simulation using matlab/simulink, vehicle’s response in different DOF is examined and later validated using commercial software (ADAMS). This manuscript involves detailed derivation of full car vehicle model which provides response in longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion to demonstrate the advantages of the developed model over the existing dynamic model. The dynamic behaviour of the developed ride and handling model is simulated for different road conditions.

Keywords: Full Vehicle Model, MBSE, Non Holonomic Constraints, Boltzmann Hamel Equation

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9 Optimized Microwave Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Conversion into Lignin free and High Crystalline Cellulose

Authors: Mohd Ishfaq Bhat, Navin Chandra Shahi, Umesh Chandra Lohani


The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of microwave application in synergy with the conventional sodium chlorite delignification of rice straw biomass. For the study, Box-Behnken experimental design involving four independent parameters, each with three levels viz. microwave power (480-800 W), irradiation time (4-12 min), bleaching solution concentration (0.4-3.0%), and bleaching time (1-5h) was used. The response was taken in the form of delignification percentage. The optimization of process parameters was done through response surface methodology. The respective optimum parameters of microwave power, irradiation time, bleaching solution concentration and bleaching time were obtained as 671 W, 8.66 min, 2.67% and 1h. The delignification percentage achieved at optimum condition was 93.51%. The spectral, morphological and the x-ray diffraction characteristics of the rice straw powder after delignification showed a complete absence of lignin peaks, deconstruction of lignocellulose complex and an increase of crystallinity (from 39.8 to 61.6 %).

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, delignification, microwaves, rice straw, characterization

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8 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth


Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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7 Proprietary Blend Synthetic Rubber as Loss Circulation Material in Drilling Operation

Authors: Zatil Afifah Omar, Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Lost circulation has always been one of the greatest problems faced by drilling companies during drilling operations due to excessive drilling Fluids losses. Loss of circulation leads to Huge cost and non-productive time. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sealing efficiency of a proprietary blend of synthetic rubber as loss circulation material in comparison with a conventional product such as calcium carbonate, graphite, cellulosic, and nutshells. Sand Bed Tester with a different proprietary blend of synthetic rubber compositions has been used to determine the effectiveness of the LCM in preventing drilling fluids losses in a lab scale. Test results show the proprietary blend of synthetic rubber have good bridging properties and sealing Off fractures of various sizes. The finish product is environmentally friendly with lower production lead time and lower production cost compared to current conventional loss circulation materials used in current drilling operations.

Keywords: loss circulation materials, drilling operation, sealing efficiency, LCM

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6 Comparison Between a Droplet Digital PCR and Real Time PCR Method in Quantification of HBV DNA

Authors: Surangrat Srisurapanon, Chatchawal Wongjitrat, Navin Horthongkham, Ruengpung Sutthent


HBV infection causes a potential serious public health problem. The ability to detect the HBV DNA concentration is of the importance and improved continuously. By using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), several factors in standardized; source of material, calibration standard curve and PCR efficiency are inconsistent. Digital PCR (dPCR) is an alternative PCR-based technique for absolute quantification using Poisson's statistics without requiring a standard curve. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the data set of HBV DNA generated between dPCR and qPCR methods. All samples were quantified by Abbott’s real time PCR and 54 samples with 2 -6 log10 HBV DNA were selected for comparison with dPCR. Of these 54 samples, there were two outlier samples defined as negative by dPCR. Of these two, samples were defined as negative by dPCR, whereas 52 samples were positive by both the tests. The difference between the two assays was less than 0.25 log IU/mL in 24/52 samples (46%) of paired samples; less than 0.5 log IU/mL in 46/52 samples (88%) and less than 1 log in 50/52 samples (96%). The correlation coefficient was r=0.788 and P-value <0.0001. Comparison to qPCR, data generated by dPCR tend to be the overestimation in the sample with low HBV DNA concentration and underestimated in the sample with high viral load. The variation in DNA by dPCR measurement might be due to the pre-amplification bias, template. Moreover, a minor drawback of dPCR is the large quantity of DNA had to be used when compare to the qPCR. Since the technology is relatively new, the limitations of this assay will be improved.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, real time PCR, digital PCR, DNA quantification

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5 Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Child Care Homes in Nepal

Authors: Kumari Bandana Bhatt, Navin Bhatt


Background: Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are high risk of physical, mental, sexual and emotional abuse and face social stigma and discrimination which significantly increase the risk of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression or emotional problems even they stay in well run child care homes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine the determinants among OVC in child care homes in Nepal. Methods: An institutional-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in twenty orphanages of five districts of Nepal. Six hundred two children were recruited into the study. After the informed consent form obtaining, the guardian and assent were interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Logistic regression was used for detecting the association between variables at the significant level of =0.05. Results: The study revealed that 33.20% of OVC had depression. Among them 66.80% of children experienced minimal depression, 17.40% had mild depression, 11.30% had moderate depression 4.50% had severe depression. Sex, alcohol drinking, congenital problem, social support and bully were the main variables associated with depression among OVC of the child care homes in Nepal. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression was high among the orphans and vulnerable children living in child care homes especially among the female children in Nepal. Therefore, early identification and instituting of preventive measures of depression are essential to reduce this problem in this special group of children living in child care homes.

Keywords: Mental health, Depression, Orphans and vulnerable children, child care homes

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4 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth


The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest, parkinson's disease

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3 Microwave Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Azetidinone Analogous Bearing Diphenyl Ether Nucleus as a Potent Antimycobacterial and Antiprotozoal Agent

Authors: Vatsal M. Patel, Navin B. Patel


The present studies deal with the developing a series bearing a diphenyl ethers nucleus using structure-based drug design concept. A newer series of diphenyl ether based azetidinone namely N-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)azetidin-1-yl)-2-(substituted amino)acetamide (2a-j) have been synthesized by condensation of m-phenoxybenzaldehyde with 2-(substituted-phenylamino)acetohydrazide followed by the cyclisation of resulting Schiff base (1a-j) by conventional method as well as microwave heating approach as a part of an environmentally benign synthetic protocol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis and were screened for in vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and antiprotozoal activity. The compound 2f was found to be most active M. tuberculosis (6.25 µM) MIC value in the primary screening as well as this same derivative has been found potency against L. mexicana and T. cruzi with MIC value 2.09 and 6.69 µM comparable to the reference drug Miltefosina and Nifurtimox. To provide understandable evidence to predict binding mode and approximate binding energy of a compound to a target in the terms of ligand-protein interaction, all synthesized compounds were docked against an enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase of M. tuberculosis (PDB ID: 4u0j). The computational studies revealed that azetidinone derivatives have a high affinity for the active site of enzyme which provides a strong platform for new structure-based design efforts. The Lipinski’s parameters showed good drug-like properties and can be developed as an oral drug candidate.

Keywords: antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal, azetidinone, diphenylether, docking, microwave

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2 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Optimization Methods with Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Technique

Authors: Shraddha Srivastava, N. K. Painuly, S. P. Mishra, Navin Singh, Muhsin Punchankandy, Kirti Srivastava, M. L. B. Bhatt


Various optimization methods used in interstitial brachytherapy are based on dwell positions and dwell weights alteration to produce dose distribution based on the implant geometry. Since these optimization schemes are not anatomy based, they could lead to deviations from the desired plan. This study was henceforth carried out to compare anatomy-based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) optimization technique with graphical and geometrical optimization methods in interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy planning of cervical carcinoma. Six patients with 12 CT data sets of MUPIT implants in HDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer were prospectively studied. HR-CTV and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured in Oncentra treatment planning system (TPS) using GYN GEC-ESTRO guidelines on cervical carcinoma. Three sets of plans were generated for each fraction using IPSA, graphical optimization (GrOPT) and geometrical optimization (GOPT) methods. All patients were treated to a dose of 20 Gy in 2 fractions. The main objective was to cover at least 95% of HR-CTV with 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 ≥ 95% of HR-CTV). IPSA, GrOPT, and GOPT based plans were compared in terms of target coverage, OAR doses, homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (COIN) using dose-volume histogram (DVH). Target volume coverage (mean V100) was found to be 93.980.87%, 91.341.02% and 85.052.84% for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans respectively. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of HR-CTV) values for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans were 10.19 ± 1.07 Gy, 10.17 ± 0.12 Gy and 7.99 ± 1.0 Gy respectively, while D100 (minimum dose received by 100% volume of HR-CTV) for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans was 6.55 ± 0.85 Gy, 6.55 ± 0.65 Gy, 4.73 ± 0.14 Gy respectively. IPSA plans resulted in lower doses to the bladder (D₂

Keywords: cervical cancer, HDR brachytherapy, IPSA, MUPIT

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1 Dermatomyositis: It is Not Always an Allergic Reaction

Authors: Irfan Abdulrahman Sheth, Sohil Pothiawala


Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, traditionally characterized by a progressive, symmetrical proximal muscle weakness and pathognomonic or characteristic cutaneous manifestations. We report a case of a 60-year old Chinese female who was referred from polyclinic for allergic rash over the body after applying hair dye 3 weeks ago. It was associated with puffiness of face, shortness of breath and hoarse voice since last 2 weeks with decrease effort tolerance. She also complained of dysphagia/ myalgia with progressive weakness of proximal muscles and palpitations. She denied chest pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, orthopnea or fever. She had stable vital signs and appeared cushingoid. She was noted to have rash over the scalp/ face and ecchymosis over the right arm with puffiness of face and periorbital oedema. There was symmetrical muscle weakness and other neurological examination was normal. Initial impression was of allergic reaction and underlying nephrotic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome from TCM use. Diagnostic tests showed high Creatinine kinase (CK) of 1463 u/l, CK–MB of 18.7 ug/l and Troponin –T of 0.09 ug/l. The Full blood count and renal panel was normal. EMG showed inflammatory myositis. Patient was managed by rheumatologist and discharged on oral prednisolone with methotrexate/ ergocalciferol capsule and calcium carb, vitamin D tablets and outpatient follow up. In some patients, cutaneous disease exists in the absence of objective evidence of muscle inflammation. Management of dermatomyositis begins with careful investigation for the presence of muscle disease or of additional systemic involvement, particularly of the pulmonary, cardiac or gastrointestinal systems, and for the possibility of an accompanying malignancy. Muscle disease and systemic involvement can be refractory and may require multiple sequential therapeutic interventions or, at times, combinations of therapies. Thus, we want to highlight to the physicians that the cutaneous disease of dermatomyositis should not be confused with allergic reaction. It can be particularly challenging to diagnose. Early recognition aids appropriate management of this group of patients.

Keywords: dermatomyositis, myopathy, allergy, cutaneous disease

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