Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: potentiostat

18 Embedded Electrochemistry with Miniaturized, Drone-Based, Potentiostat System for Remote Detection Chemical Warfare Agents

Authors: Amer Dawoud, Jesy Motchaalangaram, Arati Biswakarma, Wujan Mio, Karl Wallace

Abstract:

The development of an embedded miniaturized drone-based system for remote detection of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) is proposed. The paper focuses on the software/hardware system design of the electrochemical Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) signal processing for future deployment on drones. The paper summarizes the progress made towards hardware and electrochemical signal processing for signature detection of CWA. Also, the miniature potentiostat signal is validated by comparing it with the high-end lab potentiostat signal.

Keywords: drone-based, remote detection chemical warfare agents, miniaturized, potentiostat

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17 Remote Monitoring and Control System of Potentiostat Based on the Internet of Things

Authors: Liang Zhao, Guangwen Wang, Guichang Liu

Abstract:

Constant potometer is an important component of pipeline anti-corrosion systems in the chemical industry. Based on Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and database technology, this paper developed a set of a constant potometer remote monitoring management system. The remote monitoring and remote adjustment of the working status of the constant potometer are realized. The system has real-time data display, historical data query, alarm push management, user permission management, and supporting Web access and mobile client application (APP) access. The actual engineering project test results show the stability of the system, which can be widely used in cathodic protection systems.

Keywords: internet of things, pipe corrosion protection, potentiostat, remote monitoring

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16 Corrosion Behaviour of Al-Mg-Si Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Reinforced with Cassava Peel Ash and Silicon Carbide

Authors: B. Oji, O. Olaniran

Abstract:

The prospect of improving the corrosion property of Al 6063 alloy based hybrid composites reinforced with cassava peel ash (CPA) and silicon carbide (SiC) is the target of this research. It seeks to determine the viability of using locally sourced material (CPA) as a complimentary reinforcement for SiC to produce low cost high performance aluminum matrix composite. The CPA was mixed with the SiC in the ratios 0:1, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0 for 8 wt % reinforcement in the produced composites by double stir-casting method. The microstructures of the composites were studied before and after corrosion using the scanning electron microscopy which reveals the matrix (dark region) and eutectic phase (lamellar region). The corrosion rate was studied in accordance with ASTM G59-97 (2014) using an AutoLab potentiostat (Versa STAT 400) with versaSTUDIO electrochemical software which analyses the results obtained. The result showed that Al 6063 alloy exhibited good corrosion resistance in 0.3M H₂SO₄ and 3.5 wt. % NaCl solutions with sample C containing the 25% wt CPA showing the highest resistance to corrosion with corrosion rate of 0.0046 mmpy as compared to the control sample which has a value of 13.233 mmpy. Sample B, D, E, and F also showed a corrosion rate of 3.9502, 2.6903, 2.1223, and 5.7344 mmpy which indicated a better corrosion rate than the control in the acidic environment. The corrosion rate in the saline medium shows that sample E with 75% wt CPA has the lowest corrosion rate of 0.0422 mmpy as compared to the control sample with 0.0873 mmpy corrosion rate.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Si alloy, AutoLab potentiostat, Cassava Peel Ash, CPA, hybrid composite, stir-cast method

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15 Simultaneous Detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², and Pb⁺² Heavy Metal Ions by Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyvinyl Chloride Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Authors: Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, K. Sruthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Heavy metal ions are toxic to humans and all living species when exposed in large quantities or for long durations. Though Fe acts as a nutrient, when intake is in large quantities, it becomes toxic. These toxic heavy metal ions, when consumed through water, will cause many disorders and are harmful to all flora and fauna through biomagnification. Specifically, humans are prone to innumerable diseases ranging from skin to gastrointestinal, neurological, etc. In higher quantities, they even cause cancer in humans. Detection of these toxic heavy metal ions in water is thus important. Traditionally, the detection of heavy metal ions in water has been done by techniques like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Though these methods offer accurate quantitative analysis, they require expensive equipment and cannot be used for on-site measurements. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry is a good alternative as the equipment is affordable, and measurements can be made at the river basins or lakes. In the current study, Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) was used to detect the heavy metal ions in water. Literature reports various electrodes on which deposition of heavy metal ions was carried out like Bismuth, Polymers, etc. The working electrode used in this study is a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Ag/AgCl reference electrode and Platinum counter electrode were used. Biologic Potentiostat SP 300 was used for conducting the experiments. Through this work of simultaneous detection, four heavy metal ions were successfully detected at a time. The influence of modifying GCE with PVC was studied in comparison with unmodified GCE. The simultaneous detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², Pb⁺² heavy metal ions was done using PVC modified GCE by drop casting 1 wt.% of PVC dissolved in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF) solvent onto GCE. The concentration of all heavy metal ions was 0.2 mg/L, as shown in the figure. The scan rate was 0.1 V/s. Detection parameters like pH, scan rate, temperature, time of deposition, etc., were optimized. It was clearly understood that PVC helped in increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of detection as the current values are higher for PVC-modified GCE compared to unmodified GCE. The peaks were well defined when PVC-modified GCE was used.

Keywords: cadmium, cobalt, electrochemical sensing, glassy carbon electrodes, heavy metal Ions, Iron, lead, polyvinyl chloride, potentiostat, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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14 Oxidation Activity of Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin Ternary Alloy Catalyst on Bio-Alcohol

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Yi-Chen Chung, Yun-Chi Hsu, Chuan-Ming Tseng, Chiu-Yue Lin

Abstract:

In this study, the ternary alloy catalyst Pt20RuxSny (where 20, x, y represent mass fractions of Pt, Ru, and Sn, respectively) was optimized for the preliminary study of bio-ethanol fuel cells (BAFC). The morphology, microstructure, composition, phase-structures, and electrochemical properties of Pt20RuxSny catalyst were examined by SEM, TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD, and potentiostat. The effect of Sn content on electrochemical active surface (EAS) and oxidation activity were discussed. As a result, the additional Sn greatly improves the efficiency of Pt20RuxSny, either x=0 or 10. Through discussing the difference between ethanol and glycol oxidations, the mechanism of tolerance against poisoning has been proved. Overall speaking, the catalytic activity are in the order of Pt20RuxSny > Pt20Rux > Pt20Sny in both ethanol and glycol systems. Finally, Pt20Ru10Sn15 catalyst was successfully applied to demonstrate the feasibility of using bio-alcohol.

Keywords: Pt-Sn alloy catalyst, Pt-Ru-Sn alloy catalyst, fuel cell, ethanol, ethylene glycol

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13 Evaluation of Corrosion Property of Aluminium-Zirconium Dioxide (AlZrO2) Nanocomposites

Authors: M. Ramachandra, G. Dilip Maruthi, R. Rashmi

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the corrosion property of aluminum matrix nanocomposite of an aluminum alloy (Al-6061) reinforced with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) particles. The zirconium dioxide particles are synthesized by solution combustion method. The nanocomposite materials are prepared by mechanical stir casting method, varying the percentage of n-ZrO2 (2.5%, 5% and 7.5% by weight). The corrosion behavior of base metal (Al-6061) and Al/ZrO2 nanocomposite in seawater (3.5% NaCl solution) is measured using the potential control method. The corrosion rate is evaluated by Tafel extrapolation technique. The corrosion potential increases with the increase in wt.% of n-ZrO2 in the nanocomposite which means the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that on addition of n-ZrO2 particles to the aluminum matrix, the corrosion rate has decreased compared to the base metal.

Keywords: Al6061 alloy, corrosion, solution, stir casting, combustion, potentiostat, zirconium dioxide

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12 Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing

Authors: Mohamed E. Harb, Enas Moustafa, Shaker Ebrahim, Moataz Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.

Keywords: perovskite semiconductor, hybrid perovskite, PVDF, Pressure sensing

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11 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion

Abstract:

Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: microhardness, zinc-yttrium, coating, mild steel, microstructure, wear, corrosion

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10 Microstructural and Corrosion Analysis of a Ti-Nb-Ta Biocompatible Dental Implant Alloy

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu, Ion Cincă, Vasile Dănuţ Cojocaru, Cosmin Cotruț, Şerban Nicolae

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are often used for biomedical applications as hard tissue replacements, such as: orthopedic implants, spinal fixation devices and dental implants. Their advantages are well known and demonstrated: excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance, but it is also known that the main disadvantage of the metallic materials is their tendency of corrosion in in-vivo environments. In 1987, titanium was found to be the only metallic biomaterial that osseointegrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Nb-5Ta wt% alloy. In this case Nb stabilizes the β-Ti structure and Ta is a highly passivating metal. The as studied alloy was melt under argon protective atmosphere in a levitation induction melting furnace, type FIVE CELES - MP25, with a nominal power of 25 kW and a melting capacity of 30 cm3. The microstructure of the as studied alloy was analyzed by using the electronic microscope Tescan Vega II-XMU. The phase structure of the as studied alloy was determined, as well as the crystalline grain size (100-200µ). To determine the corrosion behavior of the as studied alloy, the technique used was the linear polarization, with the PARSTAT 4000 potentiostat, produced by Princeton Applied Research; potentiodynamic curves were obtained with the VeraStudio v.2.4.2 software.

Keywords: corrosion resistance, microstructure, titanium alloys

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9 Haemocompatibility of Surface Modified AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Tested in Artificial Plasma

Authors: W. Walke, J. Przondziono, K. Nowińska

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The study comprises evaluation of suitability of passive layer created on the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel for products that are intended to have contact with blood. For that purpose, prior to and after chemical passivation, samples were subject to 7 day exposure in artificial plasma at the temperature of T=37°C. Next, tests of metallic ions infiltration from the surface to the solution were performed. The tests were performed with application of spectrometer JY 2000, by Yobin – Yvon, employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). In order to characterize physical and chemical features of electrochemical processes taking place during exposure of samples to artificial plasma, tests with application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were suggested. The tests were performed with application of measuring unit equipped with potentiostat PGSTAT 302n with an attachment for impedance tests FRA2. Measurements were made in the environment simulating human blood at the temperature of T=37°C. Performed tests proved that application of chemical passivation process for AISI 316L stainless steel used for production of goods intended to have contact with blood is well-grounded and useful in order to improve safety of their usage.

Keywords: AISI 316L stainless steel, chemical passivation, artificial plasma, ions infiltration, EIS

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8 Effect of Annealing on Electrodeposited ZnTe Thin Films in Non-Aqueous Medium

Authors: Shyam Ranjan Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material. This semiconducting material has several applications in sensors, photo-electrochemical devices and photovoltaic solar cell. In this study, Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were deposited on nickel substrate by electrodeposition technique using potentiostat/galvanostat at -0.85 V using AR grade of Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2), Tellurium Tetrachloride (TeCl4) in non-aqueous bath. The developed films were physically stable and showed good adhesion. The as deposited ZnTe films were annealed at 400ºC in air. The solid state properties and optical properties of the as deposited and annealed films were carried out by XRD, EDS, SEM, AFM, UV–Visible spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The diffraction peak observed at 2θ = 49.58° with (111) plane indicate the crystalline nature of ZnTe film. Annealing improves the crystalline nature of the film. Compositional analysis reveals the presence of Zn and Te with tellurium rich ZnTe film. SEM photograph at 10000X shows that grains of film are spherical in nature and densely distributed over the surface. The average roughness of the film is measured by atomic force microscopy and it is nearly equal to 60 nm. The direct wide band gap of 2.12 eV is observed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Luminescence peak of the ZnTe films are also observed in as deposited and annealed case.

Keywords: annealing, electrodeposition, optical properties, thin film, XRD, ZnTe

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7 Hierarchical Porous Carbon Composite Electrode for High Performance Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Chia-Chia Chang, Jhen-Ting Huang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo

Abstract:

This study developed a simple hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) synthesis process and used for supercapacitor application. In which, mesopore provides huge specific surface area, meanwhile, macropore provides excellent mass transfer. Thus the hierarchical porous electrode improves the charge-discharge performance. On the other hand, cerium oxide (CeO2) have also got a lot research attention owing to its rich in content, low in price, environmentally friendly, good catalytic properties, and easy preparation. Besides, a rapid redox reaction occurs between trivalent cerium and tetravalent cerium releases oxygen atom and increase the conductivity. In order to prevent CeO2 from disintegration under long-term charge-discharge operation, the CeO2 carbon porous materials were was integrated as composite material in this study. For in the ex-situ analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis were adopted to identify the surface morphology, crystal structure, and microstructure of the composite. 77K Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis was used to analyze the porosity of each specimen. For the in-situ test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) were conducted by potentiostat to understand the charge and discharge properties. Ragone plot was drawn to further analyze the resistance properties. Based on above analyses, the effect of macropores/mespores and the CeO2/HPC ratios on charge-discharge performance were investigated. As a result, the capacitance can be greatly enhanced by 2.6 times higher than pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

Keywords: hierarchical porous carbon, cerium oxide, supercapacitor

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6 Electrochemical/Electro-Catalytic Applications of Novel Alcohol Substituted Metallophthalocyanines

Authors: Ipek Gunay, Efe B. Orman, Metin Ozer, Bekir Salih, Ali R. Ozkaya

Abstract:

Phthalocyanines with macrocyclic ring containing at least three heteroatoms have nine or more membered structures. Metal-free phthalocyanines react with metal salts to obtain chelate complexes. This is one of the most important features of metal-free phthalocyanine as ligand structure. Although phthalocyanines have very similar properties with porphyrins, they have some advantages such as lower cost, easy to prepare, and chemical and thermal stability. It’s known that Pc compounds have shown one-electron metal-and/or ligand-based reversible or quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation processes. The redox properties of phthalocyanines are critically related to the desirable properties of these compounds in their technological applications. Thus, Pc complexes have also been receiving increasing interest in the area of fuel cells due to their high electrocatalytic activity in dioxygen reduction and fuel cell applications. In this study, novel phthalocyanine complexes coordinated with Fe(II) and Co (II) to be used as catalyst were synthesized. Aiming this goal, a new nitrile ligand was synthesized starting from 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-nitrophthalonitrile in the presence of K2CO3 as catalyst. After the isolation of the new type of nitrile and metal complexes, the characterization of mentioned compounds was achieved by IR, H-NMR and UV-vis methods. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of Pc complexes was identified by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Furthermore, the catalytic performances of Pc complexes for oxygen reduction were tested by dynamic voltammetry measurements, carried out by the combined system of rotating ring-disk electrode and potentiostat, in a medium similar to fuel-cell working conditions.

Keywords: phthalocyanine, electrocatalysis, electrochemistry, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry

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5 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes

Authors: Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Ashutosh Sharma, Gyu Man Kim

Abstract:

Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.

Keywords: EBFC, glucose, MWCNT, microfluidic

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4 Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Chromium(III), Arsenic(III), and Mercury (II) In Water Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

Authors: V. Sai Geethika, Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

This study involves a single element and simultaneous electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions through square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. A glassy carbon electrode was used to detect and quantify heavy metals such as As(III), Hg(II), Cr(VI) ions in water. Under optimized conditions, peak separation was obtained by varying concentrations, scan rates, and temperatures. As (III), Hg (II), Cr (III) were simultaneously detected with GCE. Several analytical methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), were used previously to detect heavy metal ions, which are authentic but are not good enough for online monitoring due to the bulkiness of the equipment. The study provides a good alternative that is simple, more efficient, and low-cost, involving a portable potentiostat. Heavy metals having different oxidation states can be detected by anodic stripping voltammetry. This method can be easily integrated with electronics. Square wave Anodic stripping voltammetry is used with a potential range of -2.5 V – 2.5 V for single ion detection by a three-electrode cell consisting of silver/silver chloride(Ag/AgCl) as reference and platinum (Pt) counter and glassy carbon (GCE) working electrodes. All three ions are optimized by varying the parameters like concentration, scan rate, pH, temperature, and all these optimized parameters were used for studying the effects of simultaneous detection. The procedure involves preparing an electrolyte using deionized water, cleaning the surface of GCE, depositing the ions by applying the redox potentials obtained from cyclic voltammetry (CV), and then detecting by applying oxidizing potential, i.e., stripping voltage. So this includes ASV techniques such as open-circuit voltage (OCV), chronoamperometry (CA), and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Firstly, the concentration of the ions varied from 50 ppb to 5000 ppb, and an optimum concentration was determined where the three ions were detected. A concentration of 400 ppb was used while varying the temperatures in the range of 25°C – 45°C. Optimum peak intensity was obtained at a temperature of 30°C with a low scan rate of 0.005 V-s⁻¹. All the parameters were optimized, and several effects have been noticed while three ions As(II), Cr(III), Hg(II) were detected alone and simultaneously.

Keywords: Arsenic(III), Chromium(III), glassy carbon electrode, Mercury (II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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3 Electroactivity of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N during Carbon Dioxide Reduction in a Bioelectrosynthesis System

Authors: Carlos A. Garcia-Mogollon, Juan C. Quintero-Diaz, Claudio Avignone-Rossa

Abstract:

Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N (Csb 1-4N) is an industrial reference strain for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Csb 1-4N is a solventogenic clostridium and H₂ producer with a metabolic profile that makes it a good candidate for Bioelectrosynthesis System (BES). The aim of this study was to evaluate the electroactivity of Csb 1-4N by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV). The Bioelectrosynthesis fermentation (BES) started in a Triptone-Yeast extract (TY) medium with trace elements and vitamins, Complex Nitrogen Source (CNS), and bicarbonate (NaHCO₃, 4g/L) as a carbon source, run at -600mVAg/AgCl and adding 200uM NADH. The six BES batches were performed with different media composition with and without NADH, CNS, HCO₃⁻ , and applied potential. The CV was performed as three-electrode system: platinum slice working electrode (WE), nickel contra electrode (CE) and reference electrode Ag/AgCl (ER). CVs were run in a potential range of -0.7V to 0.7V vs. VAg/AgCl at a scan rate 10mV/s. A CV recorded using different NaHCO₃ concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 4g/L) were obtained. BES fermentation samples were centrifuged (3000 rpm, 5min, 4C), and supernatant (7mL) was used. CVs were obtained for Csb1-4N BES culture cell-free supernatant at 0h, 24h, and 48h. The electrochemical analysis was carried out with a PalmSens 4.0 potentiostat/galvanostat controlled with the PStrace 5.7 software, and CVs curves were characterized by reduction and oxidation currents and reduction and oxidation peaks. The CVs obtained for NaHCO₃ solutions showed that the reduction current and oxidation current decreased as the NaHCO₃ concentration was decreased. All reduction and oxidation currents decreased until exponential growth stop (24h), independence of initial cathodic current, except in medium with trace elements, vitamins, and NaHCO3, in which reduction current was around half at 24h and followed decreasing at 48. In this medium, Csb1-4N did not grow, but pH was increased, indicating that NaHCO₃ was reduced as the reduction current decreased. In general, at 48h reduction currents did not present important changes between different mediums in BES cultures. In terms of intensities in the peaks (Ip) did not present important variations; except with Ipa and Ipc in BES culture with NaHCO₃ and NADH added are higher than peaks in other cultures. Based on results, cathodic and anodic currents changes were induced by NaHCO₃ reduction reactions during Csb1-4N metabolic activity in different BES experiments.

Keywords: clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N, bioelectrosynthesis, carbon dioxide fixation, cyclic voltammetry

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2 Corrosion Behavior of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coatings Fabricated by Electrostatic Method

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed, Ziba Nazarlou

Abstract:

Mild steels have a limited alloying content which makes them vulnerable to excessive corrosion rates in the harsh medium. To overcome this issue, some protective coatings are used to prevent corrosion on the steel surface. The use of specialized coatings, mainly organic coatings (such as epoxies, polyurethanes, and acrylics) and inorganic coatings (such as Polysiloxanes) is the most common method of mitigating corrosion of carbon steel. Incorporating the benefits of organic and inorganic hybrid (OIH) compounds for the designing of hybrid protective coatings is still challenging for industrial applications. There are advantages of inorganic coatings have, but purely inorganic siloxane-based coatings are difficult to use on industrial applications unless they are used at extremely low thicknesses (< 1-2 microns). Hence, most industrial applications try to have a combination of Polysiloxanes with organic compounds.  A hybrid coating possesses an organic section, which transports flexibility and impact resistance, and an inorganic section, which usually helps in the decreasing of porosity and increasing thermal stability and hardness. A number of polymers including polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone have been reported to inhibit the corrosion mild steel in acidic media. However, reports on the effect of polyethylene oxide (PEO) or its blends on corrosion inhibition of metals is very scarce. Different composition of OIH coatings was synthesized by using silica sol-gel, epoxy, and PEO. The effect of different coating types on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in harsh solution has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical measurements using Gamry 1000 Interface Potentiostat. Coating structures were investigated by SEM. İt revealed a considerable reduction in corrosion rate for coated sample. Based on these results, OIH coating prepared by epoxy-silica sol gel-PEO and epoxy-silica sol-gel exhibit had a %99.5 and %98 reduction of (Corrosion rate) CR compares to baseline. Cathodic Tafel constant (βc) shows that coatings change both Tafel constants but had more effect on the cathodic process. The evolution of the Potentiostatic scan with time displays stability in potential, some of them in a high value while the other in a low value which can be attributed to the formation of an oxide film covering substrate surface. The coated samples with the group of epoxy coating have a lower potential along with the time test, while the silica group shows higher in potential with respect to time.

Keywords: electrostatic, hybrid coating, corrosion tests, silica sol gel

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1 Semiconductor Properties of Natural Phosphate Application to Photodegradation of Basic Dyes in Single and Binary Systems

Authors: Y. Roumila, D. Meziani, R. Bagtache, K. Abdmeziem, M. Trari

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Heterogeneous photocatalysis over semiconductors has proved its effectiveness in the treatment of wastewaters since it works under soft conditions. It has emerged as a promising technique, giving rise to less toxic effluents and offering the opportunity of using sunlight as a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Many compounds have been used as photocatalysts. Though synthesized ones are intensively used, they remain expensive, and their synthesis involves special conditions. We thus thought of implementing a natural material, a phosphate ore, due to its low cost and great availability. Our work is devoted to the removal of hazardous organic pollutants, which cause several environmental problems and health risks. Among them, dye pollutants occupy a large place. This work relates to the study of the photodegradation of methyl violet (MV) and rhodamine B (RhB), in single and binary systems, under UV light and sunlight irradiation. Methyl violet is a triarylmethane dye, while RhB is a heteropolyaromatic dye belonging to the Xanthene family. In the first part of this work, the natural compound was characterized using several physicochemical and photo-electrochemical (PEC) techniques: X-Ray diffraction, chemical, and thermal analyses scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance measurements, and FTIR spectroscopy. The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies were performed with a Voltalab PGZ 301 potentiostat/galvanostat at room temperature. The structure of the phosphate material was well characterized. The photo-electrochemical (PEC) properties are crucial for drawing the energy band diagram, in order to suggest the formation of radicals and the reactions involved in the dyes photo-oxidation mechanism. The PEC characterization of the natural phosphate was investigated in neutral solution (Na₂SO₄, 0.5 M). The study revealed the semiconducting behavior of the phosphate rock. Indeed, the thermal evolution of the electrical conductivity was well fitted by an exponential type law, and the electrical conductivity increases with raising the temperature. The Mott–Schottky plot and current-potential J(V) curves recorded in the dark and under illumination clearly indicate n-type behavior. From the results of photocatalysis, in single solutions, the changes in MV and RhB absorbance in the function of time show that practically all of the MV was removed after 240 mn irradiation. For RhB, the complete degradation was achieved after 330 mn. This is due to its complex and resistant structure. In binary systems, it is only after 120 mn that RhB begins to be slowly removed, while about 60% of MV is already degraded. Once nearly all of the content of MV in the solution has disappeared (after about 250 mn), the remaining RhB is degraded rapidly. This behaviour is different from that observed in single solutions where both dyes are degraded since the first minutes of irradiation.

Keywords: environment, organic pollutant, phosphate ore, photodegradation

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