Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: centrifugal fan

95 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç


Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
94 Investigation of the Flow in Impeller Sidewall Gap of a Centrifugal Pump Using CFD

Authors: Mohammadreza DaqiqShirazi, Rouhollah Torabi, Alireza Riasi, Ahmad Nourbakhsh


In this paper, the flow in a sidewall gap of an impeller which belongs to a centrifugal pump is studied using numerical method. The flow in sidewall gap forms internal leakage and is the source of “disk friction loss” which is the most important cause of reduced efficiency in low specific speed centrifugal pumps. Simulation is done using CFX software and a high quality mesh, therefore the modeling error has been reduced. Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for this domain. In order to predict the turbulence effects the SST model has been employed.

Keywords: numerical study, centrifugal pumps, disk friction loss, sidewall gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
93 Experimental Set-Up for Investigation of Fault Diagnosis of a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Maamar Ali Saud Al Tobi, Geraint Bevan, K. P. Ramachandran, Peter Wallace, David Harrison


Centrifugal pumps are complex machines which can experience different types of fault. Condition monitoring can be used in centrifugal pump fault detection through vibration analysis for mechanical and hydraulic forces. Vibration analysis methods have the potential to be combined with artificial intelligence systems where an automatic diagnostic method can be approached. An automatic fault diagnosis approach could be a good option to minimize human error and to provide a precise machine fault classification. This work aims to introduce an approach to centrifugal pump fault diagnosis based on artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm systems. An overview of the future works, research methodology and proposed experimental setup is presented and discussed. The expected results and outcomes based on the experimental work are illustrated.

Keywords: centrifugal pump setup, vibration analysis, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
92 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Impeller Trimming on Fluid Flow inside a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Rouhollah Torabi, Ashkan Chavoshi, Sheyda Almasi, Shima Almasi


In this paper the effect of impeller trim on centrifugal pump performance is studied and the most important effect which is decreasing the flow rate, differential head and efficiency is analyzed. For this case a low specific speed centrifugal pump is simulated with CFD. Total flow inside the pump including the secondary flow in sidewall gap which form internal leakage is modeled simultaneously in CFX software. The flow field in different area of pumps such as inside impeller, volute, balance holes and leakage through wear rings are studied. To validate the results experimental tests are done for various impeller diameters. Results also compared with analytic equations which predict pump performance with trimmed impeller.

Keywords: centrifugal pump, CFD, impeller, trim

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
91 Overview on the Failure in the Multiphase Mechanical Seal in Centrifugal Pumps

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Ahmed Al. Azizi


Mechanical seals are essential components in centrifugal pumps since they help in controlling leaking out of the liquid that is pumped under pressure. Unlike the common types of packaging, mechanical seals are highly efficient and they reduce leakage by a great extent. However, all multiphase mechanical seals leak and they are subject to failure. Some of the factors that have been recognized to their failure include excessive heating, open seal faces, as well as environment related factors that trigger failure of the materials used to manufacture seals. The proposed research study will explore the failure of multiphase mechanical seal in centrifugal pumps. The objective of the study includes how to reduce the failure in multiphase mechanical seals and to make them more efficient.

Keywords: mechanical seals, centrifugal pumps, multi phase failure, excessive heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
90 Numerical Investigation and Optimization of the Effect of Number of Blade and Blade Type on the Suction Pressure and Outlet Mass Flow Rate of a Centrifugal Fan

Authors: Ogan Karabas, Suleyman Yigit


Number of blade and blade type of centrifugal fans are the most decisive factor on the field of application, noise level, suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate. Nowadays, in order to determine these effects on centrifugal fans, numerical studies are carried out in addition to experimental studies. In this study, it is aimed to numerically investigate the changes of suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate values of a centrifugal fan according to the number of blade and blade type. Centrifugal fans of the same size with forward, backward and straight blade type were analyzed by using a simulation program and compared with each other. This analysis was carried out under steady state condition by selecting k-Ɛ turbulence model and air is assumed incompressible. Then, 16, 32 and 48 blade centrifugal fans were again analyzed by using same simulation program, and the optimum number of blades was determined for the suction pressure and the outlet mass flow rate. According to the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the suction pressure in the 32 blade fan was twice the value obtained in the 16 blade fan. In addition, the outlet mass flow rate increased by 45% with the increase in the number of blade from 16 to 32. There is no significant change observed on the suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate when the number of blades increased from 32 to 48. In the light of the analysis results, the optimum blade number was determined as 32.

Keywords: blade type, centrifugal fan, cfd, outlet mass flow rate, suction pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
89 A Comparison of Design and Off-Design Performances of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Zeynep Aytaç, Nuri Yücel


Today, as the need for high efficiency and fuel-efficient engines have increased, centrifugal compressor designs are expected to be high-efficient and have high-pressure ratios than ever. The present study represents a design methodology of centrifugal compressor placed in a mini jet engine for the design and off-design points with the utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compares the performance characteristics at the mentioned two points. Although the compressor is expected to provide the required specifications at the design point, it is known that it is important for the design to deliver the required parameters at the off-design point also as it will not operate at the design point always. It was observed that the obtained mass flow rate, pressure ratio, and efficiency values are within the limits of the design specifications for the design and off-design points. Despite having different design inputs for the mentioned two points, they reveal similar flow characteristics in the general frame.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, computational fluid dynamics, design point, off-design point

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
88 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz


Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
87 Measuring Investigation and Computational Simulation of Cavitation Phenomenon Effects on the Industrial Centrifugal Pump Vibration

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Homan Alimoradzadeh, Mahdi Shahriyari


In this paper, vibration of the industrial centrifugal pumps studied by measuring analysis and computational simulation. Effects of different parameters on pump vibration were investigated. Also, simulation of cavitation in the centrifugal pump was down. First, via CF-TURBO software, the pump impeller and the fluid passing through the pump is modelled and finally, the phenomenon of cavitation in the impeller has been modelled by Ansys software. Also, the effects of changes in the amount of NPSH and bubbles generation in the pump impeller were investigated. By simulation of piping with pipe flow software, effect of fluid velocity and pressure on hydraulics and vibration were studied computationally by applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques, fluent software and experimentally. Furthermore, this comparison showed that the model can predict hydraulics and vibration behaviour.

Keywords: cavitation, vibration, centrifugal pumps, performance curves, NPSH

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
86 The Effect of Increase in Aluminium Content on Fluidity of ZA Alloys Processed by Centrifugal Casting

Authors: P. N. Jyothi, A. Shailesh Rao, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu


Uses of ZA alloys as bearing material have been increased due to their superior mechanical properties, wear characteristics and tribological properties. Among ZA alloys, ZA 27 alloy has higher strength, low density with excellent bearing and wear characteristics. From the past research work, it is observed that in continuous casting as Al content increases, the fluidity also increases. In present work, ZA 8, ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys have been processed through centrifugal casting process at 600 rotational speed of the mould. Uniform full cylinder is casted with ZA 8 alloy. For ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys where the Al content is higher, cast tubes were not complete and uniform. The reason is Al may be acting as a refiner and reduce the melt flow in the rotating mould. This is mainly due to macro-segregation of Al, which has occurred due to difference in densities of Al and Zn.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, metal flow, characterization, systems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
85 Effect of Surface Quality of 3D Printed Impeller on the Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Nader Zirak, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Abbas Tcharkhtchi


Additive manufacturing is referred to as a method for fabrication of parts with a mechanism of layer by layer. Suitable economic efficiency and the ability to fabrication complex parts have made this method the focus of studies and industry. In recent years many studies focused on the fabrication of impellers, which is referred to as a key component of turbomachinery, through this technique. This study considers the important effect of the final surface quality of the impeller on the performance of the system, investigates the fabricated printed rotors through the fused deposition modeling with different process parameters. In this regard, the surface of each impeller was analyzed through the 3D scanner. The results show the vital role of surface quality on the final performance of the centrifugal compressor.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, impeller, centrifugal compressor, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
84 Development of a Robot Assisted Centrifugal Casting Machine for Manufacturing Multi-Layer Journal Bearing and High-Tech Machine Components

Authors: Mohammad Syed Ali Molla, Mohammed Azim, Mohammad Esharuzzaman


Centrifugal-casting machine is used in manufacturing special machine components like multi-layer journal bearing used in all internal combustion engine, steam, gas turbine and air craft turboengine where isotropic properties and high precisions are desired. Moreover, this machine can be used in manufacturing thin wall hightech machine components like cylinder liners and piston rings of IC engine and other machine parts like sleeves, and bushes. Heavy-duty machine component like railway wheel can also be prepared by centrifugal casting. A lot of technological developments are required in casting process for production of good casted machine body and machine parts. Usually defects like blowholes, surface roughness, chilled surface etc. are found in sand casted machine parts. But these can be removed by centrifugal casting machine using rotating metallic die. Moreover, die rotation, its temperature control, and good pouring practice can contribute to the quality of casting because of the fact that the soundness of a casting in large part depends upon how the metal enters into the mold or dies and solidifies. Poor pouring practice leads to variety of casting defects such as temperature loss, low quality casting, excessive turbulence, over pouring etc. Besides these, handling of molten metal is very unsecured and dangerous for the workers. In order to get rid of all these problems, the need of an automatic pouring device arises. In this research work, a robot assisted pouring device and a centrifugal casting machine are designed, developed constructed and tested experimentally which are found to work satisfactorily. The robot assisted pouring device is further modified and developed for using it in actual metal casting process. Lot of settings and tests are required to control the system and ultimately it can be used in automation of centrifugal casting machine to produce high-tech machine parts with desired precision.

Keywords: bearing, centrifugal casting, cylinder liners, robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
83 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami, A. Borni


The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, chopper, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
82 Study of the Effect of the Contra-Rotating Component on the Performance of the Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Van Thang Nguyen, Amelie Danlos, Richard Paridaens, Farid Bakir


This article presents a study of the effect of a contra-rotating component on the efficiency of centrifugal compressors. A contra-rotating centrifugal compressor (CRCC) is constructed using two independent rotors, rotating in the opposite direction and replacing the single rotor of a conventional centrifugal compressor (REF). To respect the geometrical parameters of the REF one, two rotors of the CRCC are designed, based on a single rotor geometry, using the hub and shroud length ratio parameter of the meridional contour. Firstly, the first rotor is designed by choosing a value of length ratio. Then, the second rotor is calculated to be adapted to the fluid flow of the first rotor according aerodynamics principles. In this study, four values of length ratios 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 are used to create four configurations CF1, CF2, CF3, and CF4 respectively. For comparison purpose, the circumferential velocity at the outlet of the REF and the CRCC are preserved, which means that the single rotor of the REF and the second rotor of the CRCC rotate with the same speed of 16000rpm. The speed of the first rotor in this case is chosen to be equal to the speed of the second rotor. The CFD simulation is conducted to compare the performance of the CRCC and the REF with the same boundary conditions. The results show that the configuration with a higher length ratio gives higher pressure rise. However, its efficiency is lower. An investigation over the entire operating range shows that the CF1 is the best configuration in this case. In addition, the CRCC can improve the pressure rise as well as the efficiency by changing the speed of each rotor independently. The results of changing the first rotor speed show with a 130% speed increase, the pressure ratio rises of 8.7% while the efficiency remains stable at the flow rate of the design operating point.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, contra-rotating, interaction rotor, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
81 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin


A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: loading factor performance, centrifugal compressor, impeller, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
80 Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Incoming Flow Conditions on the Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Wanru Huang, Fujun Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Yuan Tang, Zhifeng Yao, Ruofu Xiao, Xin Chen


Rotating stall in centrifugal pump is an unsteady flow phenomenon that causes instabilities and high hydraulic losses. It typically occurs at low flow rates due to large flow separation in impeller blade passage. In order to reveal the influence of incoming flow conditions on rotating stall in centrifugal pump, a numerical method for investigating rotating stall was established. This method is based on a modified SST k-ω turbulence model and a fine mesh model was adopted. The calculated flow velocity in impeller by this method was in good agreement with PIV results. The effects of flow rate and sealing-ring leakage on stall characteristics of centrifugal pump were studied by using the proposed numerical approach. The flow structures in impeller under typical flow rates and typical sealing-ring leakages were analyzed. It is found that the stall vortex frequency and circumferential propagation velocity increase as flow rate decreases. With the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the stall vortex frequency increases from 1.50Hz to 2.34Hz, the circumferential propagation velocity of the stall vortex increases from 3.14rad/s to 4.90rad/s. Under almost all flow rate conditions where rotating stall is present, there is low frequency of pressure pulsation between 0Hz-5Hz. The corresponding pressure pulsation amplitude increases with flow rate decreases. Taking the measuring point at the leading edge of the blade pressure surface as an example, the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the pressure fluctuation amplitude increases by 86.9%. With the increase of leakage, the flow structure in the impeller becomes more complex, and the 8-shaped stall vortex is no longer stable. On the basis of the 8-shaped stall vortex, new vortex nuclei are constantly generated and fused with the original vortex nuclei under large leakage. The upstream and downstream vortex structures of the 8-shaped stall vortex have different degrees of swimming in the flow passage, and the downstream vortex swimming is more obvious. The results show that the proposed numerical approach could capture the detail vortex characteristics, and the incoming flow conditions have significant effects on the stall vortex in centrifugal pumps.

Keywords: centrifugal pump, rotating stall, numerical simulation, flow condition, vortex frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
79 Biodegradable Self-Supporting Nanofiber Membranes Prepared by Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Milos Beran, Josef Drahorad, Ondrej Vltavsky, Martin Fronek, Jiri Sova


While most nanofibers are produced using electrospinning, this technique suffers from several drawbacks, such as the requirement for specialized equipment, high electrical potential, and electrically conductive targets. Consequently, recent years have seen the increasing emergence of novel strategies in generating nanofibers in a larger scale and higher throughput manner. The centrifugal spinning is simple, cheap and highly productive technology for nanofiber production. In principle, the drawing of solution filament into nanofibers using centrifugal spinning is achieved through the controlled manipulation of centrifugal force, viscoelasticity, and mass transfer characteristics of the spinning solutions. Engineering efforts of researches of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in the field the centrifugal nozzleless spinning led to introduction of a pilot plant demonstrator NANOCENT. The main advantages of the demonstrator are lower investment cost - thanks to simpler construction compared to widely used electrospinning equipments, higher production speed, new application possibilities and easy maintenance. The centrifugal nozzleless spinning is especially suitable to produce submicron fibers from polymeric solutions in highly volatile solvents, such as chloroform, DCM, THF, or acetone. To date, submicron fibers have been prepared from PS, PUR and biodegradable polyesters, such as PHB, PLA, PCL, or PBS. The products are in form of 3D structures or nanofiber membranes. Unique self-supporting nanofiber membranes were prepared from the biodegradable polyesters in different mixtures. The nanofiber membranes have been tested for different applications. Filtration efficiencies for water solutions and aerosols in air were evaluated. Different active inserts were added to the solutions before the spinning process, such as inorganic nanoparticles, organic precursors of metal oxides, antimicrobial and wound healing compounds or photocatalytic phthalocyanines. Sintering can be subsequently carried out to remove the polymeric material and transfer the organic precursors to metal oxides, such as Si02, or photocatalytic Zn02 and Ti02, to obtain inorganic nanofibers. Electrospinning is more suitable technology to produce membranes for the filtration applications than the centrifugal nozzleless spinning, because of the formation of more homogenous nanofiber layers and fibers with smaller diameters. The self-supporting nanofiber membranes prepared from the biodegradable polyesters are especially suitable for medical applications, such as wound or burn healing dressings or tissue engineering scaffolds. This work was supported by the research grants TH03020466 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: polymeric nanofibers, self-supporting nanofiber membranes, biodegradable polyesters, active inserts

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
78 Effect of Volute Tongue Shape and Position on Performance of Turbo Machinery Compressor

Authors: Anuj Srivastava, Kuldeep Kumar


This paper proposes a numerical study of volute tongue design, which affects the centrifugal compressor operating range and pressure recovery. Increased efficiency has been the traditional importance of compressor design. However, the increased operating range has become important in an age of ever-increasing productivity and energy costs in the turbomachinery industry. Efficiency and overall operating range are the two most important parameters studied to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressor. Volute is one of the components that have significant effect on these two parameters. Choice of volute tongue geometry has major role in compressor performance, also affects performance map. The author evaluates the trade-off on using pull-back tongue geometry on centrifugal compressor performance. In present paper, three different tongue positions and shapes are discussed. These designs are compared in terms of pressure recovery coefficient, pressure loss coefficient, and stable operating range. The detailed flow structures for various volute geometries and pull back angle near tongue are studied extensively to explore the fluid behavior. The viscous Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate the flow inside the volute. The numerical calculations are compared with thermodynamic 1-D calculations. Author concludes that the increment in compression ratio accompanies with more uniform pressure distribution in the modified tongue shape and location, a uniform static pressure around the circumferential which build a more uniform flow in the impeller and diffuser. Also, the blockage at the tongue of the volute was causing circumferentially nonuniformed pressure along the volute. This nonuniformity may lead impeller and diffuser to operate unstably. However, it is not the volute that directly controls the stall.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor volute, tongue geometry, pull-back, compressor performance, flow instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
77 3D Steady and Transient Centrifugal Pump Flow within Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM

Authors: Clement Leroy, Guillaume Boitel


This paper presents a comparative benchmarking review of a steady and transient three-dimensional (3D) flow computations in centrifugal pump using commercial (AnsysCFX) and open source (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. In centrifugal rotor-dynamic pump, the fluid enters in the impeller along to the rotating axis to be accelerated in order to increase the pressure, flowing radially outward into another stage, vaned diffuser or volute casing, from where it finally exits into a downstream pipe. Simulations are carried out at the best efficiency point (BEP) and part load, for single-phase flow with several turbulence models. The results are compared with overall performance report from experimental data. The use of CFD technology in industry is still limited by the high computational costs, and even more by the high cost of commercial CFD software and high-performance computing (HPC) licenses. The main objectives of the present study are to define OpenFOAM methodology for high-quality 3D steady and transient turbomachinery CFD simulation to conduct a thorough time-accurate performance analysis. On the other hand a detailed comparisons between computational methods, features on latest Ansys release 18 and OpenFOAM is investigated to assess the accuracy and industrial applications of those solvers. Finally an automated connected workflow (IoT) for turbine blade applications is presented.

Keywords: benchmarking, CFX, internet of things, openFOAM, time-accurate, turbomachinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
76 Modern State of the Universal Modeling for Centrifugal Compressors

Authors: Y. Galerkin, K. Soldatova, A. Drozdov


The 6th version of Universal modeling method for centrifugal compressor stage calculation is described. Identification of the new mathematical model was made. As a result of identification the uniform set of empirical coefficients is received. The efficiency definition error is 0,86 % at a design point. The efficiency definition error at five flow rate points (except a point of the maximum flow rate) is 1,22 %. Several variants of the stage with 3D impellers designed by 6th version program and quasi three-dimensional calculation programs were compared by their gas dynamic performances CFD (NUMECA FINE TURBO). Performance comparison demonstrated general principles of design validity and leads to some design recommendations.

Keywords: compressor design, loss model, performance prediction, test data, model stages, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
75 Aerodynamic Designing of Supersonic Centrifugal Compressor Stages

Authors: Y. Galerkin, A. Rekstin, K. Soldatova


Universal modeling method well proven for industrial compressors was applied for design of the high flow rate supersonic stage. Results were checked by ANSYS CFX and NUMECA Fine Turbo calculations. The impeller appeared to be very effective at transonic flow velocities. Stator elements efficiency is acceptable at design Mach numbers too. Their loss coefficient versus inlet flow angle performances correlates well with Universal modeling prediction. The impeller demonstrated ability of satisfactory operation at design flow rate. Supersonic flow behavior in the impeller inducer at the shroud blade to blade surface Φdes deserves additional study.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor stage, supersonic impeller, inlet flow angle, loss coefficient, return channel, shock wave, vane diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
74 Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 Functionally Graded Composites via Centrifugal Method by Using a Polymeric Suspension

Authors: Majid Eslami


Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit heterogeneous microstructures in which the composition and properties gently change in specified directions. The common type of FGMs consist of a metal in which ceramic particles are distributed with a graded concentration. There are many processing routes for FGMs. An important group of these methods is casting techniques (gravity or centrifugal). However, the main problem of casting molten metal slurry with dispersed ceramic particles is a destructive chemical reaction between these two phases which deteriorates the properties of the materials. In order to overcome this problem, in the present investigation a suspension of 6061 aluminum and alumina powders in a liquid polymer was used as the starting material and subjected to centrifugal force for making FGMs. The size rang of these powders was 45-63 and 106-125 μm. The volume percent of alumina in the Al/Al2O3 powder mixture was in the range of 5 to 20%. PMMA (Plexiglas) in different concentrations (20-50 g/lit) was dissolved in toluene and used as the suspension liquid. The glass mold contaning the suspension of Al/Al2O3 powders in the mentioned liquid was rotated at 1700 rpm for different times (4-40 min) while the arm length was kept constant (10 cm) for all the experiments. After curing the polymer, burning out the binder, cold pressing and sintering , cylindrical samples (φ=22 mm h=20 mm) were produced. The density of samples before and after sintering was quantified by Archimedes method. The results indicated that by using the same sized alumina and aluminum powders particles, FGM sample can be produced by rotation times exceeding 7 min. However, by using coarse alumina and fine alumina powders the sample exhibits step concentration. On the other hand, using fine alumina and coarse alumina results in a relatively uniform concentration of Al2O3 along the sample height. These results are attributed to the effects of size and density of different powders on the centrifugal force induced on the powders during rotation. The PMMA concentration and the vol.% of alumina in the suspension did not have any considerable effect on the distribution of alumina particles in the samples. The hardness profiles along the height of samples were affected by both the alumina vol.% and porosity content. The presence of alumina particles increased the hardness while increased porosity reduced the hardness. Therefore, the hardness values did not show the expected gradient in same sample. The sintering resulted in decreased porosity for all the samples investigated.

Keywords: FGM, powder metallurgy, centrifugal method, polymeric suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
73 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen


The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
72 Effect of Sulfur on the High-Temperature Oxidation of DIN1.4091

Authors: M. J. Kim, D. B. Lee


Centrifugal casting is a metal casting method that uses forces make by centripetal acceleration to distribute molten material in mold. Centrifugal cast parts manufactured in industry contain gas pipes and water supply lines, moreover rings, turbocharger, bushings, brake drums. Turbochargers were exposed to exhaust temperatures of 900-1050°C require a material for the corrosion resistance that will withstand such high component temperatures during the entire service life of the vehicle. Hence, the study of corrosion resistance for turbocharger is important for practical application. DIN1.4091 steels were used widely. The DIN1.4091 steels whose compositions were Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) were centrifugally cast, and oxidized at 900°C for 50-200 h in order to find the effect of sulfur on the high-temperature oxidation of Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) alloys. These alloys formed oxide scales that consisted primarily of Cr₂O₃ as the major oxide and Cr₂MnO₄ as the minor one through preferential oxidation of Cr and Mn. Cr formed a thin CrOx oxide film on the surface to prevent further oxidation, and when it is added more than 20%, the sulphide decreased corrosion rate. The high affinity of Mn with S, led to the formation of scattered MnS inclusions, particularly in the 0.35S-containing cast alloy. Sulfur was harmful to the oxidation resistance because it deteriorated the scale/alloy adherence so as to accelerate the adherence and compactness of the formed scales. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A2B1013169).

Keywords: centrifugal casting, turbocharger, sulfur, oxidation, Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
71 Simulation of the FDA Centrifugal Blood Pump Using High Performance Computing

Authors: Mehdi Behbahani, Sebastian Rible, Charles Moulinec, Yvan Fournier, Mike Nicolai, Paolo Crosetto


Computational Fluid Dynamics blood-flow simulations are increasingly used to develop and validate blood-contacting medical devices. This study shows that numerical simulations can provide additional and accurate estimates of relevant hemodynamic indicators (e.g., recirculation zones or wall shear stresses), which may be difficult and expensive to obtain from in-vivo or in-vitro experiments. The most recent FDA (Food and Drug Administration) benchmark consisted of a simplified centrifugal blood pump model that contains fluid flow features as they are commonly found in these devices with a clear focus on highly turbulent phenomena. The FDA centrifugal blood pump study is composed of six test cases with different volumetric flow rates ranging from 2.5 to 7.0 liters per minute, pump speeds, and Reynolds numbers ranging from 210,000 to 293,000. Within the frame of this study different turbulence models were tested including RANS models, e.g. k-omega, k-epsilon and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and, LES. The partitioners Hilbert, METIS, ParMETIS and SCOTCH were used to create an unstructured mesh of 76 million elements and compared in their efficiency. Computations were performed on the JUQUEEN BG/Q architecture applying the highly parallel flow solver Code SATURNE and typically using 32768 or more processors in parallel. Visualisations were performed by means of PARAVIEW. Different turbulence models including all six flow situations could be successfully analysed and validated against analytical considerations and from comparison to other data-bases. It showed that an RSM represents an appropriate choice with respect to modeling high-Reynolds number flow cases. Especially, the Rij-SSG (Speziale, Sarkar, Gatzki) variant turned out to be a good approach. Visualisation of complex flow features could be obtained and the flow situation inside the pump could be characterized.

Keywords: blood flow, centrifugal blood pump, high performance computing, scalability, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
70 Building on Previous Microvalving Approaches for Highly Reliable Actuation in Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

Authors: Ivan Maguire, Ciprian Briciu, Alan Barrett, Dara Kervick, Jens Ducrèe, Fiona Regan


With the ever-increasing myriad of applications of which microfluidic devices are capable, reliable fluidic actuation development has remained fundamental to the success of these microfluidic platforms. There are a number of approaches which can be taken in order to integrate liquid actuation on microfluidic platforms, which can usually be split into two primary categories; active microvalves and passive microvalves. Active microvalves are microfluidic valves which require a physical parameter change by external, or separate interaction, for actuation to occur. Passive microvalves are microfluidic valves which don’t require external interaction for actuation due to the valve’s natural physical parameters, which can be overcome through sample interaction. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how further improvements to past microvalve solutions can largely enhance systematic reliability and performance, with both novel active and passive microvalves demonstrated. Covered within this scope will be two alternative and novel microvalve solutions for centrifugal microfluidic platforms; a revamped pneumatic-dissolvable film active microvalve (PAM) strategy and a spray-on Sol-Gel based hydrophobic passive microvalve (HPM) approach. Both the PAM and the HPM mechanisms were demonstrated on a centrifugal microfluidic platform consisting of alternating layers of 1.5 mm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (for reagent storage) sheets and ~150 μm pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) (for microchannel fabrication) sheets. The PAM approach differs from previous SOLUBON™ dissolvable film methods by introducing a more reliable and predictable liquid delivery mechanism to microvalve site, thus significantly reducing premature activation. This approach has also shown excellent synchronicity when performed in a multiplexed form. The HPM method utilises a new spray-on and low curing temperature (70°C) sol-gel material. The resultant double layer coating comprises a PMMA adherent sol-gel as the bottom layer and an ultra hydrophobic silica nano-particles (SNPs) film as the top layer. The optimal coating was integrated to microfluidic channels with varying cross-sectional area for assessing microvalve burst frequencies consistency. It is hoped that these microvalving solutions, which can be easily added to centrifugal microfluidic platforms, will significantly improve automation reliability.

Keywords: centrifugal microfluidics, hydrophobic microvalves, lab-on-a-disc, pneumatic microvalves

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69 Examining the Effects of Production Method on Aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp Composite for Hydro Turbine Bucket Application

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Freddie L. Inambao


This study investigates the use of centrifugal casting method to fabricate functionally graded aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite for hydro turbine bucket application. The study includes the design and fabrication of a permanent mould. The mould was put into use and the buckets of A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite were cast, cut and machined into specimens. Some specimens were given T6 heat treatment and the specimens were prepared for different examinations accordingly. The SiCp particles were found to be more at inner periphery of the bucket. The maximum hardness of As-Cast A356 and A356-10%SiCp composite was recorded at the inner periphery to be 60 BRN and 95BRN, respectively. And these values were appreciated to 98BRN and 122BRN for A356 alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite, respectively. It was observed that the ultimate tensile stress and yield tensile stress prediction curves show the same trend.

Keywords: A356 alloy, A356-10%SiCp composite, centrifugal casting, Pelton bucket, turbine blade

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68 Linear Dynamic Stability Analysis of a Continuous Rotor-Disk-Blades System

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, S. E. Khadem, S. Bab, M. Najafee


Nowadays, using rotating systems like shafts and disks in industrial machines have been increased constantly. Dynamic stability is one of the most important factors in designing rotating systems. In this study, linear frequencies and stability of a coupled continuous flexible rotor-disk-blades system are studied. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is utilized to model the blade and shaft. The equations of motion are extracted using the extended Hamilton principle. The equations of motion have been simplified using the Coleman and complex transformations method. The natural frequencies of the linear part of the system are extracted, and the effects of various system parameters on the natural frequencies and decay rates (stability condition) are clarified. It can be seen that the centrifugal stiffening effect applied to the blades is the most important parameter for stability of the considered rotating system. This result highlights the importance of considering this stiffing effect in blades equation.

Keywords: rotating shaft, flexible blades, centrifugal stiffness, stability

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67 Optimization of an Electro-Submersible Pump for Crude Oil Extraction Processes

Authors: Deisy Becerra, Nicolas Rios, Miguel Asuaje


The Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is one of the most artificial lifting methods used in the last years, which consists of a serial arrangement of centrifugal pumps. One of the main concerns when handling crude oil is the formation of O/W or W/O (oil/water or water/oil) emulsions inside the pump, due to the shear rate imparted and the presence of high molecular weight substances that act as natural surfactants. Therefore, it is important to perform an analysis of the flow patterns inside the pump to increase the percentage of oil recovered using the centrifugal force and the difference in density between the oil and the water to generate the separation of liquid phases. For this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was developed on STAR-CCM+ software based on 3D geometry of a Franklin Electric 4400 4' four-stage ESP. In this case, the modification of the last stage was carried out to improve the centrifugal effect inside the pump, and a perforated double tube was designed with three different holes configurations disposed at the outlet section, through which the cut water flows. The arrangement of holes used has different geometrical configurations such as circles, rectangles, and irregular shapes determined as grating around the tube. The two-phase flow was modeled using an Eulerian approach with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, which predicts the distribution and movement of larger interfaces in immiscible phases. Different water-oil compositions were evaluated, such as 70-30% v/v, 80-20% v/v and 90-10% v/v, respectively. Finally, greater recovery of oil was obtained. For the several compositions evaluated, the volumetric oil fraction was greater than 0.55 at the pump outlet. Similarly, it is possible to show an inversely proportional relationship between the Water/Oil rate (WOR) and the volumetric flow. The volumetric fractions evaluated, the oil flow increased approximately between 41%-10% for circular perforations and 49%-19% for rectangular shaped perforations, regarding the inlet flow. Besides, the elimination of the pump diffuser in the last stage of the pump reduced the head by approximately 20%.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamic, CFD, electrical submersible pump, ESP, two phase flow, volume of fluid, VOF, water/oil rate, WOR

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66 A Theoretical Approach on Electoral Competition, Lobby Formation and Equilibrium Policy Platforms

Authors: Deepti Kohli, Meeta Keswani Mehra


The paper develops a theoretical model of electoral competition with purely opportunistic candidates and a uni-dimensional policy using the probability voting approach while focusing on the aspect of lobby formation to analyze the inherent complex interactions between centripetal and centrifugal forces and their effects on equilibrium policy platforms. There exist three types of agents, namely, Left-wing, Moderate and Right-wing who comprise of the total voting population. Also, it is assumed that the Left and Right agents are free to initiate a lobby of their choice. If initiated, these lobbies generate donations which in turn can be contributed to one (or both) electoral candidates in order to influence them to implement the lobby’s preferred policy. Four different lobby formation scenarios have been considered: no lobby formation, only Left, only Right and both Left and Right. The equilibrium policy platforms, amount of individual donations by agents to their respective lobbies and the contributions offered to the electoral candidates have been solved for under each of the above four cases. Since it is assumed that the agents cannot coordinate each other’s actions during the lobby formation stage, there exists a probability with which a lobby would be formed, which is also solved for in the model. The results indicate that the policy platforms of the two electoral candidates converge completely under the cases of no lobby and both (extreme) formations but diverge under the cases of only one (Left or Right) lobby formation. This is because in the case of no lobby being formed, only the centripetal forces (emerging from the election-winning aspect) are present while in the case of both extreme (Left-wing and Right-wing) lobbies being formed, centrifugal forces (emerging from the lobby formation aspect) also arise but cancel each other out, again resulting in a pure policy convergence phenomenon. In contrast, in case of only one lobby being formed, both centripetal and centrifugal forces interact strategically, leading the two electoral candidates to choose completely different policy platforms in equilibrium. Additionally, it is found that in equilibrium, while the donation by a specific agent type increases with the formation of both lobbies in comparison to when only one lobby is formed, the probability of implementation of the policy being advocated by that lobby group falls.

Keywords: electoral competition, equilibrium policy platforms, lobby formation, opportunistic candidates

Procedia PDF Downloads 251