Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1521

Search results for: velocity slip

1521 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. An expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on velocity, shear stress, pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation and reattachment points are strongly effected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number

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1520 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh Kumar Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1519 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.

Abstract:

A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

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1518 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1517 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.

Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1516 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate, and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: boundary layer, exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet, generalized slip, heat transfer, numerical solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1515 Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of a Third-Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer and Slip Boundary Condition Down an Inclined Plane

Authors: Y. M. Aiyesimi, G. T. Okedayo, O. W. Lawal

Abstract:

An investigation is made for unsteady MHD thin film flow of a third grade fluid down an inclined plane with slip boundary condition. The non-linear partial differential equation governing the flow and heat transfer are evaluated numerically using computer software called Maple to obtain velocity and temperature profile. The effect of slip and other various physical parameter on both velocity and temperature profile obtained are studied through several graphs.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, MHD flow, third-grade fluid, Maple, slip boundary condition, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
1514 Analysis of Wire Coating for Heat Transfer Flow of a Viscoelastic PTT Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Authors: Rehan Ali Shah, A. M. Siddiqui, T. Haroon

Abstract:

Slip boundary value problem in wire coating analysis with heat transfer is examined. The fluid is assumed to be viscoelastic PTT (Phan-Thien and Tanner). The rheological constitutive equation of PTT fluid model simulates various polymer melts. Therefore, the current consequences are valuable in a number of realistic situations. Effects of slip parameter γ as well as εDec^2 (viscoelastic index) on the axial velocity, shear stress, normal stress, average velocity, volume flux, thickness of coated wire, shear stress, force on the total wire and temperature distribution profiles have been investigated. A new direction is explored to analyze the flow with the slip parameter. The slippage at the boundaries plays an important role in thickness of coated wire. It is noted that as the slip parameter increases the flow rate and thickness of coated wire increases while, temperature distribution decreases. The results reduce to no slip when the slip parameter is vanished. Furthermore, we can obtain the results for Maxwell and viscous model by setting ε and λ equal to zero respectively.

Keywords: wire coating, straight annular die, PTT fluid, heat transfer, slip boundary conditions

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1513 Free Convection from a Perforated Spinning Cone with Heat Generation, Temperature-Dependent Viscosity and Partial Slip

Authors: Gilbert Makanda

Abstract:

The problem of free convection from a perforated spinning cone with viscous dissipation, temperature-dependent viscosity, and partial slip was studied. The boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were numerically computed for different values of the spin, viscosity variation, inertia drag force, Eckert, suction/blowing parameters. The partial differential equations were transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations which were solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. This paper considered the effect of partial slip and spin parameters on the swirling velocity profiles which are rarely reported in the literature. The results obtained by this method was compared to those in the literature and found to be in agreement. Increasing the viscosity variation parameter, spin, partial slip, Eckert number, Darcian drag force parameters reduce swirling velocity profiles.

Keywords: free convection, suction/injection, partial slip, viscous dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1512 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.

Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, gas rarefaction, second-order boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1511 Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface

Authors: Bae Doobyong, Yoo Jaejun, Park Ilgyu, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook

Abstract:

Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.

Keywords: slip coefficient, curved plates, slip-critical bolted connection, radius of curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
1510 Effect of Velocity-Slip in Nanoscale Electroosmotic Flows: Molecular and Continuum Transport Perspectives

Authors: Alper T. Celebi, Ali Beskok

Abstract:

Electroosmotic (EO) slip flows in nanochannels are investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results are compared with analytical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes (PB-S) equations with slip contribution. The ultimate objective of this study is to show that well-known continuum flow model can accurately predict the EO velocity profiles in nanochannels using the slip lengths and apparent viscosities obtained from force-driven flow simulations performed at various liquid-wall interaction strengths. EO flow of aqueous NaCl solution in silicon nanochannels are simulated under realistic electrochemical conditions within the validity region of Poisson-Boltzmann theory. A physical surface charge density is determined for nanochannels based on dissociations of silanol functional groups on channel surfaces at known salt concentration, temperature and local pH. First, we present results of density profiles and ion distributions by equilibrium MD simulations, ensuring that the desired thermodynamic state and ionic conditions are satisfied. Next, force-driven nanochannel flow simulations are performed to predict the apparent viscosity of ionic solution between charged surfaces and slip lengths. Parabolic velocity profiles obtained from force-driven flow simulations are fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, where viscosity and slip lengths are quantified by comparing the coefficients of the fitted equation with continuum flow model. Presence of charged surface increases the viscosity of ionic solution while the velocity-slip at wall decreases. Afterwards, EO flow simulations are carried out under uniform electric field for different liquid-wall interaction strengths. Velocity profiles present finite slips near walls, followed with a conventional viscous flow profile in the electrical double layer that reaches a bulk flow region in the center of the channel. The EO flow enhances with increased slip at the walls, which depends on wall-liquid interaction strength and the surface charge. MD velocity profiles are compared with the predictions from analytical solutions of the slip modified PB-S equation, where the slip length and apparent viscosity values are obtained from force-driven flow simulations in charged silicon nano-channels. Our MD results show good agreements with the analytical solutions at various slip conditions, verifying the validity of PB-S equation in nanochannels as small as 3.5 nm. In addition, the continuum model normalizes slip length with the Debye length instead of the channel height, which implies that enhancement in EO flows is independent of the channel height. Further MD simulations performed at different channel heights also shows that the flow enhancement due to slip is independent of the channel height. This is important because slip enhanced EO flow is observable even in micro-channels experiments by using a hydrophobic channel with large slip and high conductivity solutions with small Debye length. The present study provides an advanced understanding of EO flows in nanochannels. Correct characterization of nanoscale EO slip flow is crucial to discover the extent of well-known continuum models, which is required for various applications spanning from ion separation to drug delivery and bio-fluidic analysis.

Keywords: electroosmotic flow, molecular dynamics, slip length, velocity-slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
1509 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: cascade control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1508 Physics-Based Earthquake Source Models for Seismic Engineering: Analysis and Validation for Dip-Slip Faults

Authors: Percy Galvez, Anatoly Petukhin, Paul Somerville, Ken Miyakoshi, Kojiro Irikura, Daniel Peter

Abstract:

Physics-based dynamic rupture modelling is necessary for estimating parameters such as rupture velocity and slip rate function that are important for ground motion simulation, but poorly resolved by observations, e.g. by seismic source inversion. In order to generate a large number of physically self-consistent rupture models, whose rupture process is consistent with the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of past earthquakes, we use multicycle simulations under the heterogeneous rate-and-state (RS) friction law for a 45deg dip-slip fault. We performed a parametrization study by fully dynamic rupture modeling, and then, a set of spontaneous source models was generated in a large magnitude range (Mw > 7.0). In order to validate rupture models, we compare the source scaling relations vs. seismic moment Mo for the modeled rupture area S, as well as average slip Dave and the slip asperity area Sa, with similar scaling relations from the source inversions. Ground motions were also computed from our models. Their peak ground velocities (PGV) agree well with the GMPE values. We obtained good agreement of the permanent surface offset values with empirical relations. From the heterogeneous rupture models, we analyzed parameters, which are critical for ground motion simulations, i.e. distributions of slip, slip rate, rupture initiation points, rupture velocities, and source time functions. We studied cross-correlations between them and with the friction weakening distance Dc value, the only initial heterogeneity parameter in our modeling. The main findings are: (1) high slip-rate areas coincide with or are located on an outer edge of the large slip areas, (2) ruptures have a tendency to initiate in small Dc areas, and (3) high slip-rate areas correlate with areas of small Dc, large rupture velocity and short rise-time.

Keywords: earthquake dynamics, strong ground motion prediction, seismic engineering, source characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1507 Stagnation Point Flow Over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Slip Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malik, Farzana Khan

Abstract:

In this article, we discuss the behavior of viscous fluid near stagnation point over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. The effects of slip conditions are also encountered. Thermal conductivity is considered as a linear function of temperature. By using homotopy analysis method and Fehlberg method we compare the graphical results for both momentum and energy equations. The effect of different parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically.

Keywords: slip conditions, stretching cylinder, heat generation/absorption, stagnation point flow, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1506 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal

Abstract:

The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1505 The Superhydrophobic Surface Effect on Laminar Boundary Layer Flows

Authors: Chia-Yung Chou, Che-Chuan Cheng, Chin Chi Hsu, Chun-Hui Wu

Abstract:

This study investigates the fluid of boundary layer flow as it flows through the superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface will be assembled into an observation channel for fluid experiments. The fluid in the channel will be doped with visual flow field particles, which will then be pumped by the syringe pump and introduced into the experimentally observed channel through the pipeline. Through the polarized light irradiation, the movement of the particles in the channel is captured by a high-speed camera, and the velocity of the particles is analyzed by MATLAB to find out the particle velocity field changes caused on the fluid boundary layer. This study found that the superhydrophobic surface can effectively increase the velocity near the wall surface, and the faster with the flow rate increases. The superhydrophobic surface also had longer the slip length compared with the plan surface. In the calculation of the drag coefficient, the superhydrophobic surface produces a lower drag coefficient, and there is a more significant difference when the Re reduced in the flow field.

Keywords: hydrophobic, boundary layer, slip length, friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1504 MHD Chemically Reacting Viscous Fluid Flow towards a Vertical Surface with Slip and Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ibrahim Yakubu Seini, Oluwole Daniel Makinde

Abstract:

MHD chemically reacting viscous fluid flow towards a vertical surface with slip and convective boundary conditions has been conducted. The temperature and the chemical species concentration of the surface and the velocity of the external flow are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the vertical surface. The governing differential equations are modeled and transformed into systems of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of various parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics are discussed. Graphical results are presented for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles whilst the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers near the surface are presented in tables and discussed. The results revealed that increasing the strength of the magnetic field increases the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers toward the surface. The velocity profiles are increased towards the surface due to the presence of the Lorenz force, which attracts the fluid particles near the surface. The rate of chemical reaction is seen to decrease the concentration boundary layer near the surface due to the destructive chemical reaction occurring near the surface.

Keywords: boundary layer, surface slip, MHD flow, chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1503 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flow of Cu-Water Nanofluid Due to a Rotating Disk with Partial Slip

Authors: Tasawar Hayat, Madiha Rashid, Maria Imtiaz, Ahmed Alsaedi

Abstract:

This problem is about the study of flow of viscous fluid due to rotating disk in nanofluid. Effects of magnetic field, slip boundary conditions and thermal radiations are encountered. An incompressible fluid soaked the porous medium. In this model, nanoparticles of Cu is considered with water as the base fluid. For Copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influences of nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) on velocity and temperature fields for the slip boundary conditions. The governing differential equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent solution of the nonlinear system is developed. The obtained results are analyzed through graphical illustrations for different parameters. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate at the surface are highest in copper-water nanofluid.

Keywords: MHD nanofluid, porous medium, rotating disk, slip effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1502 Improving Inelastic Capacity of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Using Slotted Blotted Connection

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Alireza Bagheri Sabbagh, Rasoul Mirghaderi, Paul C. Davidson

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to incorporating the slotted bolted connection into the cold-formed steel (CFS) beams with aim of increasing inelastic bending capacity through bolt slip. An extensive finite element analysis was conducted on the through plate CFS bolted connections which are equipped with the slotted hole. The studied parameters in this paper included the following: CFS beam section geometry, the value of slip force, CFS beam thickness. The numerical results indicate that CFS slotted bolted connection exhibit higher inelastic capacity in terms of ductility compare to connection with standards holes. Moreover, the effect of slip force was analysed by comparing the moment-rotation curves of different models with different slip force value. As a result, as the slip force became lower, there was a tendency for the plastic strain to extend from the CFS member to the connection region.

Keywords: slip-critical bolted connection, inelastic capacity, slotted holes, cold-formed steel, bolt slippage, slip force

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1501 Impact of the Xanthan Gum on Rheological Properties of Ceramic Slip

Authors: Souad Hassene Daouadji, Larbi Hammadi, Abdelkrim Hazzab

Abstract:

The slips intended for the manufacture of ceramics must have rheological properties well-defined in order to bring together the qualities required for the casting step (good fluidity for feeding the molds easily settles while generating a regular settling of the dough and for the dehydration phase of the dough in the mold a setting time relatively short is required to have a sufficient refinement which allows demolding both easy and fast). Many additives haveadded in slip of ceramic in order to improve their rheological properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of xanthan gumon rheological properties of ceramic Slip. The modified Cross model is used to fit the stationary flow curves of ceramic slip at different concentration of xanthan added. The thixotropic behavior studied of mixture ceramic slip-xanthan gumat constant temperature is analyzed by using a structural kinetic model (SKM) in order to account for time dependent effect.

Keywords: ceramic slip, xanthan gum, modified cross model, thixotropy, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1500 Effect of Slip Condition and Magnetic Field on Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of a Third Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer down an Inclined Plane

Authors: Y. M. Aiyesimi, G. T. Okedayo, O. W. Lawal

Abstract:

The analysis has been carried out to study unsteady MHD thin film flow of a third grade fluid down an inclined plane with heat transfer when the slippage between the surface of plane and the lower surface of the fluid is valid. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations involved are reduced to linear partial differential equations using regular perturbation method. The resulting equations were solved analytically using method of separation of variable and eigenfunctions expansion. The solutions obtained were examined and discussed graphically. It is interesting to find that the variation of the velocity and temperature profile with the slip and magnetic field parameter depends on time.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, MHD flow, thin film flow, third grade fluid, slip boundary condition, heat transfer, separation of variable, eigenfunction expansion

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1499 Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions

Authors: Shun Horikoshi, Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

This study presents performance analysis results of SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem by introducing some general saturation function. However, study about whether saturation function was really best and the performance analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much. Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed. In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall. So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip suppression sliding mode control.

Keywords: sliding mode control, chattering function, electric vehicle, slip suppression, performance analysis

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1498 Influence of a Pulsatile Electroosmotic Flow on the Dispersivity of a Non-Reactive Solute through a Microcapillary

Authors: Jaime Muñoz, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista Federico Méndez

Abstract:

The influence of a pulsatile electroosmotic flow (PEOF) at the rate of spread, or dispersivity, for a non-reactive solute released in a microcapillary with slippage at the boundary wall (modeled by the Navier-slip condition) is theoretically analyzed. Based on the flow velocity field developed under such conditions, the present study implements an analytical scheme of scaling known as the Theory of Homogenization, in order to obtain a mathematical expression for the dispersivity, valid at a large time scale where the initial transients have vanished and the solute spreads under the Taylor dispersion influence. Our results show the dispersivity is a function of a slip coefficient, the amplitude of the imposed electric field, the Debye length and the angular Reynolds number, highlighting the importance of the latter as an enhancement/detrimental factor on the dispersivity, which allows to promote the PEOF as a strong candidate for chemical species separation at lab-on-a-chip devices.

Keywords: dispersivity, microcapillary, Navier-slip condition, pulsatile electroosmotic flow, Taylor dispersion, Theory of Homogenization

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1497 An Intelligent Controller Augmented with Variable Zero Lag Compensation for Antilock Braking System

Authors: Benjamin Chijioke Agwah, Paulinus Chinaenye Eze

Abstract:

Antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the important contributions by the automobile industry, designed to ensure road safety in such way that vehicles are kept steerable and stable when during emergency braking. This paper presents a wheel slip-based intelligent controller with variable zero lag compensation for ABS. It is required to achieve a very fast perfect wheel slip tracking during hard braking condition and eliminate chattering with improved transient and steady state performance, while shortening the stopping distance using effective braking torque less than maximum allowable torque to bring a braking vehicle to a stop. The dynamic of a vehicle braking with a braking velocity of 30 ms⁻¹ on a straight line was determined and modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment to represent a conventional ABS system without a controller. Simulation results indicated that system without a controller was not able to track desired wheel slip and the stopping distance was 135.2 m. Hence, an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed with a variable zero lag compensator (VZLC) added to enhance the performance of FLC control variable by eliminating steady state error, provide improve bandwidth to eliminate the effect of high frequency noise such as chattering during braking. The simulation results showed that FLC- VZLC provided fast tracking of desired wheel slip, eliminate chattering, and reduced stopping distance by 70.5% (39.92 m), 63.3% (49.59 m), 57.6% (57.35 m) and 50% (69.13 m) on dry, wet, cobblestone and snow road surface conditions respectively. Generally, the proposed system used effective braking torque that is less than the maximum allowable braking torque to achieve efficient wheel slip tracking and overall robust control performance on different road surfaces.

Keywords: ABS, fuzzy logic controller, variable zero lag compensator, wheel slip tracking

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1496 Path-Tracking Controller for Tracked Mobile Robot on Rough Terrain

Authors: Toshifumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Morita, Manuel Pencelli, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Alfredo Argiolas

Abstract:

Automation technologies for agriculture field are needed to promote labor-saving. One of the most relevant problems in automated agriculture is represented by controlling the robot along a predetermined path in presence of rough terrain or incline ground. Unfortunately, disturbances originating from interaction with the ground, such as slipping, make it quite difficult to achieve the required accuracy. In general, it is required to move within 5-10 cm accuracy with respect to the predetermined path. Moreover, lateral velocity caused by gravity on the incline field also affects slipping. In this paper, a path-tracking controller for tracked mobile robots moving on rough terrains of incline field such as vineyard is presented. The controller is composed of a disturbance observer and an adaptive controller based on the kinematic model of the robot. The disturbance observer measures the difference between the measured and the reference yaw rate and linear velocity in order to estimate slip. Then, the adaptive controller adapts “virtual” parameter of the kinematics model: Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs). Finally, target angular velocity reference is computed according to the adapted parameter. This solution allows estimating the effects of slip without making the model too complex. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed solution is tested in a simulation environment.

Keywords: the agricultural robot, autonomous control, path-tracking control, tracked mobile robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1495 MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control) method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: sliding mode control, model predictive control, integral action, electric vehicle, slip suppression

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1494 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow in a Microchannel with Slippage at the Walls and Asymmetric Wall Zeta Potentials

Authors: Oscar Bautista, Jose Arcos

Abstract:

In this work, we conduct a theoretical analysis of an oscillatory electroosmotic flow in a parallel-plate microchannel taking into account slippage at the microchannel walls. The governing equations given by the Poisson-Boltzmann (with the Debye-Huckel approximation) and momentum equations are nondimensionalized from which four dimensionless parameters appear; a Reynolds angular number, the ratio between the zeta potentials of the microchannel walls, the electrokinetic parameter and the dimensionless slip length which measures the competition between the Navier slip length and the half height microchannel. The principal results indicate that the slippage has a strong influence on the magnitude of the oscillatory electroosmotic flow increasing the velocity magnitude up to 50% for the numerical values used in this work.

Keywords: electroosmotic flows, oscillatory flow, slippage, microchannel

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1493 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV, Velocity

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1492 Effect of Boundary Condition on Granular Pressure of Gas-Solid Flow in a Rotating Drum

Authors: Rezwana Rahman

Abstract:

Various simulations have been conducted to understand the particle's macroscopic behavior in the solid-gas multiphase flow in rotating drums in the past. In these studies, the particle-wall no-slip boundary condition was usually adopted. However, the non-slip boundary condition is rarely encountered in real systems. A little effort has been made to investigate the particle behavior at slip boundary conditions. The paper represents a study of the gas-solid flow in a horizontal rotating drum at a slip boundary wall condition. Two different sizes of particles with the same density have been considered. The Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase model with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used in the simulations. The granular pressure at the rolling flow regime with specularity coefficient 1 was examined and compared with that obtained based on the no-slip boundary condition. The results reveal that the profiles of granular pressure distribution on the transverse plane of the drum are similar for both boundary conditions. But, overall, compared with those for the no-slip boundary condition, the values of granular pressure for specularity coefficient 1 are larger for the larger particle and smaller for the smaller particle.

Keywords: boundary condition, eulerian–eulerian, multiphase, specularity coefficient, transverse plane

Procedia PDF Downloads 118