Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2999

Search results for: orbital elements

2999 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra


We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
2998 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez


This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2997 Yarkovsky Effect on the Orbital Dynamics of the Asteroid (101955) Bennu

Authors: Sanjay Narayan Deo, Badam Singh Kushvah


Bennu(101955) is a half kilometer potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid. We analyze the influence of Yarkovsky effect and relativistic effect of the Sun on the motion of the asteroid Bennu. The transverse model is used to compute Yarkovsky force on asteroid Bennu. Our dynamical model includes Newtonian perturbations of eight planets, the Moon, the Sun and three massive asteroid (1Ceres, 2Palas and 4Vesta). We showed the variation in orbital elements of nominal orbit of the asteroid. In the presence of Yarkovsky effect, the Semi-major axis of the orbit of the asteroid is decreases by 350 m over one period of orbital motion. The magnitude of Yarkovsky force is computed. We find that maximum magnitude of Yarkovsky force is 0.09 N at the perihelion . We also found that the magnitude of the Sun relativity effect is greater than the Yarkovsky effect on the motion the asteroid Bennu.

Keywords: Bennu, orbital elements, relativistic effect, Yarkovsky effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2996 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez


In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
2995 Radiologic Assessment of Orbital Dimensions Among Omani Subjects: Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Study

Authors: Marwa Al-Subhi, Eiman Al-Ajmi, Mallak Al-Maamari, Humood Al-Dhuhli, Srinivasa Rao


The orbit and its contents are affected by various pathologies and craniofacial anomalies. Sound knowledge of the normal orbital dimensions is clinically essential for successful surgical outcomes and also in the field of forensic anthropology. Racial, ethnic, and regional variations in the orbital dimensions have been reported. This study sought to determine the orbital dimensions of Omani subjects who had been referred for computed tomography (CT) images at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 273 patients’ CT images were evaluated retrospectively by using an electronic medical records database. The orbital dimensions were recorded using both axial and sagittal planes of CT images. The mean orbital index (OI) was found to be 83.25±4.83 and the prevalent orbital type was categorized as mesoseme. The mean orbital index was 83.34±5.05 and 83.16±4.57 in males and females, respectively, with their difference being statistically not significant (p=0.76). A statistically significant association was observed between the right and left orbits with regard to horizontal distance (p<0.05) and vertical distance (p<0.01) of orbit and OI (p<0.05). No significant difference between the OI and age groups was observed in both males and females. The mean interorbital distance and interzygomatic distance were found to be 19.45±1.52 mm and 95.59±4.08 mm, respectively. Both of these parameters were significantly higher in males (p<0.05). Results of the present study provide reference values of orbital dimensions in Omani subjects. The prevalent orbital type of Omani subjects is mesoseme, which is a hallmark of the white race.

Keywords: orbit, orbital index, mesoseme, ethnicity, variation

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2994 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika


The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2993 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim


This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: adaptive welding, automatic welding, pipe welding, orbital welding, laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
2992 Some Aspects on Formation Initialization and Its Maintenance of Leo Satellites

Authors: Y. Johnson


Study of multi-satellite formation flight systems has drawn wide attention recently due to so many potential advantages. The present work aims to model the relative motion dynamics in terms of change in classical orbital parameters between the two satellites-chief and deputy- under Earth’s oblateness effect. The required impulsive thrust control is calculated to minimize these orbital parameter changes. The formation configuration is initialized by selecting a set of orbital parameters for the chief and deputy satellites such that bounded motion is maintained for a long time in a J_2-invariant relative non-circular orbit between the satellites. The solution of J_2-modified Hill’s equations is also derived in this paper.

Keywords: satellite, formation flight, j2 effect, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2991 Long Standing Orbital Floor Fracture Repair: Case Report

Authors: Hisham A. Hashem, Sameh Galal, Bassem M. Moeshed


A 36 years old male patient presented to our unit with a history of motor-car accident from 7 months complaining of disfigurement and double vision. On examination and investigations, there was an orbital floor fracture in the left eye with inferior rectus muscle entrapment causing diplopia, dystopia and enophthalmos. Under general anesthesia, a sub-ciliary incision was performed, and the orbital floor fracture was repaired with a double layer Medpor sheet (30x50x15) with removing and freeing fibrosis that was present and freeing of the inferior rectus muscle. Remarkable improvement of the dystopia was noticed, however, there was a residual diplopia in upgaze and enophthalmos. He was then referred to a strabismologist, which upon examination found left hypotropia of 8 ΔD corrected by 8 ΔD base up prism and positive forced duction test on elevation and pseudoptosis. Under local anesthesia, a limbal incision approach with hangback 4mm recession of inferior rectus muscle was performed after identifying an inferior rectus muscle structure. Improvement was noted shortly postoperative with correction of both diplopia and pseudoptosis. Follow up after 1, 4 and 8 months was done showing a stable condition. Delayed surgery in cases of orbital floor fracture may still hold good results provided proper assessment of the case with management of each sign separately.

Keywords: diplopia, dystopia, late surgery, orbital floor fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2990 New Teaching Tools for a Modern Representation of Chemical Bond in the Course of Food Science

Authors: Nicola G. G. Cecca


In Italian IPSSEOAs, high schools that give a vocational education to students that will work in the field of Enogastronomy and Hotel Management, the course of Food Science allows the students to start and see food as a mixture of substances that they will transform during their profession. These substances are characterized not only by a chemical composition but also by a molecular structure that makes them nutritionally active. But the increasing number of new products proposed by Food Industry, the modern techniques of production and transformation, the innovative preparations required by customers have made many information reported in the most wide spread Food Science textbooks not up-to-date or too poor for the people who will work in catering sector. Often Authors offer information aged to Bohr’s Atomic Model and to the ‘Octet Rule’ proposed by G.N. Lewis to describe the Chemical Bond, without giving any reference to new as Orbital Atomic Model and Molecular Orbital Theory that, in the meantime, start to be old themselves. Furthermore, this antiquated information precludes an easy understanding of a wide range of properties of nutritive substances and many reactions in which the food constituents are involved. In this paper, our attention is pointed out to use GEOMAG™ to represent the dynamics with which the chemical bond is formed during the synthesis of the molecules. GEOMAG™ is a toy, produced by the Swiss Company Geomagword S.A., pointed to stimulate in children, aged between 6-10 years, their fantasy and their handling ability and constituted by metallic spheres and metallic magnetic bars coated by coloured plastic materials. The simulation carried out with GEOMAG™ is based on the similitude existing between the Coulomb’s force and the magnetic attraction’s force and in particular between the formulae with which they are calculated. The electrostatic force (F in Newton) that allows the formation of the chemical bond can be calculated by mean Fc = kc q1 q2/d2 where: q1 e q2 are the charge of particles [in Coulomb], d is the distance between the particles [in meters] and kc is the Coulomb’s constant. It is surprising to observe that the attraction’s force (Fm) acting between the magnetic extremities of GEOMAG™ used to simulate the chemical bond can be calculated in the same way by using the formula Fm = km m1 m2/d2 where: m1 e m2 represent the strength of the poles [A•m], d is the distance between the particles [m], km = μ/4π in which μ is the magnetic permeability of medium [N•A-2]. The magnetic attraction can be tested by students by trying to keep the magnetic elements of GEOMAG™ separate by hands or trying to measure by mean an appropriate dynamometric system. Furthermore, by using a dynamometric system to measure the magnetic attraction between the GEOMAG™ elements is possible draw a graphic F=f(d) to verify that the curve obtained during the simulation is very similar to that one hypnotized, around the 1920’s by Linus Pauling to describe the formation of H2+ in according with Molecular Orbital Theory.

Keywords: chemical bond, molecular orbital theory, magnetic attraction force, GEOMAG™

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2989 Analysis the Trajectory of the Spacecraft during the Transition to the Planet's Orbit Using Aerobraking in the Atmosphere of the Planet

Authors: Zaw Min Tun


The paper focuses on the spacecraft’s trajectory transition from interplanetary hyperbolic orbit to the planet’s orbit using the aerobraking in the atmosphere of the planet. A considerable mass of fuel is consumed during the spacecraft transition from the planet’s gravitation assist trajectory into the planet’s satellite orbit. To reduce the fuel consumption in this transition need to slow down the spacecraft’s velocity in the planet’s atmosphere and reduce its orbital transition time. The paper is devoted to the use of the planet’s atmosphere for slowing down the spacecraft during its transition into the satellite orbit with uncertain atmospheric parameters. To reduce the orbital transition time of the spacecraft is controlled by the change of attack angles’ values at the aerodynamic deceleration path and adjusting the minimum flight altitude of the spacecraft at the pericenter of the planet’s upper atmosphere.

Keywords: aerobraking, atmosphere of the planet, orbital transition time, Spacecraft’s trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2988 Structural Properties, Natural Bond Orbital, Theory Functional Calculations (DFT), and Energies for Fluorous Compounds: C13H12F7ClN2O

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Masomeh Shahsavary


In this paper, the optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary point and the minimum energy paths of C13H12F7ClN2O are calculated by using the DFT (B3LYP) methods with LANL2DZ basis sets. B3LYP/ LANL2DZ calculation results indicated that some selected bond length and bond angles values for the C13H12F7ClN2O.

Keywords: C13H12F7ClN2O, vatural bond orbital, fluorous compounds, functional calculations

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2987 Pilomatrixoma of the Left Infra-Orbital Region in a 9 Year Old

Authors: Zainab Shaikh, Yusuf Miyanji


Pilomatrixoma is a benign neoplasm of the hair follicle matrix that is not commonly diagnosed in general practice. This is a case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a one-year history of a 19mm x 11 mm swelling in the left infra-orbital region. This was previously undiagnosed in Spain, where the patient resided at the time of initial presentation, due to the language barrier the patient’s family encountered. An ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging gave useful information regarding surrounding structures for complete tumor excision and indicated that the risk of facial nerve palsy is low. The lesion was surgically excised and a definitive diagnosis was made after histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, although not rare in its occurrence, is rarely this large at the time of excision due to early presentation. This case highlights the importance of including pilomatrixoma in the differential diagnosis of dermal and subcutaneous lesions in the head and neck region, as it is often misdiagnosed due to the lack of awareness of its clinical presentation.

Keywords: pilomatrixoma, swelling, infra-orbital, facial swelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2986 Non-AIDS Related Multiple Brain and Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Meningioma: A Case Report

Authors: Eghosa Morgan, Bourtarbouch Mahjouba, Heida El Ouahabi, Poluyi Edward, Diawarra Seylan


Non-AIDS lymphoma, a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is an uncommon aggressive infiltrative malignant tumour involving several sites in the central nervous system, such as the periventricular region and leptomeninges. In this article, the authors presented a 26-year old man with painless progressive right exophthalmos and scalp swelling with no symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done revealed isointense masses with brilliant homogenous enhancement on contrast administration resembling a meningioma, with a dura tail – like attachment as seen in meningioma. He had surgery for the right orbital tumour and histopathological diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of lymphoma (B type). Steroid was given in the post-operative period which led to significant regression of the tumours, hence its description as ‘vanishing tumour’. He is presently receiving methotrexate-based chemotherapy and subsequently planned for radiotherapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), meningioma, non-aids lymphoma, orbital

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2985 An Audit to Look at the Management of Paediatric Peri Orbital Cellulitis in a District General Hospital, Emergency Department

Authors: Ruth Green, Samantha Milton, Rinal Desai


Background/Aims: Eye pain/swelling/redness is a common presentation to Barnet General Hospital (a district general hospital), pediatric emergency department, and is managed by both the pediatric and emergency teams. The management of each child differs dramatically depending on the healthcare professional who reviews them. There also appears to be confusion in diagnosis between periorbital cellulitis, pre-septal cellulitis, and orbital cellulitis. Pre septal cellulitis refers to an inflammation of the eyelids and soft tissue anterior to the orbital septum. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a serious, rapidly progressive infection of soft tissues located posterior to the orbital septum. Pre-septal cellulitis is more prevalent and less serious than orbital cellulitis, although it may be part of a continuous spectrum if untreated. Pre-septal cellulitis should there be diagnosed and treated urgently to prevent spread to the septum. For the purpose of the audit, the term periorbital cellulitis has been used as an umbrella term for all spectrums of this infection. The audit aimed to look at, how as a whole, the department is diagnosing and managing orbital and pre-septal cellulitis. Gold Standard: Patients of the same age and diagnosis should be treated with the same medication, advice, and follow-up. Method: Data was collected retrospectively from pediatric patients ( < 18years) who attended the emergency department from June 2019 to February 2020 who had been coded as pre-septal cellulitis, periorbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, or eye pain/swelling/redness. Demographics, signs and symptoms, management, and follow-up were recorded for all patients with any of the diagnoses of pre-septal, periorbital, or orbital cellulitis. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was used to record the anonymised data. Results: There were vast discrepancies in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with periorbital cellulitis. Conclusion/Discussion: The audit concluded there is no uniform approach to managing periorbital cellulitis in Barnet General Hospital Paediatric Emergency Department. Healthcare professionals misdiagnosed conjunctivitis as periorbital cellulitis, and adequate steps did not appear to be documented on excluding red flag signs and symptoms of patients presenting. There was no consistency in follow-up, with some patients having timely phone reviews or clinical reviews for mild symptoms. Advice given by the staff was appropriate, and patients did return when symptoms got worse and were treated accordingly. Plan: Given the inconsistency, a gold standard care pathway or local easily accessible clinical guideline can be developed to help with the diagnosis and management of periorbital cellulitis. Along with this, a teaching session can be carried out for the staff of the pediatric team and emergency department to disseminate the teaching. Following the introduction of a guideline and teaching sessions, patients notes can be re-reviewed to check improvement in patient care.

Keywords: periorbital cellulitis, preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, erythematous eyelid

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2984 DFT Study of Half Sandwich of Vanadium (IV) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor


A novel new vanadium (IV) complexes incorporating the chelating diamido cyclopentadienyl {ArN(CH2)3NAr)}2-((ηn-Cp)Cp)} (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3)(Cp = C5H5 and n = 1,2,3,4 and 5) have been studied with calculation of the properties of species involved in various of cyclopentadienyl reaction. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP (Becke) (Lee–Yang–Parr) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of vanadium cyclopentadienyl. In the meantime the complex [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η1-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) which is showed a low thermal stability in case of the just one carbon of cyclopentadienyl can be insertion with vanadium metal centre. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: vanadium (IV) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2983 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub


We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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2982 Topological Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Pyruvic Acid-Water Mixtures

Authors: Ferid Hammami


The molecular geometries of the possible conformations of pyruvic acid-water complexes (PA-(H₂O)ₙ = 1- 4) have been fully optimized at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G ++ (d, p) levels of calculation. Among several optimized molecular clusters, the most stable molecular arrangements obtained when one, two, three, and four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to a central pyruvic acid molecule are presented in this paper. Apposite topological and geometrical parameters are considered as primary indicators of H-bond strength. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis shows that pyruvic acid can form a ring structure with water, and the molecular structures are stabilized by both strong O-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds. In large clusters, classical O-H...O hydrogen bonds still exist between water molecules, and a cage-like structure is built around some parts of the central molecule of pyruvic acid. The electrostatic potential energy map (MEP) and the HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) analysis has been performed for all considered complexes.

Keywords: pyruvic acid, PA-water complex, hydrogen bonding, DFT, AIM, MEP, HOMO-LUMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2981 Molecular and Electronic Structure of Chromium (III) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor


Here we show that the reduction of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl2] (1) where (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3) and in presence of NaCp (2) (Cp= C5H5 = cyclopentadien), with a center coordination η5 interaction between Cp as co-ligand and chromium metal center, this was optimization by using density functional theory (DFT) and then was comparing with experimental data, also other possibility of Cp interacted with ion metal were tested like η1 ,η2 ,η3 and η4 under optimization system. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP ( Becke)( Lee–Yang–Parr ) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of chromium cyclopentadienyl. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: Chromium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
2980 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila


Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: framework, prioritization, usability, WebGIS

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2979 Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Behzad Padidaran Moghaddam


In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.

Keywords: geometrical parameters, hydrogen bonding, electronic properties, vibrational frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2978 Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled


In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.

Keywords: orbit determination, STK, Matlab-GUI, satellite tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2977 An Acyclic Zincgermylene: Rapid H₂ Activation

Authors: Martin Juckel


Probably no other field of inorganic chemistry has undergone such a rapid development in the past two decades than the low oxidation state chemistry of main group elements. This rapid development has only been possible by the development of new bulky ligands. In case of our research group, super-bulky monodentate amido ligands and β-diketiminate ligands have been used to a great success. We first synthesized the unprecedented magnesium(I) dimer [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ (ᴹᵉˢNacnac = [(ᴹᵉˢNCMe)₂CH]-; Mes = mesityl, which has since been used both as reducing agent and also for the synthesis of new metal-magnesium bonds. In case of the zinc bromide precursor [L*ZnBr] (L*=(N(Ar*)(SiPri₃); (Ar* = C₆H₂{C(H)Ph₂}₂Me-2,6,4, the reduction with [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ led to such a metal-magnesium bond. This [L*ZnMg(ᴹᵉˢNacnac)] compound can be seen as an ‘inorganic Grignard reagent’, which can be used to transfer the metal fragment onto other functional groups or other metal centers; just like the conventional Grignard reagent. By simple addition of (TBoN)GeCl (TBoN = N(SiMe₃){B(DipNCH)₂) to the aforesaid compound, we were able to transfer the amido-zinc fragment to the Ge center of the germylene starting material and to synthesize the first example of a germanium(II)-zinc bond: [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)]. While these reactions typically led to complex product mixture, [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] could be isolated as dark blue crystals in a good yield. This new compound shows interesting reactivity towards small molecules, especially dihydrogen gas. This is of special interest as dihydrogen is one of the more difficult small molecules to activate, due to its strong (BDE = 108 kcal/mol) and non-polar bond. In this context, the interaction between H₂ σ-bond with the tetrelylene p-Orbital (LUMO), with concomitant donation of the tetrelylene lone pair (HOMO) into the H₂ σ* orbital are responsible for the activation of dihydrogen gas. Accordingly, the narrower the HOMO-LUMO gap of tertelylene, the more reactivity towards H₂ it typically is. The aim of a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap was reached by transferring electropositive substituents respectively metal substituents with relatively low Pauling electronegativity (zinc: 1.65) onto the Ge center (here: the zinc-amido fragment). In consideration of the unprecedented reactivity of [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)], a computational examination of its frontier orbital energies was undertaken. The energy separation between the HOMO, which has significant Ge lone pair character, and the LUMO, which has predominantly Ge p-orbital character, is narrow (40.8 kcal/mol; cf.∆S-T= 24.8 kcal/mol), and comparable to the HOMO-LUMO gaps calculated for other literature known complexes). The calculated very narrow HOMO-LUMO gap for the [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] complex is consistent with its high reactivity, and is remarkable considering that it incorporates a π-basic amide ligand, which are known to raise the LUMO of germylenes considerably.

Keywords: activation of dihydrogen gas, narrow HOMO-LUMO gap, first germanium(II)-zinc bond, inorganic Grignard reagent

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2976 Modeling of Complex Structures: Shear Wall with Openings and Stiffened Shells

Authors: Temami Oussama, Bessais Lakhdar, Hamadi Djamal, Abderrahmani Sifeddine


The analysis of complex structures encourages the engineer to make simplifying assumptions, sometimes attempting the analysis of the whole structure as complex as it is, and it can be done using the finite element method (FEM). In the modeling of complex structures by finite elements, various elements can be used: beam element, membrane element, solid element, plates and shells elements. These elements formulated according to the classical formulation and do not generally share the same nodal degrees of freedom, which complicates the development of a compatible model. The compatibility of the elements with each other is often a difficult problem for modeling complicated structure. This compatibility is necessary to ensure the convergence. To overcome this problem, we have proposed finite elements with a rotational degree of freedom. The study used is based on the strain approach formulation with 2D and 3D formulation with different degrees of freedom at each node. For the comparison and confrontation of results; the finite elements available in ABAQUS/Standard are used.

Keywords: compatibility requirement, complex structures, finite elements, modeling, strain approach

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2975 DFT Study of Hoogsteen-Type Base Pairs

Authors: N. Amraoui, D. Hammoutene


We have performed a theoretical study using dispersion-corrected Density Functional Methods to evaluate a variety of artificial nucleobases as candidates for metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs. We focus on A-M-T Hoogsteen-type base pair with M=Co(II), Ru(I), Ni(I). All calculations are performed using (ADF 09) program. Metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs are studied as drug candidates, their geometry optimizations are performed at ZORA/TZ2P/BLYP-D level. The molecular geometries and different energies as total energies, coordination energies, Pauli interactions, orbital interactions and electrostatic energies are determined.

Keywords: chemistry, biology, density functional method, orbital interactions

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2974 Facies Sedimentology and Astronomic Calibration of the Reinech Member (Lutetian)

Authors: Jihede Haj Messaoud, Hamdi Omar, Hela Fakhfakh Ben Jemia, Chokri Yaich


The Upper Lutetian alternating marl–limestone succession of Reineche Member was deposited over a warm shallow carbonate platform that permits Nummulites proliferation. High-resolution studies of 30 meters thick Nummulites-bearing Reineche Member, cropping out in Central Tunisia (Jebel Siouf), have been undertaken, regarding pronounced cyclical sedimentary sequences, in order to investigate the periodicity of cycles and their related orbital-scale oceanic and climatic changes. The palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic data are preserved in several proxies obtainable through high-resolution sampling and laboratories measurement and analysis as magnetic susceptibility (MS) and carbonates contents in conjunction with a wireline logging tools. The time series analysis of proxies permits to establish cyclicity orders present in the studied intervals which could be linked to the orbital cycles. MS records provide high-resolution proxies for relative sea level change in Late Lutetian strata. The spectral analysis of MS fluctuations confirmed the orbital forcing by the presence of the complete suite of orbital frequencies in the precession of 23 ka, the obliquity of 41 ka, and notably the two modes of eccentricity of 100 and 405 ka. Regarding the two periodic sedimentary cycles detected by wavelet analysis of proxy fluctuations which coincide with the long-term 405 ka eccentricity cycle, the Reineche Member spanned 0,8 Myr. Wireline logging tools as gamma ray and sonic were used as a proxies to decipher cyclicity and trends in sedimentation and contribute to identifying and correlate units. There are used to constraint the highest frequency cyclicity modulated by a long term wavelength cycling apparently controlled by clay content. Interpreted as a result of variations in carbonate productivity, it has been suggested that the marl-limestone couplets, represent the sedimentary response to the orbital forcing. The calculation of cycle durations through Reineche Member, is used as a geochronometer and permit the astronomical calibration of the geologic time scale. Furthermore, MS coupled with carbonate contents, and fossil occurrences provide strong evidence for combined detrital inputs and marine surface carbonate productivity cycles. These two synchronous processes were driven by the precession index and ‘fingerprinted’ in the basic marl–limestone couplets, modulated by orbital eccentricity.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, cyclostratigraphy, orbital forcing, spectral analysis, Lutetian

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2973 An Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory Study of Fluorous 1,3-Dion Compounds

Authors: S. Ghammamy, M. Mirzaabdollahiha


Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, and vibrational wavenumbers of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds are carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with LANL2DZ basis sets. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecules. The thermodynamic functions of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ basis sets. The theoretical spectrograms for F NMR spectra of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have also been constructed. The F NMR nuclear shieldings of fluoride ligands in fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been studied quantum chemical.

Keywords: density function theory, natural bond orbital, HOMO, LOMO, fluorous

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2972 Choice of Landscape Elements for Residents' Quality of Life Living in Apartment Housing: Case Study of Bhopal, India

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Yogesh K. Garg


Housing provides comforts and well being leading towards the quality of life. Earlier research had established that landscape elements enhance the residents’ quality of life through its significant experiences occur due to their presence in the housing. This paper tries to identify the preference of landscape elements that enhance residents’ quality of life living in the apartment. Hence, landscape elements that can be planned in the open spaces of housing and quality of life components were identified from the secondary data sources. Experts’ were asked to identify the quality of life components with respect to landscape elements. A questionnaire survey of residents’ living in the apartment housing in Bhopal, India was conducted. The statistical analysis of survey data facilitated to explore the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life in the apartment housing. The final ranking compiled from the experts’ opinion, residents’ perception as well as factor analysis results to have an insight of the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life living in the apartment. Preference of landscape elements present in the paper may provide an overview of planning for apartment housing that may be used by architects, planners and developers for enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords: landscape elements, quality of life, residents, housing

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2971 Theorical Studies on the Structural Properties of 2,3-Bis(Furan-2-Yl)Pyrazino[2,3-F][1,10]Phenanthroline Derivaties

Authors: Zahra Sadeghian


This paper reports on the geometrical parameters optimized of the stationary point for the 2,3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. The calculations are performed using density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level. We determined bond lengths and bond angles values for the compound and calculate the amount of bond hybridization according to the natural bond orbital theory (NBO) too. The energy of frontier orbital (HOMO and LUMO) are computed. In addition, calculated data are accurately compared with the experimental result. This comparison show that the our theoretical data are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

Keywords: 2, 3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2, 3-f][1, 10]phenanthroline, density functional theory, theorical calculations, LanL2DZ level, B3LYP level

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2970 How Different Perceived Affordances of Game Elements Shape Motivation and Performance in Gamified Learning: A Cognitive Evaluation Theory Perspective

Authors: Kibbeum Na


Previous gamification research has produced mixed results regarding the effectiveness of gamified learning. One possible explanation for this is that individuals perceive the game elements differently. Cognitive Evaluation Theory posits that external rewards can boost or undermine intrinsic motivation, depending on whether the rewards are perceived as informational or controlling. This research tested the hypothesis that game elements can be perceived as either informational feedback or external reward, and the motivational impact differ accordingly. An experiment was conducted using an educational math puzzle to compare the motivation and performance as a result of different perceived affordances game elements. Participants were primed to perceive the game elements as either informational feedback or external reward, and the duration of an attempt to solve the unsolvable puzzle – amotivation indicator – and the puzzle score – a performance indicator–were measured with the game elements incorporated and then without the game elements. Badges and points were deployed as the main game elements. Results showed that, regardless of priming, a significant decrease in performance occurred when the game elements were removed, whereas the control group who solved non-gamified math puzzles maintained their performance. The undermined performance with gamification removal indicates that learners may perceive some game elements as controlling factors irrespective of the way they are presented. The results of the current study also imply that some game elements are better not being implemented to preserve long-term performance. Further research delving into the extrinsic reward-like nature of game elements and its impact on learning motivation is called for.

Keywords: cognitive Evaluation Theory, game elements, gamification, motivation, motivational affordance, performance

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