Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3386

Search results for: suction pressure

3386 Numerical Investigation and Optimization of the Effect of Number of Blade and Blade Type on the Suction Pressure and Outlet Mass Flow Rate of a Centrifugal Fan

Authors: Ogan Karabas, Suleyman Yigit


Number of blade and blade type of centrifugal fans are the most decisive factor on the field of application, noise level, suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate. Nowadays, in order to determine these effects on centrifugal fans, numerical studies are carried out in addition to experimental studies. In this study, it is aimed to numerically investigate the changes of suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate values of a centrifugal fan according to the number of blade and blade type. Centrifugal fans of the same size with forward, backward and straight blade type were analyzed by using a simulation program and compared with each other. This analysis was carried out under steady state condition by selecting k-Ɛ turbulence model and air is assumed incompressible. Then, 16, 32 and 48 blade centrifugal fans were again analyzed by using same simulation program, and the optimum number of blades was determined for the suction pressure and the outlet mass flow rate. According to the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the suction pressure in the 32 blade fan was twice the value obtained in the 16 blade fan. In addition, the outlet mass flow rate increased by 45% with the increase in the number of blade from 16 to 32. There is no significant change observed on the suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate when the number of blades increased from 32 to 48. In the light of the analysis results, the optimum blade number was determined as 32.

Keywords: blade type, centrifugal fan, cfd, outlet mass flow rate, suction pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
3385 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan


Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3384 Physical Tests on Localized Fluidization in Offshore Suction Bucket Foundations

Authors: Li-Hua Luu, Alexis Doghmane, Abbas Farhat, Mohammad Sanayei, Pierre Philippe, Pablo Cuellar


Suction buckets are promising innovative foundations for offshore wind turbines. They generally feature the shape of an inverted bucket and rely on a suction system as a driving agent for their installation into the seabed. Water is pumped out of the buckets that are initially placed to rest on the seabed, creating a net pressure difference across the lid that generates a seepage flow, lowers the soil resistance below the foundation skirt, and drives them effectively into the seabed. The stability of the suction mechanism as well as the possibility of a piping failure (i.e., localized fluidization within the internal soil plug) during their installation are some of the key questions that remain open. The present work deals with an experimental study of localized fluidization by suction within a fixed bucket partially embedded into a submerged artificial soil made of spherical beads. The transient process, from the onset of granular motion until reaching a stationary regime for the fluidization at the embedded bucket wall, is recorded using the combined optical techniques of planar laser-induced fluorescence and refractive index matching. To conduct a systematic study of the piping threshold for the seepage flow, we vary the beads size, the suction pressure, and the initial depth for the bucket. This experimental modelling, by dealing with erosion-related phenomena from a micromechanical perspective, shall provide qualitative scenarios for the local processes at work which are missing in the offshore practice so far.

Keywords: fluidization, micromechanical approach, offshore foundations, suction bucket

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3383 Concrete-Wall-Climbing Testing Robot

Authors: S. Tokuomi, K. Mori, Y. Tsuruzono


A concrete-wall-climbing testing robot, has been developed. This robot adheres and climbs concrete walls using two sets of suction cups, as well as being able to rotate by the use of the alternating motion of the suction cups. The maximum climbing speed is about 60 cm/min. Each suction cup has a pressure sensor, which monitors the adhesion of each suction cup. The impact acoustic method is used in testing concrete walls. This robot has an impact acoustic device and four microphones for the acquisition of the impact sound. The effectiveness of the impact acoustic system was tested by applying it to an inspection of specimens with artificial circular void defects. A circular void defect with a diameter of 200 mm at a depth of 50 mm was able to be detected. The weight and the dimensions of the robot are about 17 kg and 1.0 m by 1.3 m, respectively. The upper limit of testing is about 10 m above the ground due to the length of the power cable.

Keywords: concrete wall, nondestructive testing, climbing robot, impact acoustic method

Procedia PDF Downloads 577
3382 Determination of Suction of Arid Region Soil Using Filter Paper Method

Authors: Bhavita S. Dave, Chandresh H. Solanki, Atul K. Desai


Soils of the Greater Himalayas mostly pertain to Leh & Ladakh, Lahaul & Sppiti, & high reaches to Uttarakhand. The moisture regime is aridic. The arid zone starts from Baralacha pass in Lahaul covers the entire Spiti valley in the district of Lahaul & Spiti, Himachal Pradesh of India. Here, the present study is an attempt to determine the suction value of soil collected from the arid zone of Spiti valley for different freezing-thawing cycles considering the climate ranges of Spiti valley. Suction is the basic and most important parameter which influences the behavior of unsaturated soil. It is essential to determine the suction value of an unsaturated soil before other tests like shear test, permeability. Basically, it is the negative pore water pressure in partially saturated soil measured in terms of the height of the water column. The filter paper method has been used for the study as an economical approach to evaluate suction. It is the only method from which both contact and non-contact suction can be deduced. In this study, soil specimens were subjected to 0, 1, 3, & 5 freezing-thawing (F-T) cycles for different degrees of saturation to have a wide range of suction and its soil freezing characteristic curves (SFCC) were formulated for all F-T cycles. The result data collected from the experiments have shown best-fitted values using Fredlund & Xing model for each SFCC.

Keywords: suction, arid region soil, soil freezing characteristic curve, freezing-thawing cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3381 Matric Suction Effects on Behavior of Unsaturated Soil Slope

Authors: Mohsen Mousivand, Hesam Aminpour


Soil slopes are usually located above the groundwater level that are largely unsaturated. It is possible that unsaturated soil of slope has expanded or collapsed as a result of wetting by rain or other factor that this type of soil behavior can cause serious problems including human and financial damage. The main factor causing this difference in behavior of saturated and unsaturated state of soil is matric suction that is created by interface of the soil and water in the soil pores. So far theoretical studies show that matric suction has important effect on the mechanical behavior of soil although the impact of this factor on slope stability has not been studied. This paper presents a numerical study of effect of matric suction on slope stability. The results of the study indicate that safety factor and stability of soil slope increase due to an increasing of matric suction and in view of matric suction leads to more accurate results and safety factor.

Keywords: slope, unsaturated soil, matric suction, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3380 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content

Authors: S. Asreazad


This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.

Keywords: unsaturated soils, silty sand, clayey sand, triaxial test

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3379 Shear Strength Parameters of an Unsaturated Lateritic Soil

Authors: Jeferson Brito Fernades, Breno Padovezi Rocha, Roger Augusto Rodrigues, Heraldo Luiz Giacheti


The geotechnical projects demand the appropriate knowledge of soil characteristics and parameters. The determination of geotechnical soil parameters can be done by means of laboratory or in situ tests. In countries with tropical weather, like Brazil, unsaturated soils are very usual. In these soils, the soil suction has been recognized as an important stress state variable, which commands the geo-mechanical behavior. Triaxial and direct shear tests on saturated soils samples allow determine only the minimal soil shear strength, in other words, no suction contribution. This paper briefly describes the triaxial test with controlled suction as well as discusses the influence of suction on the shear strength parameters of a lateritic tropical sandy soil from a Brazilian research site. In this site, a sample pit was excavated to retrieve disturbed and undisturbed soil blocks. The samples extracted from these blocks were tested in laboratory to represent the soil from 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 m depth. The stress curves and shear strength envelopes determined by triaxial tests varying suction and confining pressure are presented and discussed. The water retention characteristics on this soil complement this analysis. In situ CPT tests were also carried out at this site in different seasons of the year. In this case, the soil suction profile was determined by means of the soil water retention. This extra information allowed assessing how soil suction also affected the CPT data and the shear strength parameters estimative via correlation. The major conclusions of this paper are: the undisturbed soil samples contracted before shearing and the soil shear strength increased hyperbolically with suction; and it was possible to assess how soil suction also influenced CPT test data based on the water content soil profile as well as the water retention curve. This study contributed with a better understanding of the shear strength parameters and the soil variability of a typical unsaturated tropical soil.

Keywords: site characterization, triaxial test, CPT, suction, variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3378 Significance of High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump, Which Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal


Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge re-circulation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal re-circulation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. The author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios > 1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 -9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: best efficiency point (BEP), net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, specific speed NS, suction specific speed NSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3377 Combined Effect of Roughness and Suction on Heat Transfer in a Laminar Channel Flow

Authors: Marzieh Khezerloo, Lyazid Djenidi


Owing to wide range of the micro-device applications, the problems of mixing at small scales is of significant interest. Also, because most of the processes produce heat, it is needed to develop and implement strategies for heat removal in these devices. There are many studies which focus on the effect of roughness or suction on heat transfer performance, separately, although it would be useful to take advantage of these two methods to improve heat transfer performance. Unfortunately, there is a gap in this area. The present numerical study is carried to investigate the combined effects of roughness and wall suction on heat transfer performance of a laminar channel flow; suction is applied on the top and back faces of the roughness element, respectively. The study is carried out for different Reynolds numbers, different suction rates, and various locations of suction area on the roughness. The flow is assumed two dimensional, incompressible, laminar, and steady state. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are solved using ANSYS-Fluent 18.2 software. The present results are tested against previous theoretical results. The results show that by adding suction, the local Nusselt number is enhanced in the channel. In addition, it is shown that by applying suction on the bottom section of the roughness back face, one can reduce the thickness of thermal boundary layer, which leads to an increase in local Nusselt number. This indicates that suction is an effective means for improving the heat transfer rate (suction by controls the thickness of thermal boundary layer). It is also shown that the size and intensity of vortical motion behind the roughness element, decreased with an increasing suction rate, which leads to higher local Nusselt number. So, it can be concluded that by using suction, strategically located on the roughness element, one can control both the recirculation region and the heat transfer rate. Further results will be presented at the conference for coefficient of drag and the effect of adding more roughness elements.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar flow, numerical simulation, roughness, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3376 Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand

Authors: Won Taek Oh, Adin Richard


Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.

Keywords: critical height, matric suction, unsaturated soil, unsupported trench

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
3375 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Saaid, Hesham Othman


An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: active slat, flow control, experimental investigation, aerodynamic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
3374 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman


An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: active slat, flow control, DU96-W180 airfoil, flow streams

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
3373 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli


Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: liquefaction, suction caisson foundation, offshore wind turbine, numerical analysis, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3372 Investigation of Slope Stability in Gravel Soils in Unsaturated State

Authors: Seyyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ehsan Azini


In this paper, we consider the stability of a slope of 10 meters in silty gravel soils with modeling in the Geostudio Software.  we intend to use the parameters of the volumetric water content and suction dependent permeability and provides relationships and graphs using the parameters obtained from gradation tests and Atterberg’s limits. Also, different conditions of the soil will be investigated, including: checking the factor of safety and deformation rates and pore water pressure in drained, non-drained and unsaturated conditions, as well as the effect of reducing the water level on other parameters. For this purpose, it is assumed that the groundwater level is at a depth of 2 meters from the ground.  Then, with decreasing water level, the safety factor of slope stability was investigated and it was observed that with decreasing water level, the safety factor increased.

Keywords: slope stability analysis, factor of safety, matric suction, unsaturated silty gravel soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
3371 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim


The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
3370 Diabatic Flow of Sub-Cooled R-600a Inside a Capillary Tube: Concentric Configuration

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Santhosh Kumar Dubba


This paper presents an experimental study of a diabatic flow of R-600a through a concentric configured capillary tube suction line heat exchanger. The details of experimental facility for testing the diabatic capillary tube with different inlet sub-cooling degree and pressure are discussed. The effect of coil diameter, capillary length, capillary tube diameter, sub-cooling degree and inlet pressure on mass flow rate are presented. The degree of sub-cooling at the inlet of capillary tube is varied from 3-20°C. The refrigerant mass flow rate is scattered up with rising of pressure. A semi-empirical correlation to predict the mass flow rate of R-600a flowing through a diabatic capillary tube is proposed for sub-cooled inlet conditions. The proposed correlation predicts measured data with an error band of ±20 percent.

Keywords: diabatic, capillary tube, concentric, R-600a

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
3369 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
3368 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik


In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: unsaturated soil, slope stability, rainfall infiltration, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3367 The Modification of the Mixed Flow Pump with Respect to Stability of the Head Curve

Authors: Roman Klas, František Pochylý, Pavel Rudolf


This paper is focused on the CFD simulation of the radiaxial pump (i.e. mixed flow pump) with the aim to detect the reasons of Y-Q characteristic instability. The main reasons of pressure pulsations were detected by means of the analysis of velocity and pressure fields within the pump combined with the theoretical approach. Consequently, the modifications of spiral case and pump suction area were made based on the knowledge of flow conditions and the shape of dissipation function. The primary design of pump geometry was created as the base model serving for the comparison of individual modification influences. The basic experimental data are available for this geometry. This approach replaced the more complicated and with respect to convergence of all computational tasks more difficult calculation for the compressible liquid flow. The modification of primary pump consisted in inserting the three fins types. Subsequently, the evaluation of pressure pulsations, specific energy curves and visualization of velocity fields were chosen as the criterion for successful design.

Keywords: CFD, radiaxial pump, spiral case, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
3366 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

Authors: S. S. P. M. Isa, N. M. Arifin, R. Nazar, N. Bachok, F. M. Ali, I. Pop


A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Keywords: exponentially shrinking sheet, magnetic field, mixed convection, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
3365 Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Air Condition Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

Authors: Olusola Bamisile, Ferdinard Dika, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu


The aim of this study was to model an air conditioning system that brings about effective cooling and reduce fossil fuel consumption with solar energy as an alternative source of energy. The objective of the study is to design a system with high COP, low usage of electricity and to integrate solar energy into AC systems. A hybrid solar assisted air conditioning system is designed to produce 30kW cooling capacity and R744 (CO₂) is used as a refrigerant. The effect of discharge pressure on the performance of the system is studied. The subcool temperature, evaporating temperature (5°C) and suction gas return temperature (12°C) are kept constant for the four different discharge pressures considered. The cooling gas temperature is set at 25°C, and the discharge pressure includes 80, 85, 90 and 95 bars. Copeland Scroll software is used for the simulation. A pressure-enthalpy graph is also used to deduce each enthalpy point while numerical methods were used in making other calculations. From the result of the study, it is observed that a higher COP is achieved with the use of solar assisted systems. As much as 46% of electricity requirements will be save using solar input at compressor stage.

Keywords: air conditioning, solar energy, performance, energy saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
3364 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Stretching Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium with Suction/Injection

Authors: Elsayed M. A. Elbashbeshy, T. G. Emam, M. S. El-Azab, K. M. Abdelgaber


The effect of thermal radiation on flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous nanofluid over a stretching horizontal cylinder embedded in a porous medium with suction/injection is discussed numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Mathematica has been used to solve such system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. Comparison of obtained numerical results is made with previously published results in some special cases, and found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords: laminar flow, boundary layer, stretching horizontal cylinder, thermal radiation, suction/injection, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
3363 Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil

Authors: Kenechi Kurtis Onochie


This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.

Keywords: SWCC, matric suction, filter paper, expansive soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3362 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin


Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: wall of wind, wind loads, wind turbine, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3361 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil


Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3360 Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow Control by Suction and Injection on a Subsonic NACA23012 Airfoil by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis and Perturbed Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes Equations

Authors: Azam Zare


Separation flow control for performance enhancement over airfoils at high incidence angle has become an increasingly important topic. This work details the characteristics of an efficient feedback control of the turbulent subsonic flow over NACA23012 airfoil using forced reduced‐order model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition/Galerkin projection and perturbation method on the compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes equations. The forced reduced‐order model is used in the optimal control of the turbulent separated flow over a NACA23012 airfoil at Mach number of 0.2, Reynolds number of 5×106, and high incidence angle of 24° using blowing/suction controlling jets. The Spallart-Almaras turbulence model is implemented for high Reynolds number calculations. The main shortcoming of the POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations for controlling purposes is that the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity does not show up explicitly in the resulting reduced order model. Combining perturbation method and POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations introduce a forced reduced‐order model that can predict the time-varying influence of the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity. An optimal control theory based on forced reduced‐order system is used to design a control law for a nonlinear reduced‐order model, which attempts to minimize the vorticity content in the turbulent flow field over NACA23012 airfoil. Numerical simulations were performed to help understand the behavior of the controlled suction jet at 12% to 18% chord from leading edge and a pair of blowing/suction jets at 15% to 18% and 24% to 30% chord from leading edge, respectively. Analysis of streamline profiles indicates that the blowing/suction jets are efficient in removing separation bubbles and increasing the lift coefficient up to 22%, while the perturbation method can predict the flow field in an accurate Manner.

Keywords: flow control, POD, Galerkin projection, separation

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3359 Flow Separation Control on an Aerofoil Using Grooves

Authors: Neel K. Shah


Wind tunnel tests have been performed at The University of Manchester to investigate the impact of surface grooves of a trapezoidal planform on flow separation on a symmetrical aerofoil. A spanwise array of the grooves has been applied around the maximum thickness location of the upper surface of an NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. A laminar separation bubble developed on the aerofoil at low AoA. It has been found that the grooves shorten the streamwise extent of the separation bubble by shedding a pair of counter-rotating vortices. However, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is not significant since the creation of the grooves results in a decrease of surface curvature and an increase in blockage (increase in surface pressure). Additionally, the increased flow mixing by the grooves thickens the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the aerofoil also contributes to this limitation. As a result of these competing effects, the improvement in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients are small, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. Crosswire anemometry shows that the grooves increase turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses in the wake, thus indicating an increase in viscous drag.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, flow separation, grooves, vortices

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3358 Clean Sky 2 – Project PALACE: Aeration’s Experimental Sound Velocity Investigations for High-Speed Gerotor Simulations

Authors: Benoît Mary, Thibaut Gras, Gaëtan Fagot, Yvon Goth, Ilyes Mnassri-Cetim


A Gerotor pump is composed of an external and internal gear with conjugate cycloidal profiles. From suction to delivery ports, the fluid is transported inside cavities formed by teeth and driven by the shaft. From a geometric and conceptional side it is worth to note that the internal gear has one tooth less than the external one. Simcenter Amesim v.16 includes a new submodel for modelling the hydraulic Gerotor pumps behavior (THCDGP0). This submodel considers leakages between teeth tips using Poiseuille and Couette flows contributions. From the 3D CAD model of the studied pump, the “CAD import” tool takes out the main geometrical characteristics and the submodel THCDGP0 computes the evolution of each cavity volume and their relative position according to the suction or delivery areas. This module, based on international publications, presents robust results up to 6 000 rpm for pressure greater than atmospheric level. For higher rotational speeds or lower pressures, oil aeration and cavitation effects are significant and highly drop the pump’s performance. The liquid used in hydraulic systems always contains some gas, which is dissolved in the liquid at high pressure and tends to be released in a free form (i.e. undissolved as bubbles) when pressure drops. In addition to gas release and dissolution, the liquid itself may vaporize due to cavitation. To model the relative density of the equivalent fluid, modified Henry’s law is applied in Simcenter Amesim v.16 to predict the fraction of undissolved gas or vapor. Three parietal pressure sensors have been set up upstream from the pump to estimate the sound speed in the oil. Analytical models have been compared with the experimental sound speed to estimate the occluded gas content. Simcenter Amesim v.16 model was supplied by these previous analyses marks which have successfully improved the simulations results up to 14 000 rpm. This work provides a sound foundation for designing the next Gerotor pump generation reaching high rotation range more than 25 000 rpm. This improved module results will be compared to tests on this new pump demonstrator.

Keywords: gerotor pump, high speed, numerical simulations, aeronautic, aeration, cavitation

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3357 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 363