Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: stripping

53 The Extraction and Stripping of Hg(II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

The separation of Hg(II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a counter current flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution for 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg(II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg(II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg(II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
52 Stripping of Flavour-Active Compounds from Aqueous Food Streams: Effect of Liquid Matrix on Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium in a Beer-Like Solution

Authors: Ali Ammari, Karin Schroen

Abstract:

In brewing industries, stripping is a downstream process to separate volatiles from beer. Due to physiochemical similarities between flavour components, the selectivity of this method is not favourable. Besides, the presence of non-volatile compounds such as proteins and carbohydrates may affect the separation of flavours due to their retaining properties. By using a stripping column with structured packing coupled with a gas chromatography, in this work, the overall mass transfer coefficient along with their corresponding equilibrium data was investigated for a model solution consist of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. Static headspace analysis also was employed to derive equilibrium data for flavours in the presence of beer dry matter. As it was expected ethanol and dry matter showed retention properties; however, the effect of viscosity in mass transfer coefficient was discarded due to the fact that the viscosity of solution decreased during stripping. The effect of ethanol and beer dry matter were mapped to be used for designing stripping could.

Keywords: flavour, headspace, Henry’s coefficient, mass transfer coefficient, stripping

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
51 The Effectiveness of Pretreatment Methods on COD and Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate

Authors: M. Poveda, S. Lozecznik, J. Oleszkiewicz, Q. Yuan

Abstract:

The goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of different leachate pre-treatment options in terms of COD and ammonia removal. This research focused on the evaluation of physical-chemical methods for pre-treatment of leachate that would be effective and rapid in order to satisfy the requirements of the sewer discharge by-laws. The four pre-treatment options evaluated were: air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation and advanced oxidation with sodium ferrate. Chemical coagulation reported the best COD removal rate at 43%, compared to 18 % for both air stripping and electro-coagulation, and 20 % for oxidation with sodium ferrate. On the other hand, air stripping was far superior to the other treatment options in terms of ammonia removal with 86 %. Oxidation with sodium ferrate reached only 16 %, while chemical coagulation and electro-coagulation removed less than 10 %. When combined, air stripping and chemical coagulation removed up to 50 % COD and 85 % ammonia.

Keywords: leachate pretreatment, air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation, oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 720
50 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper (II) at the Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) MWCNT Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive electrode for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was proposed. The electrode was made of the paste of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) at 100:5 (w/w). Under optimal conditions the electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu (II) and limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M Cu (II). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) of response to 1.0 × 10–6 M Cu(II) was 0.036. The interferences of cations such as Ni(II), Mg(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) are negligible except from Pb (II). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favorable. Result of analysis of Cu(II) in several water samples agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed electrode was then recommended as an alternative to spectroscopic technique in analyzing Cu (II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
49 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
48 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Spent Mo-Co Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum has increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. The present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3.0 mol/L HCl, and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2.0 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe- Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. According to McCabe- Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two-stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with the negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO₃ in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO₃ was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO₃ correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO₃ structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod-like morphology of synthesized MoO₃. EDX analysis of MoO₃ shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO₃ can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as a catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos Il 102, extraction, spent mo-co catalyst, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
47 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Mo-Co Spent Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum have increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. Present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3 mol/L HCl and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by counter current simulation studies. According to McCabe-Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO3 was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO3correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO3 structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod like morphology of synthesized MoO3. EDX analysis of MoO3 shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO3 can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos IL 102, extraction, Mo-Co spent catalyst, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
46 Electrochemical Behavior and Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Dianabol Steroid in Urine at Bare Glassy Carbon Paste Electrode

Authors: N. Al-Orfi, M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh

Abstract:

The electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive and selective determination of dianabol steroid (DS) in phosphate, Britton-Robinson (B-R) and HEPES buffers of pH 2.0 - 11, 2.0 - 11 and 6.2 - 8.0, respectively using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) at bare GCE was studied. The dependence of the CV response of the developed cathodic peak potential (Ep, c), peak current (ip, c) and the current function (ip, c / υ1/2) on the scan rate (υ) at the bare GCE revealed the occurrence of electrode coupled chemical reaction of EC type mechanism. The selectivity of the proposed method was assessed in the presence of high concentrations of major interfering species e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and ions Na+, K+, PO4-3, NO3- and SO42-. The recovery of the method was not significant where t(critical)=2.20 > texp=1.81-1.93 at 95% confidence. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in biological fluids as urine was investigated. The results were demonstrated as recovery percentages in the range 95±2.5-97±4.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-1.5%.

Keywords: dianabol, determination, modified electrode, urine

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
45 Recycling of Spent Mo-Co Catalyst for the Recovery of Molybdenum Using Cyphos IL 104

Authors: Harshit Mahandra, Rashmi Singh, Bina Gupta

Abstract:

Molybdenum is widely used in thermocouples, anticathode of X-ray tubes and in the production of alloys of steels. Molybdenum compounds are extensively used as a catalyst in petroleum-refining industries for hydrodesulphurization. Activity of the catalysts decreases gradually with time and are dumped as hazardous waste due to contamination with toxic materials during the process. These spent catalysts can serve as a secondary source for metal recovery and help to sort out environmental and economical issues. In present study, extraction and separation of molybdenum from a Mo-Co spent catalyst leach liquor containing 0.870 g L⁻¹ Mo, 0.341 g L⁻¹ Co, 0.422 ×10⁻¹ g L⁻¹ Fe and 0.508 g L⁻¹ Al in 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl has been investigated using solvent extraction technique. The extracted molybdenum has been finally recovered as molybdenum trioxide. Leaching conditions used were- 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl, 90°C temperature, solid to liquid ratio (w/v) of 1.25% and reaction time of 60 minutes. 96.45% molybdenum was leached under these conditions. For the extraction of molybdenum from leach liquor, Cyphos IL 104 [trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate] in toluene was used as an extractant. Around 91% molybdenum was extracted with 0.02 mol L⁻¹ Cyphos IL 104, and 75% of molybdenum was stripped from the loaded organic phase with 2 mol L⁻¹ HNO₃ at A/O=1/1. McCabe Thiele diagrams were drawn to determine the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of molybdenum. According to McCabe Thiele plots, two stages are required for both extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O=1/1 which were also confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. Around 98% molybdenum was extracted in two countercurrent extraction stages with no co-extraction of cobalt and aluminum. Iron was removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol L⁻¹ HCl. Quantitative recovery of molybdenum is achieved in three countercurrent stripping stages at A/O=1/1. Trioxide of molybdenum was obtained from strip solution and was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. Molybdenum trioxide due to its distinctive electrochromic, thermochromic and photochromic properties is used as a smart material for sensors, lubricants, and Li-ion batteries. Molybdenum trioxide finds application in various processes such as methanol oxidation, metathesis, propane oxidation and in hydrodesulphurization. It can also be used as a precursor for the synthesis of MoS₂ and MoSe₂.

Keywords: Cyphos IL 104, molybdenum, spent Mo-Co catalyst, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
44 Phytoremediation Waste Processing of Coffee in Various Concentration of Organic Materials Plant Using Kiambang

Authors: Siti Aminatu Zuhria

Abstract:

On wet coffee processing can improve the quality of coffee, but the coffee liquid waste that can pollute the environment. Liquid waste a lot of coffee resulting from the stripping and washing the coffee. This research will be carried out the process of handling liquid waste stripping coffee from the coffee skin with media phytoremediation using plants kiambang. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the coffee liquid waste and plant phytoremediation kiambang as agent in various concentrations of liquid waste coffee as well as determining the most optimal concentration in the improved quality of waste water quality standard approach. This research will be conducted through two stages, namely the preliminary study and the main study. In a preliminary study aims to determine the ability of the plant life kiambang as phytoremediation agent in the media well water, distilled water and liquid waste coffee. The main study will be conducted wastewater dilution and coffee will be obtained COD concentration variations. Results are expected at this research that can determine the ability of plants kiambang as an agent for phytoremediation in wastewater treatment with various concentrations of waste and the most optimal concentration in the improved quality of waste water quality standard approach.

Keywords: wet coffee processing, phytoremediation, Kiambang plant, variation concentration liquid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
43 Kinetic and Removable of Amoxicillin Using Aliquat336 as a Carrier via a HFSLM

Authors: Teerapon Pirom, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic which is widely used to treat various infections in both human beings and animals. However, when amoxicillin is released into the environment, it is a major problem. Amoxicillin causes bacterial resistance to these drugs and failure of treatment with antibiotics. Liquid membrane is of great interest as a promising method for the separation and recovery of the target ions from aqueous solutions due to the use of carriers for the transport mechanism, resulting in highly selectivity and rapid transportation of the desired metal ions. The simultaneous processes of extraction and stripping in a single unit operation of liquid membrane system are very interesting. Therefore, it is practical to apply liquid membrane, particularly the HFSLM for industrial applications as HFSLM is proved to be a separation process with lower capital and operating costs, low energy and extractant with long life time, high selectivity and high fluxes compared with solid membranes. It is a simple design amenable to scaling up for industrial applications. The extraction and recovery for (Amoxicillin) through the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) using aliquat336 as a carrier were explored with the experimental data. The important variables affecting on transport of amoxicillin viz. extractant concentration and operating time were investigated. The highest AMOX- extraction percentages of 85.35 and Amoxicillin stripping of 80.04 were achieved with the best condition at 6 mmol/L [aliquat336] and operating time 100 min. The extraction reaction order (n) and the extraction reaction rate constant (kf) were found to be 1.00 and 0.0344 min-1, respectively.

Keywords: aliquat336, amoxicillin, HFSLM, kinetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
42 A Straightforward Method for Determining Inorganic Selenium Speciations by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Water Samples

Authors: Sahar Ehsani, David James, Vernon Hodge

Abstract:

In this experimental study, total selenium in solution was measured with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, GFAAS, then chemical reactions with sodium borohydride were used to reduce selenite to hydrogen selenide. Hydrogen selenide was then stripped from the solution by purging the solution with nitrogen gas. Since the two main speciations in oxic waters are usually selenite, Se(IV) and selenate, Se(VI), it was assumed that after Se(IV) is removed, the remaining total selenium was Se(VI). Total selenium measured after stripping gave Se(VI) concentration, and the difference of total selenium measured before and after stripping gave Se(IV) concentration. An additional step of reducing Se(VI) to Se(IV) was performed by boiling the stripped solution under acidic conditions, then removing Se(IV) by a chemical reaction with sodium borohydride. This additional procedure of removing Se(VI) from the solution is useful in rare cases where the water sample is reducing and contains selenide speciation. In this study, once Se(IV) and Se(VI) were both removed from the water sample, the remaining total selenium concentration was zero. The method was tested to determine Se(IV) and Se(VI) in both purified water and synthetic irrigation water spiked with Se(IV) and Se(VI). Average recovery of spiked samples of diluted synthetic irrigation water was 99% for Se(IV) and 97% for Se(VI). Detection limits of the method were 0.11 µg L⁻¹ and 0.32 µg L⁻¹ for Se(IV) and Se(VI), respectively.

Keywords: Analytical Method, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Selenate, Selenite, Selenium Speciations

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
41 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
40 In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil

Authors: Nastaran Hazrati, Ali Akbar Miran Beigi, Majid Abdouss, Amir Vahid

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.

Keywords: MCM-41, ZnO, H2S removal, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
39 Study on Total Chlorine in Crude Palm Oil from Various Palm Oil Mill Operation Units

Authors: Norliza Saparin, Ahmadilfitri Noor, Mohd Suria Affandi Yusoff, Shawaluddin Tahiruddin

Abstract:

A palm oil mill produces crude palm oil (CPO) and has many operation units that comprises of sterilization, stripping, digestion and pressing, clarification, purification, drying and storage. This study investigated the total chlorine in palm fruit and CPO after each operating units. The total chlorine were determined by Mitsubishi NSX-2100 H, Trace Elemental Analyzer. The trace elemental analyzer is a furnace system with a micro-coulometric detector that was used for measuring and detecting total chlorine whether in organic or inorganic form. This determination is important as the chlorine is a direct precursor for 3-MCPD ester.

Keywords: chlorine, micro-coulometric, palm oil, 3-MCPD

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
38 Separation of Mercury(Ii) from Petroleum Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane and Mass Transfer Modeling

Authors: Srestha Chaturabul, Wanchalerm Srirachat, Thanaporn Wannachod, Prakorn Ramakul, Ura Pancharoen, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

The separation of mercury(II) from petroleum-produced water from the Gulf of Thailand was carried out using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane system (HFSLM). Optimum parameters for feed pretreatment were 0.2 M HCl, 4% (v/v) Aliquat 336 for extractant and 0.1 M thiourea for stripping solution. The best percentage obtained for extraction was 99.73% and for recovery 90.11%, respectively. The overall separation efficiency noted was 94.92% taking account of both extraction and recovery prospects. The model for this separation developed along a combined flux principle i.e. convection–diffusion–kinetic. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretical data at an average standard deviation of 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively.

Keywords: separation, mercury(ii), petroleum produced water, hollow fiber, liquid membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
37 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
36 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan

Abstract:

The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: ilmenite ore, leaching, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
35 Phonological Processing and Its Role in Pseudo-Word Decoding in Children Learning to Read Kannada Language between 5.6 to 8.6 Years

Authors: Vangmayee. V. Subban, Somashekara H. S, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction and Need: Phonological processing is critical in learning to read alphabetical and non-alphabetical languages. However, its role in learning to read Kannada an alphasyllabary is equivocal. The literature has focused on the developmental role of phonological awareness on reading. To the best of authors knowledge, the role of phonological memory and phonological naming has not been addressed in alphasyllabary Kannada language. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the comprehensive role of the phonological processing skills in Kannada on word decoding skills during the early years of schooling. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities and their role in learning to decode pseudowords in children learning to read the Kannada language during initial years of formal schooling between 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, 60 typically developing Kannada speaking children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. Phonological processing abilities were assessed using an assessment tool specifically developed to address the objectives of the present research. The assessment tool was content validated by subject experts and had good inter and intra-subject reliability. Phonological awareness was assessed at syllable level using syllable segmentation, blending, and syllable stripping at initial, medial and final position. Phonological memory was assessed using pseudoword repetition task and phonological naming was assessed using rapid automatized naming of objects. Both phonological awareneness and phonological memory measures were scored for the accuracy of the response, whereas Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) was scored for total naming speed. Results: The mean scores comparison using one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the groups on all the measures of phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, rapid automatized naming, and pseudoword reading. Subsequent post-hoc grade wise comparison using Bonferroni test revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between each of the grades for all the tasks except (p ≥ 0.05) for syllable blending, syllable stripping, and pseudoword repetition between Grade II and Grade III. The Pearson correlations revealed a highly significant positive correlation (p=0.000) between all the variables except phonological naming which had significant negative correlations. However, the correlation co-efficient was higher for phonological awareness measures compared to others. Hence, phonological awareness was chosen a first independent variable to enter in the hierarchical regression equation followed by rapid automatized naming and finally, pseudoword repetition. The regression analysis revealed syllable awareness as a single most significant predictor of pseudoword reading by explaining the unique variance of 74% and there was no significant change in R² when RAN and pseudoword repetition were added subsequently to the regression equation. Conclusion: Present study concluded that syllable awareness matures completely by Grade II, whereas the phonological memory and phonological naming continue to develop beyond Grade III. Amongst phonological processing skills, phonological awareness, especially syllable awareness is crucial for word decoding than phonological memory and naming during initial years of schooling.

Keywords: phonological awareness, phonological memory, phonological naming, phonological processing, pseudo-word decoding

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
34 Numerical Investigation for External Strengthening of Dapped-End Beams

Authors: A. Abdel-Moniem, H. Madkour, K. Farah, A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The reduction in dapped end beams depth nearby the supports tends to produce stress concentration and hence results in shear cracks, if it does not have an adequate reinforcement detailing. This study investigates numerically the efficiency of applying different external strengthening techniques to the dapped end of such beams. A two-dimensional finite element model was built to predict the structural behavior of dapped ends strengthened with different techniques. The techniques included external bonding of the steel angle at the re-entrant corner, un-bounded bolt anchoring, external steel plate jacketing, exterior carbon fiber wrapping and/or stripping and external inclined steel plates. The FE analysis results are then presented in terms of the ultimate load capacities, load-deflection and crack pattern at failure. The results showed that the FE model, at various stages, was found to be comparable to the available test data. Moreover, it enabled the capture of the failure progress, with acceptable accuracy, which is very difficult in a laboratory test.

Keywords: dapped-end beams, finite element, shear failure, strengthening techniques, reinforced concrete, numerical investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
33 Adherence Induced Formwork Removal in Small-Scale Pull-Off Tensile Tests

Authors: Nicolas Spitz, Nicolas Coniglio, Mohamed El Mansori, Alex Montagne, Sabeur Mezghani

Abstract:

Nowadays buildings' construction is performed by pouring concrete into molds referred to as formworks that are usually prefabricated metallic modules. Defects such as stripping may possibly form during the removal of the formwork if the interfacial bonding between the concrete and the formwork is high. A new pull-off tensile test was developed in our laboratory to simulate small-scale formwork removals. The concrete-to-formwork adherence force was measured on bare and coated formworks with different surface signatures. The used concrete was a mixture largely used on building sites and contains CEM I Portland cement and calcareous filler. The concrete surface appearance and the type of failures at the concrete-formwork interface have been investigated. The originality of this near-to-surface test was to compare the laboratory-measured adherence forces to the on-site observations. Based upon the small-scale laboratory test results, functional formwork specifications with low adherence to concrete was proposed in terms of superficial signature characteristics.

Keywords: concrete-formwork adherence, interfacial bonding, skin formwork functionality, small-scale pull-off tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
32 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), and batch extraction time (τ) with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs,, ψ, φ and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively.

Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, extraction, lactic acid, n-trioctylamine, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
31 Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin

Authors: Amira M. Hassanein, Nehal A. Salahuddin, Atsunori Matsuda, Toshiaki Hattori, Mona N. Elfiky

Abstract:

New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, polypyrrole, terazosin hydrochloride, square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
30 Stresses Induced in Saturated Asphalt Pavement by Moving Loads

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xue

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stresses and excess pore fluid pressure induced by the moving wheel pressure on saturated asphalt pavements, which is one of the reasons for a damage phenomenon in flexible pavement denoted stripping. The saturated asphalt pavement is modeled as multilayered poroelastic half space exerted by a wheel pressure, which is moving at a constant velocity along the surface of the pavement. The governing equations for the proposed analysis are based on the Biot’s theory of dynamics in saturated poroelastic medium. The governing partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The solutions for the stresses and excess pore pressure are expressed in the forms of numerical inversion Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The numerical simulation results clearly demonstrate the induced deformation and water flow in the asphalt pavement.

Keywords: saturated asphalt pavements, moving loads, excess pore fluid pressure, stress of pavement, biot theory, stress and strain of pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
29 Theory of Constraints: Approach for Performance Enhancement and Boosting Overhaul Activities

Authors: Sunil Dutta

Abstract:

Synchronization is defined as ‘the sequencing and re-sequencing of all relative and absolute activities in time and space and continuous alignment of those actions with purposeful objective in a complex and dynamic atmosphere. In a complex and dynamic production / maintenance setup, no single group can work in isolation for long. In addition, many activities in projects take place simultaneously at the same time. Work of every section / group is interwoven with work of others. The various activities / interactions which take place in production / overhaul workshops are interlinked because of physical requirements (information, material, workforces, equipment, and space) and dependencies. The activity sequencing is determined by physical dependencies of various department / sections / units (e.g., inventory availability must be ensured before stripping and disassembling of equipment), whereas resource dependencies do not. Theory of constraint facilitates identification, analyses and exploitation of the constraint in methodical manner. These constraints (equipment, manpower, policies etc.) prevent the department / sections / units from getting optimum exploitation of available resources. The significance of theory of constraints for achieving synchronization at overhaul workshop is illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: synchronization, overhaul, throughput, obsolescence, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
28 Effect of Nano-Alumina on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Recycled Asphalt

Authors: Shahab Hasani Nasab, Aran Aeini, Navid Kermanshahi

Abstract:

In order to reduce road building costs and reduce environmental damage, recycled materials can be used instead of mineral materials in the production of asphalt mixtures. Today, in most parts of the world, cold recycled asphalt with bitumen emulsion, has acceptable results. However, Cold Recycled Asphalt have some deficiency such as stripping, thermal cracking, and rutting. This requires the addition of additives to reduce this deficiency of recycled pavement with emulsified asphalt. In this research, nano-alumina and emulsified asphalt were used to modify the properties of recycled asphalt mixtures according to the technical specifications and the operation of cold recycling. Marshall test methods, dynamic creep test, and resiliency modulus test has been used to obtain the nano-alumina’s effects on asphalt mixture properties. The results show that the addition of nano-alumina would reduce the Marshall stability in samples but increases the rutting resistance. The resiliency modulus increases significantly with this additive.

Keywords: cold asphalt, cold recycling, nano-alumina, dynamic creep, bitumen emulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
27 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, organic extracts, aqueous extracts, Thymus numidicus

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
26 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk, Dara Satyadileep

Abstract:

This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: split flow, Amine, gas processing, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
25 Crater Pattern on the Moon and Origin of the Moon

Authors: Xuguang Leng

Abstract:

The crater pattern on the Moon indicates the Moon was captured by Earth in the more recent years, disproves the theory that the Moon was born as a satellite to the Earth. The Moon was tidal locked since it became the satellite of the Earth. Moon’s near side is shielded by Earth from asteroid/comet collisions, with the center of the near side most protected. Yet the crater pattern on the Moon is fairly random, with no distinguishable empty spot/strip, no distinguishable difference near side vs. far side. Were the Moon born as Earth’s satellite, there would be a clear crater free spot, or strip should the tial lock shifts over time, on the near side; and far more craters on the far side. The nonexistence of even a vague crater free spot on the near side of the Moon indicates the capture was a more recent event. Given Earth’s much larger mass and sphere size over the Moon, Earth should have collided with asteroids and comets in much higher frequency, resulting in significant mass gain over the lifespan. Earth’s larger mass and magnetic field are better at retaining water and gas from solar wind’s stripping effect, thus accelerating the mass gain. A dwarf planet Moon can be pulled closer and closer to the Earth over time as Earth’s gravity grows stronger, eventually being captured as a satellite. Given enough time, it is possible Earth’s mass would be large enough to cause the Moon to collide with Earth.

Keywords: moon, origin, crater, pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
24 Nafion Multiwalled Carbon Nano Tubes Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Sensor for the Voltammetric Estimation of Dianabol Steroid in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids

Authors: Nouf M. Al-Ourfi, A. S. Bashammakh, M. S. El-Shahawi

Abstract:

The redox behavior of dianabol steroid (DS) on Nafion Multiwalled Carbon nano -tubes (MWCNT) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in various buffer solutions was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) and successfully compared with the results at non modified bare GCE. The Nafion-MWCNT composite film modified GCE exhibited the best electrochemical response among the two electrodes for the electro reduction of DS that was inferred from the EIS, CV and DP-CSV. The modified sensor showed a sensitive, stable and linear response in the concentration range of 5 – 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.08 nM. The selectivity of the proposed sensor was assessed in the presence of high concentration of major interfering species. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids (urine) was determined and the results demonstrated acceptable recovery and RSD of 5%. Statistical treatment of the results of the proposed method revealed no significant differences in the accuracy and precision. The relative standard deviations for five measurements of 50 and 300 ng mL−1 of DS were 3.9 % and 1.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: dianabol steroid, determination, modified GCE, urine

Procedia PDF Downloads 178