Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11882

Search results for: outlet mass flow rate

11882 Numerical Investigation and Optimization of the Effect of Number of Blade and Blade Type on the Suction Pressure and Outlet Mass Flow Rate of a Centrifugal Fan

Authors: Ogan Karabas, Suleyman Yigit

Abstract:

Number of blade and blade type of centrifugal fans are the most decisive factor on the field of application, noise level, suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate. Nowadays, in order to determine these effects on centrifugal fans, numerical studies are carried out in addition to experimental studies. In this study, it is aimed to numerically investigate the changes of suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate values of a centrifugal fan according to the number of blade and blade type. Centrifugal fans of the same size with forward, backward and straight blade type were analyzed by using a simulation program and compared with each other. This analysis was carried out under steady state condition by selecting k-Ɛ turbulence model and air is assumed incompressible. Then, 16, 32 and 48 blade centrifugal fans were again analyzed by using same simulation program, and the optimum number of blades was determined for the suction pressure and the outlet mass flow rate. According to the results of the analysis, it was obtained that the suction pressure in the 32 blade fan was twice the value obtained in the 16 blade fan. In addition, the outlet mass flow rate increased by 45% with the increase in the number of blade from 16 to 32. There is no significant change observed on the suction pressure and outlet mass flow rate when the number of blades increased from 32 to 48. In the light of the analysis results, the optimum blade number was determined as 32.

Keywords: blade type, centrifugal fan, cfd, outlet mass flow rate, suction pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
11881 Chemical Fingerprinting of Complex Samples With the Aid of Parallel Outlet Flow Chromatography

Authors: Xavier A. Conlan

Abstract:

Speed of analysis is a significant limitation to current high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/MS systems both of which are used in many forensic investigations. The flow rate limitations of MS detection require a compromise in the chromatographic flow rate, which in turn reduces throughput, and when using modern columns, a reduction in separation efficiency. Commonly, this restriction is combated through the post-column splitting of flow prior to entry into the mass spectrometer. However, this results in a loss of sensitivity and a loss in efficiency due to the post-extra column dead volume. A new chromatographic column format known as 'parallel segmented flow' involves the splitting of eluent flow within the column outlet end fitting, and in this study we present its application in order to interrogate the provenience of methamphetamine samples with mass spectrometry detection. Using parallel segmented flow, column flow rates as high as 3 mL/min were employed in the analysis of amino acids without post-column splitting to the mass spectrometer. Furthermore, when parallel segmented flow chromatography columns were employed, the sensitivity was more than twice that of conventional systems with post-column splitting when the same volume of mobile phase was passed through the detector. These finding suggest that this type of column technology will particularly enhance the capabilities of modern LC/MS enabling both high-throughput and sensitive mass spectral detection.

Keywords: chromatography, mass spectrometry methamphetamine, parallel segmented outlet flow column, forensic sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
11880 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Bao Kha Nguyen, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
11879 Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, solar air heater, thermos-hydraulic efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
11878 Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Mass Flow Rate on the Performance of a CO2 Direct-Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

Authors: Sabrina N. Rabelo, Tiago de F. Paulino, Willian M. Duarte, Samer Sawalha, Luiz Machado

Abstract:

Energy use is one of the main indicators for the economic and social development of a country, reflecting directly in the quality of life of the population. The expansion of energy use together with the depletion of fossil resources and the poor efficiency of energy systems have led many countries in recent years to invest in renewable energy sources. In this context, solar-assisted heat pump has become very important in energy industry, since it can transfer heat energy from the sun to water or another absorbing source. The direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DX-SAHP) water heater system operates by receiving solar energy incident in a solar collector, which serves as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle, and the energy reject by the condenser is used for water heating. In this paper, a DX-SAHP using carbon dioxide as refrigerant (R744) was assembled, and the influence of the variation of the water mass flow rate in the system was analyzed. The parameters such as high pressure, water outlet temperature, gas cooler outlet temperature, evaporator temperature, and the coefficient of performance were studied. The mainly components used to assemble the heat pump were a reciprocating compressor, a gas cooler which is a countercurrent concentric tube heat exchanger, a needle-valve, and an evaporator that is a copper bare flat plate solar collector designed to capture direct and diffuse radiation. Routines were developed in the LabVIEW and CoolProp through MATLAB software’s, respectively, to collect data and calculate the thermodynamics properties. The range of coefficient of performance measured was from 3.2 to 5.34. It was noticed that, with the higher water mass flow rate, the water outlet temperature decreased, and consequently, the coefficient of performance of the system increases since the heat transfer in the gas cooler is higher. In addition, the high pressure of the system and the CO2 gas cooler outlet temperature decreased. The heat pump using carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, especially operating with solar radiation has been proven to be a renewable source in an efficient system for heating residential water compared to electrical heaters reaching temperatures between 40 °C and 80 °C.

Keywords: water mass flow rate, R-744, heat pump, solar evaporator, water heater

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
11877 An Investigation of System and Operating Parameters on the Performance of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Power Generation

Authors: Umesh Kumar Sinha, Y. K. Nayak, N. Kumar, Swapnil Saurav, Monika Kashyap

Abstract:

The authors investigate the effect of system and operating parameters on the performance of high temperature solar concentrator for power generation. The effects of system and operating parameters were investigated using the developed mathematical expressions for collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature and power, etc. The results were simulated using C++program. The simulated results were plotted for investigation like effect of thermal loss parameter and radiative loss parameters on the collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature, rise of temperature and effect of mass flow rate of the fluid outlet temperature. In connection with the power generation, plots were drawn for the effect of (TM–TAMB) on the variation of concentration efficiency, concentrator irradiance on PM/PMN, evaporation temperature on thermal to electric power efficiency (Conversion efficiency) of the plant and overall efficiency of solar power plant.

Keywords: parabolic trough solar collector, radiative and thermal loss parameters, collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet and inlet temperatures, rise of temperature, mass flow rate, conversion efficiency, concentrator irradiance

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
11876 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
11875 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method, selective catalytic reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
11874 Drag Reduction of Base Bleed at Various Flight Conditions

Authors: Man Chul Jeong, Hyoung Jin Lee, Sang Yoon Lee, Ji Hyun Park, Min Wook Chang, In-Seuck Jeung

Abstract:

This study focus on the drag reduction effect of the base bleed at supersonic flow. Base bleed is the method which bleeds the gas on the tail of the flight vehicle and reduces the base drag, which occupies over 50% of the total drag in any flight speed. Thus base bleed can reduce the total drag significantly, and enhance the total flight range. Drag reduction ratio of the base bleed is strongly related to the mass flow rate of the bleeding gas. Thus selecting appropriate mass flow rate is important. However, since the flight vehicle has various flight speed, same mass flow rate of the base bleed can have different drag reduction effect during the flight. Thus, this study investigates the effect of the drag reduction depending on the flight speed by numerical analysis using STAR-CCM+. The analysis model is 155mm diameter projectile with boat-tailed shape base. Angle of the boat-tail is chosen previously for minimum drag coefficient. Numerical analysis is conducted for Mach 2 and Mach 3, with various mass flow rate, or the injection parameter I, of the bleeding gas and the temperature of the bleeding gas, is fixed to 300K. The results showed that I=0.025 has the minimum drag at Mach 2, and I=0.014 has the minimum drag at Mach 3. Thus as the Mach number is higher, the lower mass flow rate of the base bleed has more effect on drag reduction.

Keywords: base bleed, supersonic, drag reduction, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
11873 CFD Analysis of a Two-Sided Windcatcher Inlet/Outlet Ducts’ Height in Ventilation Flow through a Three Dimensional Room

Authors: Amirreza Niktash, B. P. Huynh

Abstract:

A windcatcher is a structure fitted on the roof of a building for providing natural ventilation by using wind power; it exhausts the inside stale air to the outside and supplies the outside fresh air into the interior space of the building working by pressure difference between outside and inside of the building and using ventilation principles of passive stacks and wind tower, respectively. In this paper, the effect of different heights of inlet/outlets’ ducts of a two-sided windcatcher on the flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern through a three-dimensional room fitted with the windcatcher are investigated and analysed by using RANS CFD technique and applying standard K-ε turbulence model via a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The achieved results show that the inlet/outlet ducts height strongly affects flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern especially in the living area of the room when the wind velocity is not too low. The results are confirmed by the experimental test for constructed scaled model in the laboratory and it develops the two-sided windcatcher’s performance in ventilation applications.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, ventilation, windcatcher

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
11872 Consideration of Failed Fuel Detector Location through Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis on Primary Cooling System Flow with Two Outlets

Authors: Sanghoon Bae, Hanju Cha

Abstract:

Failed fuel detector (FFD) in research reactor is a very crucial instrument to detect the anomaly from failed fuels in the early stage around primary cooling system (PCS) outlet prior to the decay tank. FFD is considered as a mandatory sensor to ensure the integrity of fuel assemblies and mitigate the consequence from a failed fuel accident. For the effective function of FFD, the location of them should be determined by contemplating the effect from coolant flow around two outlets. For this, the analysis on computational flow dynamics (CFD) should be first performed how the coolant outlet flow including radioactive materials from failed fuels are mixed and discharged through the outlet plenum within certain seconds. The analysis result shows that the outlet flow is well mixed regardless of the position of failed fuel and ultimately illustrates the effect of detector location.

Keywords: computational flow dynamics (CFD), failed fuel detector (FFD), fresh fuel assembly (FFA), spent fuel assembly (SFA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
11871 Influence of Channel Depth on the Performance of Wavy Fin Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand

Abstract:

Channel depth is an important design parameter to be fixed in designing a solar air heater. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to study the influence of channel duct on the thermal performance of solar air heaters. The channel depth has been varied from 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm for the mass flow range 0.01 to 0.11 kg/s. Based on first law of thermodynamics, the channel depth of 1.5 cm shows better thermal performance for all the mass flow range. Also, better thermohydraulic performance has been found up to 0.05 kg/s, and beyond this, thermohydraulic efficiency starts decreasing. It has been seen that, with the increase in the mass flow rate, the difference between thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency increases because of the increase in pressure drop. At lower mass flow rate, 0.01 kg/s, the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies for respective channel depth remain the same.

Keywords: channel depth, thermal efficiency, wavy fin, thermohydraulic efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
11870 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase change material, melting, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
11869 Diabatic Flow of Sub-Cooled R-600a Inside a Capillary Tube: Concentric Configuration

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Santhosh Kumar Dubba

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of a diabatic flow of R-600a through a concentric configured capillary tube suction line heat exchanger. The details of experimental facility for testing the diabatic capillary tube with different inlet sub-cooling degree and pressure are discussed. The effect of coil diameter, capillary length, capillary tube diameter, sub-cooling degree and inlet pressure on mass flow rate are presented. The degree of sub-cooling at the inlet of capillary tube is varied from 3-20°C. The refrigerant mass flow rate is scattered up with rising of pressure. A semi-empirical correlation to predict the mass flow rate of R-600a flowing through a diabatic capillary tube is proposed for sub-cooled inlet conditions. The proposed correlation predicts measured data with an error band of ±20 percent.

Keywords: diabatic, capillary tube, concentric, R-600a

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
11868 Heat and Mass Transfer Study of Supercooled Large Droplet Icing

Authors: Du Yanxia, Stephan E. Bansmer, Gui Yewei, Xiao Guangming, Yang Xiaofeng

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer characteristics of icing coupled with film flow is studied and the coupled model of the thermal behavior with the flow simulation by single-step method is developed. The behavior of ice and water was analyzed. The results show that under supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions, the film flow is an important phonomena in icing accretion process. The pressure gradient, gravity and shear stress are the main factors affecting the film flow on icing surface, which has important influence on the shape and rate of icing. To predict SLD ice accretion accurately, the heat and mass transfer of ice and film flow should be taken into account.

Keywords: SLD, aircraft, icing, heat and mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
11867 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
11866 Experimental Study on Heat and Mass Transfer of Humidifier for Fuel Cell

Authors: You-Kai Jhang, Yang-Cheng Lu

Abstract:

Major contributions of this study are threefold: designing a new model of planar-membrane humidifier for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), an index to measure the Effectiveness (εT) of that humidifier, and an air compressor system to replicate related planar-membrane humidifier experiments. PEMFC as a kind of renewable energy has become more and more important in recent years due to its reliability and durability. To maintain the efficiency of the fuel cell, the membrane of PEMFC need to be controlled in a good hydration condition. How to maintain proper membrane humidity is one of the key issues to optimize PEMFC. We developed new humidifier to recycle water vapor from cathode air outlet so as to keep the moisture content of cathode air inlet in a PEMFC. By measuring parameters such as dry side air outlet dew point temperature, dry side air inlet temperature and humidity, wet side air inlet temperature and humidity, and differential pressure between dry side and wet side, we calculated indices obtained by dew point approach temperature (DPAT), water flux (J), water recovery ratio (WRR), effectiveness (εT), and differential pressure (ΔP). We discussed six topics including sealing effect, flow rate effect, flow direction effect, channel effect, temperature effect, and humidity effect by using these indices. Gas cylinders are used as sources of air supply in many studies of humidifiers. Gas cylinder depletes quickly during experiment at 1kW air flow rate, and it causes replication difficult. In order to ensure high stable air quality and better replication of experimental data, this study designs an air supply system to overcome this difficulty. The experimental result shows that the best rate of pressure loss of humidifier is 0.133×10³ Pa(g)/min at the torque of 25 (N.m). The best humidifier performance ranges from 30-40 (LPM) of air flow rates. The counter flow configured humidifies moisturizes the dry side inlet air more effectively than the parallel flow humidifier. From the performance measurements of the channel plates various rib widths studied in this study, it is found that the narrower the rib width is, the more the performance of humidifier improves. Raising channel width in same hydraulic diameter (Dh ) will obtain higher εT and lower ΔP. Moreover, increasing the dry side air inlet temperature or humidity will lead to lower εT. In addition, when the dry side air inlet temperature exceeds 50°C, the effect becomes even more obvious.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, water management, membrane humidifier, heat and mass transfer, humidifier performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
11865 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol

Abstract:

The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant, CO₂ emission, irreversibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
11864 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
11863 Unsteadiness Effects on Variable Thrust Nozzle Performance

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the flow unsteady behavior for moving plug in convergent-divergent variable thrust nozzle. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are used to study this physical phenomenon. Different velocities are set for plug to investigate the effect of plug movement on flow unsteadiness. Variation of mass flow rate and thrust are compared under two conditions: First, the plug is placed at different positions and flow is simulated to reach the steady state (quasi steady simulation) and second, the plug is moved with assigned velocity and flow simulation is coupled with plug movement (unsteady simulation). If plug speed is high enough and its movement time scale is at the same order of the flow time scale, variation of the mass flow rate and thrust level versus plug position demonstrate a vital discrepancy under the quasi steady and unsteady conditions. This phenomenon should be considered especially from response time viewpoints in thrusters design.

Keywords: nozzle, numerical study, unsteady, variable thrust

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11862 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes

Abstract:

An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: finned-tube heat exchangers, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators

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11861 Numerical Simulations for Nitrogen Flow in Piezoelectric Valve

Authors: Pawel Flaszynski, Piotr Doerffer, Jan Holnicki-Szulc, Grzegorz Mikulowski

Abstract:

Results of numerical simulations for transonic flow in a piezoelectric valve are presented. The valve is the main part of an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. Flow structure in the valve domain and the influence of the flow non-uniformity in the valve on a mass flow rate is investigated. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: pneumatic valve, transonic flow, numerical simulations, piezoelectric valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
11860 Design and Developing the Infrared Sensor for Detection and Measuring Mass Flow Rate in Seed Drills

Authors: Bahram Besharti, Hossein Navid, Hadi Karimi, Hossein Behfar, Iraj Eskandari

Abstract:

Multiple or miss sowing by seed drills is a common problem on the farm. This problem causes overuse of seeds, wasting energy, rising crop treatment cost and reducing crop yield in harvesting. To be informed of mentioned faults and monitoring the performance of seed drills during sowing, developing a seed sensor for detecting seed mass flow rate and monitoring in a delivery tube is essential. In this research, an infrared seed sensor was developed to estimate seed mass flow rate in seed drills. The developed sensor comprised of a pair of spaced apart circuits one acting as an IR transmitter and the other acting as an IR receiver. Optical coverage in the sensing section was obtained by setting IR LEDs and photo-diodes directly on opposite sides. Passing seeds made interruption in radiation beams to the photo-diode which caused output voltages to change. The voltage difference of sensing units summed by a microcontroller and were converted to an analog value by DAC chip. The sensor was tested by using a roller seed metering device with three types of seeds consist of chickpea, wheat, and alfalfa (representing large, medium and fine seed, respectively). The results revealed a good fitting between voltage received from seed sensor and mass flow of seeds in the delivery tube. A linear trend line was set for three seeds collected data as a model of the mass flow of seeds. A final mass flow model was developed for various size seeds based on receiving voltages from the seed sensor, thousand seed weight and equivalent diameter of seeds. The developed infrared seed sensor, besides monitoring mass flow of seeds in field operations, can be used for the assessment of mechanical planter seed metering unit performance in the laboratory and provide an easy calibrating method for seed drills before planting in the field.

Keywords: seed flow, infrared, seed sensor, seed drills

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11859 MHD Chemically Reacting Viscous Fluid Flow towards a Vertical Surface with Slip and Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ibrahim Yakubu Seini, Oluwole Daniel Makinde

Abstract:

MHD chemically reacting viscous fluid flow towards a vertical surface with slip and convective boundary conditions has been conducted. The temperature and the chemical species concentration of the surface and the velocity of the external flow are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the vertical surface. The governing differential equations are modeled and transformed into systems of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of various parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics are discussed. Graphical results are presented for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles whilst the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers near the surface are presented in tables and discussed. The results revealed that increasing the strength of the magnetic field increases the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers toward the surface. The velocity profiles are increased towards the surface due to the presence of the Lorenz force, which attracts the fluid particles near the surface. The rate of chemical reaction is seen to decrease the concentration boundary layer near the surface due to the destructive chemical reaction occurring near the surface.

Keywords: boundary layer, surface slip, MHD flow, chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
11858 The Effect of Swirl on the Flow Distribution in Automotive Exhaust Catalysts

Authors: Piotr J. Skusiewicz, Johnathan Saul, Ijhar Rusli, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Stephen. F. Benjamin, Miroslaw Gall, Steve Pierson, Carol A. Roberts

Abstract:

The application of turbocharging in automotive engines leads to swirling flow entering the catalyst. The behaviour of this type of flow within the catalyst has yet to be adequately documented. This work discusses the effect of swirling flow on the flow distribution in automotive exhaust catalysts. Compressed air supplied to a moving-block swirl generator allowed for swirling flow with variable intensities to be generated. Swirl intensities were measured at the swirl generator outlet using single-sensor hot-wire probes. The swirling flow was fed into diffusers with total angles of 10°, 30° and 180°. Downstream of the diffusers, a wash-coated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of length 143.8 mm, diameter 76.2 mm and nominal cell density of 400 cpsi was fitted. Velocity profiles were measured at the outlet sleeve about 30 mm downstream of the monolith outlet using single-sensor hot-wire probes. Wall static pressure was recorded using a multi-tube manometer connected to pressure taps positioned along the diffuser walls. The results show that as swirl is increased, more of the flow is directed towards the diffuser walls. The velocity decreases around the centre-line and maximum velocities are observed close to the outer radius of the monolith for all flow rates. At the maximum swirl intensity, reversed flow was recorded near the centre of the monolith. Wall static pressure measurements in the 180° diffuser indicated no pressure recovery as the flow enters the diffuser. This is indicative of flow separation at the inlet to the diffuser. To gain insight into the flow structure, CFD simulations have been performed for the 180° diffuser for a flow rate of 63 g/s. The geometry of the model consists of the complete assembly from the upstream swirl generator to the outlet sleeve. Modelling of the flow in the monolith was achieved using the porous medium approach, where the monolith with parallel flow channels is modelled as a porous medium that resists the flow. A reasonably good agreement was achieved between the experimental and CFD results downstream of the monolith. The CFD simulations allowed visualisation of the separation zones and central toroidal recirculation zones that occur within the expansion region at certain swirl intensities which are highlighted.

Keywords: catalyst, computational fluid dynamics, diffuser, hot-wire anemometry, swirling flow

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11857 Performance Evaluation of Conical Solar Concentrator System with Different Flow Rate

Authors: Gwi Hyun Lee, Mun Soo Na

Abstract:

Solar energy has many advantages of infinite and clean source, and also it can be used for reduction of greenhouse gases and environment pollution. Concentrated solar system is a very useful to achieve reasonably high thermal efficiency. Different types of solar concentrating systems have been developed such as parabolic trough and parabolic dish. Conical solar concentrator is one of the most reliable and promising renewable energy systems for higher temperature applications. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of flow rate affecting the thermal efficiency of a conical solar collector, which has a double tube absorber placed at focal axis for collecting solar radiation. A conical solar concentrator consists of a conical reflector, which reflects direct solar radiation into an absorber. A double tube absorber was placed at the center of focal axis for collecting the solar radiation reflected from a conical reflector. A dual tracking system consists of a linear actuator and slew drive with driving cycle of 6 seconds. Water was used as circulating fluid, which flows from inlet to outlet of an absorber for collecting solar radiation. Three identical conical solar concentrator systems were installed side by side at the same place for the accurate performance analysis under the same environmental conditions. Performance evaluations were carried out with different volumetric flow rate of 2, 4 and 6 L/min to find the influence of flow rate affecting on thermal efficiency. The results indicated that average thermal efficiency was 73.24%, 81.96%, and 79.78% for each flow rate of 2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min. It shows that the flow rate of circulating water has a significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conical solar concentrator. It is concluded that an optimum flow rate of conical solar concentrator is 6 L/min.

Keywords: conical solar concentrator, performance evaluation, solar energy, solar energy system

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11856 Numerical Investigation of Two Turbulence Models for Predicting the Temperature Separation in Conical Vortex Tube

Authors: M. Guen

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical study is used to analyze the behavior of the flow inside a vortex tube. The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a simple device which is capable of dividing compressed air from the inlet nozzle tangentially into two flow with different temperatures warm and cold. This phenomenon is known from literature by temperature separation. The K ω-SST and K-ε turbulence models are used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the tube. The vortex tube is an Exair 708 slpm (25 scfm) commercial tube. The cold and hot exits areas are 30.2 and 95 mm2 respectively. The vortex nozzle consists of 6 straight slots; the height and the width of each slot are 0.97 mm and 1.41 mm. The total area normal to the flow associated with six nozzles is therefore 8.15 mm 2. The present study focuses on a comparison between two turbulence models K ω-SST, K-ε by using a new configuration of vortex tube (Conical Vortex Tube). The performance curves of the temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction were calculated and compared with experimental and numerical study of other researchers.

Keywords: conical vortex tube, temperature separation, cold mass fraction, turbulence

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11855 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
11854 Determination of Flow Arrangement for Optimum Performance in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed Salisu Atiku

Abstract:

This task involves the determination of the flow arrangement for optimum performance and the calculation of total heat transfer of two identical double pipe heat exchangers in series. The inner pipe contains the cold water stream at 27°C, whilst the outer pipe contains the two hot stream of water at 50°C and 90 °C which can be mixed in any way desired. The analysis was carried out using counter flow arrangement due to its good heat transfer ability. The best way of heating this cold stream was found out to be passing the 90°C hot stream through the two heat exchangers. The outlet temperature of the cold stream was found to be 39.6°C and overall heat transfer of 131.3 kW. Though starting with 50°C hot stream in the first heat exchanger followed by 90°C hot stream in the second heat exchanger gives an outlet temperature almost the same as 90°C hot stream alone, but the heat transfer is low. The reason for the low heat transfer was that only the heat transfer in the second heat exchanger is considered. Whilst the reason behind high outlet temperature was that the cold stream was already preheated by the first stream.

Keywords: cold stream, flow arrangement, heat exchanger, hot stream

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11853 Rainfall–Runoff Simulation Using WetSpa Model in Golestan Dam Basin, Iran

Authors: M. R. Dahmardeh Ghaleno, M. Nohtani, S. Khaledi

Abstract:

Flood simulation and prediction is one of the most active research areas in surface water management. WetSpa is a distributed, continuous, and physical model with daily or hourly time step that explains precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration processes for both simple and complex contexts. This model uses a modified rational method for runoff calculation. In this model, runoff is routed along the flow path using Diffusion-Wave equation which depends on the slope, velocity, and flow route characteristics. Golestan Dam Basin is located in Golestan province in Iran and it is passing over coordinates 55° 16´ 50" to 56° 4´ 25" E and 37° 19´ 39" to 37° 49´ 28"N. The area of the catchment is about 224 km2, and elevations in the catchment range from 414 to 2856 m at the outlet, with average slope of 29.78%. Results of the simulations show a good agreement between calculated and measured hydrographs at the outlet of the basin. Drawing upon Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient for calibration periodic model estimated daily hydrographs and maximum flow rate with an accuracy up to 59% and 80.18%, respectively.

Keywords: watershed simulation, WetSpa, stream flow, flood prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 179