Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 206

Search results for: ligand

206 Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of U Complexes

Authors: Mohammad Kazem Mohammadi

Abstract:

The use of anticancer agents forms an important part of the treatment of cancer of various types. Uranyl Complexes with DPHMP ligand have been used for the prevention and treatment of cancers. U(IV) metal complexes prepared by reaction of uranyl salt UO2 (NO3)2.6H2O with DPHMP in dry acetonitrile. Characterization of the ligand and its complexes was made by microanalyses, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV–Visible spectroscopy. These new complex showed excellent antitumor activity against two kinds of cancer cells that that are HT29:Haman colon adenocarcinoma cell line and T47D:human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.

Keywords: uranyl complexes, DPHMP ligand, antitumor activity, HT29, T47D

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205 Development of Immuno-Modulators: Application of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Ruqaiya Khalil, Saman Usmani, Zaheer Ul-Haq

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The accurate characterization of ligand binding affinity is indispensable for designing molecules with optimized binding affinity. Computational tools help in many directions to predict quantitative correlations between protein-ligand structure and their binding affinities. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a modern state-of-the-art technique to evaluate the underlying basis of ligand-protein interactions by characterizing dynamic and energetic properties during the event. Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against own tissues. The current regimen for the described condition is limited to immune-modulators having compromised pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics profiles. One of the key player mediating immunity and tolerance, thus invoking autoimmunity is Interleukin-2; a cytokine influencing the growth of T cells. Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are applied to seek insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of newly synthesized compounds that manifested immunosuppressant potentials during in silico pipeline. In addition to estimation of free energies associated with ligand binding, MD simulation yielded us a great deal of information about ligand-macromolecule interactions to evaluate the pattern of interactions and the molecular basis of inhibition. The present study is a continuum of our efforts to identify interleukin-2 inhibitors of both natural and synthetic origin. Herein, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of Interluekin-2 complexed with different antagonists previously reported by our group. The study of protein-ligand dynamics enabled us to gain a better understanding of the contribution of different active site residues in ligand binding. The results of the study will be used as the guide to rationalize the fragment based synthesis of drug-like interleukin-2 inhibitors as immune-modulators.

Keywords: immuno-modulators, MD simulation, protein-ligand interaction, structure-based drug design

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
204 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri

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We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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203 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj

Abstract:

The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

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202 The Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of Iron(II) Complex with New N2O2 Donor Schiff Base Ligand

Authors: Neslihan Beyazit, Sahin Bayraktar, Cahit Demetgul

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Transition metal ions have an important role in biochemistry and biomimetic systems and may provide the basis of models for active sites of biological targets. The presence of copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) is crucial in many biological processes. Tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands are well known to form stable transition metal complexes and these complexes have also applications in clinical and analytical fields. In this study, we present salient structural features and the details of cathecholase activity of Fe(II) complex of a new Schiff Base ligand. A new asymmetrical N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand and its Fe(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2 phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Fe(II) salt, respectively. Schiff base ligand and its metal complex were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility. In order to determine the kinetics parameters of catechol oxidase-like activity of Schiff base Fe(II) complex, the oxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) was measured at 25°C by monitoring the increase of the absorption band at 390-400 nm of the product 3,5-di-tert-butylcatequinone (3,5-DTBQ). The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics also investigated by the method of initial rates by monitoring the growth of the 390–400 nm band of 3,5-DTBQ as a function of time. Kinetic studies showed that Fe(II) complex of the new N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand was capable of acting as a model compound for simulating the catecholase properties of type-3 copper proteins.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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201 Recovery of Chromium(III) from Tannery Wastewater by Nanoparticles and Whiskers of Chitosan

Authors: El Montassir Dahmane, Nadia Eladlani, Aziz Ouahrouch, Mohammed Rhazi, Moha Taourirte

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The present study was aimed to approximate the optimal conditions to chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. Chitosan with an average molecular weight of 63 kDa and a 96% deacetylation degree was prepared according to our previous study. Chromium recovery is influenced by different parameters. In our search, we determined the appropriate range of pH to form chitosan–Cr(III), nanoparticles Cr(III), and whiskers– Cr(III) complex. We studied also the influence of chromium concentration and the nature of chitosan-based materials on the complexation process. Our main aim is to approximate the optimal conditions to remove chromium(III) from the tanning bath, recuperated from tannery wastewater of Marrakech in Morocco. A Perkin Elmer optima 2000 Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), was used to determine the quantity of chromium persistent in tannery wastewater after complexation phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report interested in the optimal conditions for chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. From our research, we found that in chromium solution, the appropriate range of pH to form complex is between 5.6 and 6.7. Also, the complexation of Cr(III) is depending on the nature of complexing ligand and chromium concentration. The obtained results reveal that nanoparticles present an excellent adsorption capacity regardless of chromium concentration. In addition, after a critical chromium concentration (250 mg/l), our ligand becomes saturated, that requires an increase of ligand mass for increasing chromium concentration in order to have a better adsorption capacity. Hence, in the same conditions, we used chitosan, its nanoparticles, whiskers, and chitosan based films to remove Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. The pH of this effluent was around 6, and its chromium concentration was 300 mg/l. The results expose that the sequence of complexing ligand in the effluent is the same in chromium solution, determined via our previous study. However, the adsorbed quantity is less due to the presence of other metallic ions in tannery wastewater. We conclude that the best complexing ligand-based chitosan is chitosan nanoaprticles whether it’s in chromium solution or in tannery wastewater. Nanoparticles are the best complexing ligand after 24 h of contact nanoparticles can remove 70% of chromium from this tannery wastewater.

Keywords: nanoparticles, whiskers, chitosan, chromium

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200 Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells

Authors: Yousuf M. Al Suleimani, Robin Hiley

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The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.

Keywords: lysophosphatidylinositol, calcium, GPR55, cannabinoid

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199 Radio Labeling and Characterization of Cysteine and Its Derivatives with Tc99m and Their Bio-Distribution

Authors: Rabia Ashfaq, Saeed Iqbal, Atiq ur Rehman, Irfanullah Khan

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An extensive series of radiopharmaceuticals have been explored in order to discover a better brain tumour diagnostic agent. Tc99m labelling with cysteine and its derivatives in liposomes shows effective tagging of about 70% to 80 %. Due to microscopic size it successfully crossed the brain barrier in 2 minutes which gradually decreases in 5 to 15 minutes. HMPAO labelled with Tc99m is another important radiopharmaceutical used to study brain perfusion but it comes with a flaw that it’s only functional during epilepsy. 1, 1 ECD is purely used in Tc99m ECD formulation; because it not only tends to cross the blood brain barrier but it can be metabolized which can be easily entrapped in human brain. Radio labelling of Cysteine with Tc99m at room temperature was performed which yielded no good results. Hence cysteine derivatives with salicylaldehyde were prepared that produced about 75 % yield for ligand. In order to perform it’s radio labelling a suitable solvent DMSO was selected and physical parameters were performed. Elemental analyser produced remarkably similar results for ligand as reported in literature. IR spectra of Ligand in DMSO concluded in the absence of SH stretch and presence of N-H vibration. Thermal analysis of the ligand further suggested its decomposition pattern with no distinct curve for a melting point. Radio labelling of ligand was performed which produced excellent results giving up to 88% labelling at pH 5.0. Clinical trials using Rabbit were performed after validating the products reproducibility. The radiopharmaceutical prepared was injected into the rabbit. Dynamic as well as static study was performed under the SPECT. It showed considerable uptake in the kidneys and liver considering it suitable for the Hypatobilliary study.

Keywords: marcapto compounds, 99mTc - radiolabeling, salicylaldicysteine, thiozolidine

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198 Synthesis of Pendent Compartmental Ligand Derived from Polymethacrylate of 3-Formylsalicylic Acid Schiff Base and Its Application Studies

Authors: Dhivya Arumugam, Kaliyappan Thananjeyan

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The monomer of (3-((4-(methacryloyloxy)phenylimino)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid) schiff base polymer was prepared by reacting methacryloyl chloride with imine compound derived from 3-formylsalisylic acid and 4- aminophenol. The monomer was polymerized in DMF at 70oC using benzoyl peroxide as free radical initiator. Polymer metal complex was obtained in DMF solution of polymer with aqueous solution of metal ions. The polymer and the polymer metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The elemental analysis data suggest that the metal to ligand ratio is 1:1 and hence, it acts as a binucleating compartmental ligand. The IR spectral data of these complexes suggest that the metals are coordinated through nitrogen of the imine group, the oxygen of carboxylate ion and the oxygen of the phenolic –OH group which also acts as the bridging ligand. The electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the polychelates shows that octahedral and square planar structure for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes respectively. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that polychelates are highly crystalline. The thermal and electrical properties, catalytic activity, structure property relationships are discussed. Further the synthesized polymer was used for metal uptake studies from waste water, which is one of the effective waste water treatment strategies. And also, the polymers and polychelates were investigated for antimicrobial activity with various microorganisms by using agar well diffusion method and the results have been discussed.

Keywords: acyclic compartmental ligands, binucleating ligand, 3-formylsalicylic acid, free radical polymerization, polluting ions, polychelate

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197 Lanthanide-Mediated Aggregation of Glutathione-Capped Gold Nanoclusters Exhibiting Strong Luminescence and Fluorescence Turn-on for Sensing Alkaline Phosphatase

Authors: Jyun-Guo You, Wei-Lung Tseng

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Herein, this study represents a synthetic route for producing highly luminescent AuNCs based on the integration of two concepts, including thiol-induced luminescence enhancement of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs and Ce3+-induced aggregation of GSH-AuNCs. The synthesis of GSH-AuNCs was conducted by modifying the previously reported procedure. To produce more Au(I)-GSH complexes on the surface of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs, the extra GSH is added to attach onto the AuNC surface. The formed ligand-sufficient GSH-AuNCs (LS-GSH-AuNCs) emit relatively strong luminescence. The luminescence of LS-GSH-AuNCs is further enhanced by the coordination of two carboxylic groups (pKa1 = 2 and pKa2 = 3.5) of GSH and lanthanide ions, which induce the self-assembly of LS-GSH-AuNCs. As a result, the quantum yield of the self-assembled LS-GSH-AuNCs (SA-AuNCs) was improved to be 13%. Interestingly, the SA-AuNCs were dissembled into LS-GSH-AuNCs in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) because of the formation of the ATP- lanthanide ion complexes. Our assay was employed to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity over the range of 0.1−10 U/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03 U/mL.

Keywords: self-assembly, lanthanide ion, adenosine triphosphate, alkaline phosphatase

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196 N-Heterocyclic Carbene Based Dearomatized Iridium Complex as an Efficient Catalyst towards Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation via Hydrogen Borrowing Strategy

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, Jitendra K. Bera

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The search for atom-economical and green synthetic methods for the synthesis of functionalized molecules has attracted much attention. Metal ligand cooperation (MLC) plays a pivotal role in organometallic catalysis to activate C−H, H−H, O−H, N−H and B−H bonds through reversible bond breaking and bond making process. Towards this goal, a bifunctional N─heterocyclic carbene (NHC) based pyridyl-functionalized amide ligand precursor, and corresponding dearomatized iridium complex was synthesized. The NMR and UV/Vis acid titration study have been done to prove the proton response nature of the iridium complex. Further, the dearomatized iridium complex explored as a catalyst on the platform of MLC via dearomatzation/aromatization mode of action towards atom economical α and β─alkylation of ketones and secondary alcohols by using primary alcohols through hydrogen borrowing methodology. The key features of the catalysis are high turnover frequency (TOF) values, low catalyst loading, low base loading and no waste product. The greener syntheses of quinoline, lactone derivatives and selective alkylation of drug molecules like pregnenolone and testosterone were also achieved successfully. Another structurally similar iridium complex was also synthesized with modified ligand precursor where a pendant amide unit was absent. The inactivity of this analogue iridium complex towards catalysis authenticated the participation of proton responsive imido sidearm of the ligand to accelerate the catalytic reaction. The mechanistic investigation through control experiments, NMR and deuterated labeling study, authenticate the borrowing hydrogen strategy.

Keywords: C-C bond formation, hydrogen borrowing, metal ligand cooperation (MLC), n-heterocyclic carbene

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195 Synthesis of α-Diimin Nickel(II) Catalyst Supported on Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Ethylene Slurry Polymerization

Authors: Mehrji Khosravan, Mostafa Fathali-Sianib, Davood Soudbar, Sasan Talebnezhad, Mohammad-Reza Ebrahimi

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The late transition metal catalyst of the end group of transition metals in the periodic table as Ni, Fe, Co, and Pd was grown up rapidly in polyolefin industries recently. These metals with suitable ligands exhibited special characteristic properties and appropriate activities in the production of polyolefins. The ligand 1,4-bis (2,6-diisopropyl phenyl) acenaphthene was synthesized by reaction of 2,6-diisopropyl aniline and acenaphthenequinone. The ligand was added to nickel (II) dibromide salt for synthesis the 1,4-bis (2,6 diisopropylphenyl) acenaphthene nickel (II) dibromide catalyst. The structure of the ligand characterized by IR technique. The catalyst then deposited on graphene and graphene oxide by vander walss-attachment for use in Ethylene slurry polymerization process in the presence of catalyst activator such as methylaluminoxane (MAO) in hexane solvent. The structure of the catalyst characterized by IR and TEM techniques and some of the polymers were characterized by DSC. The highest activity was achieved at 600 C for catalyst.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complex, graphene as supported catalyst, late transition metal, ethylene polymerization

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194 Vanadium (V) Complexes of a Tripodal Ligand, Their Characterization and Biological Implications

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bhawna Uprety, Fernando Avecilla, Pedro Adão, J. Costa Pessoa

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The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'–(2–(pyridin–2–yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L1 I, with [VIVO(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the VVO–complex, [VVO(acac)(L1)] 1. Crystallization of 1 in CH3CN at ~0 ºC, gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{VVO(L1)}2µ–O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH [VVO(OMe)(MeOH)(L1)] 2 is obtained. All three complexes are analyzed by single–crystal X–ray diffraction, depicting distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L1 with VIVOSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L1 and the formation of H[VVO2(L2)] 4, containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'–azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L2 II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterized, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido–bridged [{VVO(L2)}2µ–(HO)2] 5, having distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{VVO(L2)}2µ–O] 6 is obtained, with trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol–oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o–quinone under air. The process is confirmed to follow a Michaelis–Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66×10–6 M min -1 and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min–1. Complex 2 is also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of primary oxidizing agent, H2O2 the para mono–brominated product corresponds to ~93 % of the products and no dibromo derivative is formed.

Keywords: oxidovanadium (V) complexes, tripodal ligand, crystal structure, catechol oxidase mimetic activity

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193 N₂O₂ Salphen-Like Ligand and Its Pd(II), Ag(I) and Cu(II) Complexes as Potentially Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis, Antimicrobial, CT-DNA Binding and Molecular Docking

Authors: Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Shaker S. Adam, Ahmed M. Abu-Dief, Hanan El-Sayed Ahmed

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In this investigation, Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes with the tetra-dentate DSPH Schiff base ligand were synthesized. The DSPH Schiff base and its complexes were characterized by using different physicochemical and spectral analysis. The results revealed that the metal ions coordinated with DSPH ligand through azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen. Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes are present in a 1:1 molar ratio. Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes have square planar geometries while, Cu(II) has a distorted octahedral (Oh) geometry. All investigated complexes are nonelectrolytes. The investigated compounds were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Both prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganism. Moreover, the interaction of investigated complexes with CT-DNA was studied via various techniques and the binding modes are mainly intercalative and grooving modes. Operating Environment MOE package was used to do docking studies for the investigated complexes to explore the potential binding mode and energy. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of the investigated compounds was examined on some cancer cells lines.

Keywords: tetradentate, antimicrobial, CT-DNA interaction, docking, anticancer

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192 Tunable Crystallinity of Zinc Gallogermanate Nanoparticles via Organic Ligand-Assisted Biphasic Hydrothermal Synthesis

Authors: Sarai Guerrero, Lijia Liu

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Zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) is a persistent phosphor that can emit in the near infrared (NIR) range once dopped with Cr³⁺ enabling its use for in-vivo deep-tissue bio-imaging. Such a property also allows for its application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Given this, work into developing a synthetic procedure that can be done using common laboratory instruments and equipment as well as understanding ZGGO overall, is in demand. However, the ZGGO nanoparticles must have a size compatible for cell intake to occur while still maintaining sufficient photoluminescence. The nanoparticle must also be made biocompatible by functionalizing the surface for hydrophilic solubility and for high particle uniformity in the final product. Additionally, most research is completed on doped ZGGO, leaving a gap in understanding the base form of ZGGO. It also leaves a gap in understanding how doping affects the synthesis of ZGGO. In this work, the first step of optimizing the particle size via the crystalline size of ZGGO was done with undoped ZGGO using the organic acid, oleic acid (OA) for organic ligand-assisted biphasic hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of this synthesis procedure on ZGGO’s crystallinity were evaluated using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD). OA was selected as the capping ligand as experiments have shown it beneficial in synthesizing sub-10 nm zinc gallate (ZGO) nanoparticles as well as palladium nanocrystals and magnetite (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles. Later it is possible to substitute OA with a different ligand allowing for hydrophilic solubility. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to investigate the surface of the nanoparticle to investigate and verify that OA had capped the nanoparticle. PXRD results showed that using this procedure led to improved crystallinity, comparable to the high-purity reagents used on the ZGGO nanoparticles. There was also a change in the crystalline size of the ZGGO nanoparticles. ATR-FTIR showed that once capped ZGGO cannot be annealed as doing so will affect the OA. These results point to this new procedure positively affecting the crystallinity of ZGGO nanoparticles. There are also repeatable implying the procedure is a reliable source of highly crystalline ZGGO nanoparticles. With this completed, the next step will be working on substituting the OA with a hydrophilic ligand. As these ligands effect the solubility of the nanoparticle as well as the pH that the nanoparticles can dissolve in, further research is needed to verify which ligand is best suited for preparing ZGGO for bio-imaging.

Keywords: biphasic hydrothermal synthesis, crystallinity, oleic acid, zinc gallogermanate

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191 Conformational Switch of hRAGE upon Self-Association

Authors: Ikhlas Ahmed, Jamillah Zamoon

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The human receptor for advanced glycation end product is a plasma membrane receptor with an intrinsically disordered region. The protein consists of three extracellular domains, a single membrane spanning transmembrane domain, and a cytosolic domain which is intrinsically disordered and responsible for signaling. The disordered nature of the cytosolic domain allows it to be dynamic in solution. This receptor self-associates to higher forms. The association is triggered by ligand, metal or by the extracellular domain. Fluorescence spectroscopy technique is used to test the self-association of the different concentrations of the cytosolic domain. This work has concluded that the cytosolic domain of this receptor also self-associates. Moreover, the self-association does not require ligand or metal.

Keywords: fluorescence spectroscopy, hRAGE, IDP, Self-association

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190 High-pressure Crystallographic Characterization of f-block Element Complexes

Authors: Nicholas B. Beck, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schönzart

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High-pressure results in decreases in the bond lengths of metal-ligand bonds, which has proven to be incredibly informative in uncovering differences in bonding between lanthanide and actinide complexes. The degree of f-electron contribution to the metal ligand bonds has been observed to increase under pressure by a far greater degree in the actinides than the lanthanides, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. However, the actual changes in bond lengths have yet to be quantified, although computationally predicted. By using high-pressure crystallographic techniques, crystal structures of lanthanide complexes have been obtained at pressures up to 5 GPa for both hard and soft-donor ligands. These studies have revealed some unpredicted changes in the coordination environment as well as provided experimental support to computational results

Keywords: crystallography, high-pressure, lanthanide, materials

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189 Incorporating Spatial Transcriptome Data into Ligand-Receptor Analyses to Discover Regional Activation in Cells

Authors: Eric Bang

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Interactions between receptors and ligands are crucial for many essential biological processes, including neurotransmission and metabolism. Ligand-receptor analyses that examine cell behavior and interactions often utilize cell type-specific RNA expressions from single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. Using CellPhoneDB, a public repository consisting of ligands, receptors, and ligand-receptor interactions, the cell-cell interactions were explored in a specific scRNA-seq dataset from kidney tissue and portrayed the results with dot plots and heat maps. Depending on the type of cell, each ligand-receptor pair was aligned with the interacting cell type and calculated the positori probabilities of these associations, with corresponding P values reflecting average expression values between the triads and their significance. Using single-cell data (sample kidney cell references), genes in the dataset were cross-referenced with ones in the existing CellPhoneDB dataset. For example, a gene such as Pleiotrophin (PTN) present in the single-cell data also needed to be present in the CellPhoneDB dataset. Using the single-cell transcriptomics data via slide-seq and reference data, the CellPhoneDB program defines cell types and plots them in different formats, with the two main ones being dot plots and heat map plots. The dot plot displays derived measures of the cell to cell interaction scores and p values. For the dot plot, each row shows a ligand-receptor pair, and each column shows the two interacting cell types. CellPhoneDB defines interactions and interaction levels from the gene expression level, so since the p-value is on a -log10 scale, the larger dots represent more significant interactions. By performing an interaction analysis, a significant interaction was discovered for myeloid and T-cell ligand-receptor pairs, including those between Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and Fibronectin 1 (FN1), which is consistent with previous findings. It was proposed that an effective protocol would involve a filtration step where cell types would be filtered out, depending on which ligand-receptor pair is activated in that part of the tissue, as well as the incorporation of the CellPhoneDB data in a streamlined workflow pipeline. The filtration step would be in the form of a Python script that expedites the manual process necessary for dataset filtration. Being in Python allows it to be integrated with the CellPhoneDB dataset for future workflow analysis. The manual process involves filtering cell types based on what ligand/receptor pair is activated in kidney cells. One limitation of this would be the fact that some pairings are activated in multiple cells at a time, so the manual manipulation of the data is reflected prior to analysis. Using the filtration script, accurate sorting is incorporated into the CellPhoneDB database rather than waiting until the output is produced and then subsequently applying spatial data. It was envisioned that this would reveal wherein the cell various ligands and receptors are interacting with different cell types, allowing for easier identification of which cells are being impacted and why, for the purpose of disease treatment. The hope is this new computational method utilizing spatially explicit ligand-receptor association data can be used to uncover previously unknown specific interactions within kidney tissue.

Keywords: bioinformatics, Ligands, kidney tissue, receptors, spatial transcriptome

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188 Theoretical Insight into Ligand Free Manganese Catalyzed C-O Coupling Protocol for the Synthesis of Biaryl Ethers

Authors: Carolin Anna Joy, Rohith K. R, Rehin Sulay, Parvathy Santhoshkumar, G.Anil Kumar, Vibin Ipe Thomas

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Ullmann coupling reactions are gaining great relevance owing to their contribution in the synthesis of biologically and pharmaceutically important compounds. Palladium and many other heavy metals have proven their excellent ability in coupling reaction, but the toxicity matters. The first-row transition metal also possess toxicity, except in the case of iron and manganese. The suitability of manganese as a catalyst is achieving great interest in oxidation, reduction, C-H activation, coupling reaction etc. In this presentation, we discuss the thermo chemistry of ligand free manganese catalyzed C-O coupling reaction between phenol and aryl halide for the synthesis of biaryl ethers using Density functional theory techniques. The mechanism involves an oxidative addition-reductive elimination step. The transition state for both the step had been studied and confirmed using Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC) calculation. The barrier height for the reaction had also been calculated from the rate determining step. The possibility of other mechanistic way had also been studied. To achieve further insight into the mechanism, substrate having various functional groups is considered in our study to direct their effect on the feasibility of the reaction.

Keywords: Density functional theory, Molecular Modeling, ligand free, biaryl ethers, Ullmann coupling

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187 Solution Thermodynamics, Photophysical and Computational Studies of TACH2OX, a C-3 Symmetric 8-Hydroxyquinoline: Abiotic Siderophore Analogue of Enterobactin

Authors: B. K. Kanungo, Monika Thakur, Minati Baral

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8-hydroxyquinoline, (8HQ), experiences a renaissance due to its utility as a building block in metallosupramolecular chemistry and its versatile use of its derivatives in various fields of analytical chemistry, materials science, and pharmaceutics. It forms stable complexes with a variety of metal ions. Assembly of more than one such unit to form a polydentate chelator enhances its coordinating ability and the related properties due to the chelate effect resulting in high stability constant. Keeping in view the above, a nonadentate chelator N-[3,5-bis(8-hydroxyquinoline-2-amido)cyclohexyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxamide, (TACH2OX), containing a central cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane appended to three 8-hydroxyquinoline at 2-position through amide linkage is developed, and its solution thermodynamics, photophysical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies were undertaken. The synthesis of TACH2OX was carried out by condensation of cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane, (TACH) with 8‐hydroxyquinoline‐2‐carboxylic acid. The brown colored solid has been fully characterized through melting point, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass and electronic spectroscopy. In solution, TACH2OX forms protonated complexes below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates to generate trinegative ion with the rise of pH. Nine protonation constants for the ligand were obtained that ranges between 2.26 to 7.28. The interaction of the chelator with two trivalent metal ion Fe3+ and Al3+ were studied in aqueous solution at 298 K. The metal-ligand formation constants (ML) obtained by potentiometric and spectrophotometric method agree with each other. The protonated and hydrolyzed species were also detected in the system. The in-silico studies of the ligand, as well as the complexes including their protonated and deprotonated species assessed by density functional theory technique, gave an accurate correlation with each observed properties such as the protonation constants, stability constants, infra-red, nmr, electronic absorption and emission spectral bands. The nature of electronic and emission spectral bands in terms of number and type were ascertained from time-dependent density functional theory study and the natural transition orbitals (NTO). The global reactivity indices parameters were used for comparison of the reactivity of the ligand and the complex molecules. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis could successfully describe the structure and bonding of the metal-ligand complexes specifying the percentage of contribution in atomic orbitals in the creation of molecular orbitals. The obtained high value of metal-ligand formation constants indicates that the newly synthesized chelator is a very powerful synthetic chelator. The minimum energy molecular modeling structure of the ligand suggests that the ligand, TACH2OX, in a tripodal fashion firmly coordinates to the metal ion as hexa-coordinated chelate displaying distorted octahedral geometry by binding through three sets of N, O- donor atoms, present in each pendant arm of the central tris-cyclohexaneamine tripod.

Keywords: complexes, DFT, formation constant, TACH2OX

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186 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

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Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

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185 Osteoprotegerin and Osteoprotegerin/TRAIL Ratio are Associated with Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Mortality among Patients with Renal Failure

Authors: Marek Kuźniewski, Magdalena B. Kaziuk , Danuta Fedak, Paulina Dumnicka, Ewa Stępień, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Władysław Sułowicz

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Background: The high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed especially in those undergoing dialysis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been associated with cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study their role as cardiovascular risk factors in stage 5 CKD patients. Methods: OPG, RANKL and TRAIL concentrations were measured in 69 hemodialyzed CKD patients and 35 healthy volunteers. In CKD patients, cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcium score (CaSc) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum concentration. Cardiovascular and overall mortality data were collected during a 7-years follow-up. Results: OPG plasma concentrations were higher in CKD patients comparing to controls. Total soluble RANKL was lower and OPG/RANKL ratio higher in patients. Soluble TRAIL concentrations did not differ between the groups and OPG/TRAIL ratio was higher in CKD patients. OPG and OPG/TRAIL positively predicted long-term mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular) in CKD patients. OPG positively correlated with AoPWV, CCA-IMT and NT-proBNP whereas OPG/TRAIL with AoPWV and NT-proBNP. Described relationships were independent of classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors, with exception of age. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the role of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular dysfunction and a predictor of mortality in stage 5 CKD. OPG/TRAIL ratio can be proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality.

Keywords: osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease

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184 Modified Acetamidobenzoxazolone Based Biomarker for Translocator Protein Mapping during Neuroinflammation

Authors: Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Neelam Kumari, Anil Mishra

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The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) previously called as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is proven biomarker for variety of neuroinflammation. TSPO is tryptophane rich five transmembranal protein found on outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid synthesising and immunomodulatory cells. In case of neuronal damage or inflammation the expression level of TSPO get upregulated as an immunomodulatory response. By utilizing Benzoxazolone as a basic scaffold, series of TSPO ligands have been designed followed by their screening through in silico studies. Synthesis has been planned by employing convergent methodology in six high yielding steps. For the synthesized ligands the ‘in vitro’ assay was performed to determine the binding affinity in term of Ki. On ischemic rat brain, autoradiography studies were also carried to check the specificity and affinity of the designed radiolabelled ligand for TSPO.Screening was performed on the basis of GScore of CADD based schrodinger software. All the modified and better prospective compound were successfully carried out and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR and HRMS). In vitro binding assay showed best binding affinity Ki = 6.1+ 0.3 for TSPO over central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) Ki > 200. ARG studies indicated higher uptake of two analogues on the lesion side compared with that on the non-lesion side of ischemic rat brains. Displacement experiments with unlabelled ligand had minimized the difference in uptake between the two sides which indicates the specificity of the ligand towards TSPO receptor.

Keywords: TSPO, PET, imaging, Acetamidobenzoxazolone

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183 Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed ligand complexes of Bipyridyl and Glycine with Different Counter Anions as Functional Antioxidant Enzyme Mimics

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Gaber A. M. Mersal, Salih Al-Juaid, Samir A. El-Shazly

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A series of mixed ligand complexes, viz., [Cu(BPy)(Gly)X]Y {X = Cl (1), Y = 0; X = 0, Y = ClO4- (2); X = H2O, Y = NO3- (3); X = H2O, Y = CH3COO- (4); and [Cu(BPy)(Gly)-(H2O)]2(SO4) (5) have been synthesized. Their structures and properties were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal analaysis, IR, UV–vis, and ESR spectroscopy, as well as electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry, electrical molar conductivity, and magnetic moment measurements. Complexes 1 and 2 formed slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometries of CuN3OCl and CuN3O2, respectively in which the N,O-donor glycine and N,N-donor bipyridyl bind at the basal plane with chloride ion or water as the axial ligand. Complex 3 shows square planar CuN3O coordination geometry, which exhibits chemically significant hydrogen bonding interactions besides showing coordination polymer formation. The superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities of all complexes were tested and were found to be promising candidates as durable electron-transfer catalyst being close to the efficiency of the mimicking enzymes displaying either catalase or tyrosinase activity to serve for complete reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, both with respect to superoxide radicals and related peroxides. The DNA binding interaction with super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA was investigated by using spectral (absorption and emission) titration and electrochemical techniques. The results revealed that DNA intercalate with complexes 1 and 2 through the groove binding mode. The calculated intrinsic binding constant (Kb) of 1 and 2 were 4.71 and 2.429 × 105 M−1, respectively. Gel electrophoresis study reveals the fact that both complexes cleave super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA to nicked and linear forms in the absence of any additives. On the other hand, the interaction of both complexes with DNA, the quasi-reversible CuII/CuI redox couple slightly improves its reversibility with considerable decrease in current intensity. All the experimental results indicate that the bipyridyl mixed copper(II) complex (1) intercalate more effectively into the DNA base pairs.

Keywords: enzyme mimics, mixed ligand complexes, X-ray structures, antioxidant, DNA-binding, DNA cleavage

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182 Electrochemical/Electro-Catalytic Applications of Novel Alcohol Substituted Metallophthalocyanines

Authors: Ipek Gunay, Efe B. Orman, Metin Ozer, Bekir Salih, Ali R. Ozkaya

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Phthalocyanines with macrocyclic ring containing at least three heteroatoms have nine or more membered structures. Metal-free phthalocyanines react with metal salts to obtain chelate complexes. This is one of the most important features of metal-free phthalocyanine as ligand structure. Although phthalocyanines have very similar properties with porphyrins, they have some advantages such as lower cost, easy to prepare, and chemical and thermal stability. It’s known that Pc compounds have shown one-electron metal-and/or ligand-based reversible or quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation processes. The redox properties of phthalocyanines are critically related to the desirable properties of these compounds in their technological applications. Thus, Pc complexes have also been receiving increasing interest in the area of fuel cells due to their high electrocatalytic activity in dioxygen reduction and fuel cell applications. In this study, novel phthalocyanine complexes coordinated with Fe(II) and Co (II) to be used as catalyst were synthesized. Aiming this goal, a new nitrile ligand was synthesized starting from 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-nitrophthalonitrile in the presence of K2CO3 as catalyst. After the isolation of the new type of nitrile and metal complexes, the characterization of mentioned compounds was achieved by IR, H-NMR and UV-vis methods. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of Pc complexes was identified by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Furthermore, the catalytic performances of Pc complexes for oxygen reduction were tested by dynamic voltammetry measurements, carried out by the combined system of rotating ring-disk electrode and potentiostat, in a medium similar to fuel-cell working conditions.

Keywords: phthalocyanine, electrocatalysis, electrochemistry, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry

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181 The Prodomain-Bound Form of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 10 is Biologically Active on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Austin Jiang, Richard M. Salmon, Nicholas W. Morrell, Wei Li

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BMP10 is highly expressed in the developing heart and plays essential roles in cardiogenesis. BMP10 deletion in mice results in embryonic lethality due to impaired cardiac development. In adults, BMP10 expression is restricted to the right atrium, though ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by increased BMP10 expression in a rat hypertension model. However, reports of BMP10 activity in the circulation are inconclusive. In particular it is not known whether in vivo secreted BMP10 is active or whether additional factors are required to achieve its bioactivity. It has been shown that high-affinity binding of the BMP10 prodomain to the mature ligand inhibits BMP10 signaling activity in C2C12 cells, and it was proposed that prodomain-bound BMP10 (pBMP10) complex is latent. In this study, we demonstrated that the BMP10 prodomain did not inhibit BMP10 signaling activity in multiple endothelial cells, and that recombinant human pBMP10 complex, expressed in mammalian cells and purified under native conditions, was fully active. In addition, both BMP10 in human plasma and BMP10 secreted from the mouse right atrium were fully active. Finally, we confirmed that active BMP10 secreted from mouse right atrium was in the prodomain-bound form. Our data suggest that circulating BMP10 in adults is fully active and that the reported vascular quiescence function of BMP10 in vivo is due to the direct activity of pBMP10 and does not require an additional activation step. Moreover, being an active ligand, recombinant pBMP10 may have therapeutic potential as an endothelial-selective BMP ligand, in conditions characterized by loss of BMP9/10 signaling.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10), endothelial cell, signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)

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180 Modulation of Receptor-Activation Due to Hydrogen Bond Formation

Authors: Sourav Ray, Christoph Stein, Marcus Weber

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A new class of drug candidates, initially derived from mathematical modeling of ligand-receptor interactions, activate the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) preferentially at acidic extracellular pH-levels, as present in injured tissues. This is of commercial interest because it may preclude the adverse effects of conventional MOR agonists like fentanyl, which include but are not limited to addiction, constipation, sedation, and apnea. Animal studies indicate the importance of taking the pH value of the chemical environment of MOR into account when designing new drugs. Hydrogen bonds (HBs) play a crucial role in stabilizing protein secondary structure and molecular interaction, such as ligand-protein interaction. These bonds may depend on the pH value of the chemical environment. For the MOR, antagonist naloxone and agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) form HBs with ionizable residue HIS 297 at physiological pH to modulate signaling. However, such interactions were markedly reduced at acidic pH. Although fentanyl-induced signaling is also diminished at acidic pH, HBs with HIS 297 residue are not observed at either acidic or physiological pH for this strong agonist of the MOR. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide greater insight into the interaction between the ligand of interest and the HIS 297 residue. Amino acid protonation states are adjusted to the model difference in system acidity. Unbiased and unrestrained MD simulations were performed, with the ligand in the proximity of the HIS 297 residue. Ligand-receptor complexes were embedded in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer to mimic the membrane environment. The occurrence of HBs between the different ligands and the HIS 297 residue of MOR at acidic and physiological pH values were tracked across the various simulation trajectories. No HB formation was observed between fentanyl and HIS 297 residue at either acidic or physiological pH. Naloxone formed some HBs with HIS 297 at pH 5, but no such HBs were noted at pH 7. Interestingly, DAMGO displayed an opposite yet more pronounced HB formation trend compared to naloxone. Whereas a marginal number of HBs could be observed at even pH 5, HBs with HIS 297 were more stable and widely present at pH 7. The HB formation plays no and marginal role in the interaction of fentanyl and naloxone, respectively, with the HIS 297 residue of MOR. However, HBs play a significant role in the DAMGO and HIS 297 interaction. Post DAMGO administration, these HBs might be crucial for the remediation of opioid tolerance and restoration of opioid sensitivity. Although experimental studies concur with our observations regarding the influence of HB formation on the fentanyl and DAMGO interaction with HIS 297, the same could not be conclusively stated for naloxone. Therefore, some other supplementary interactions might be responsible for the modulation of the MOR activity by naloxone binding at pH 7 but not at pH 5. Further elucidation of the mechanism of naloxone action on the MOR could assist in the formulation of cost-effective naloxone-based treatment of opioid overdose or opioid-induced side effects.

Keywords: effect of system acidity, hydrogen bond formation, opioid action, receptor activation

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179 Engineering Ligand-Free Biodegradable-Based Nanoparticles for Cell Attachment and Growth

Authors: Simone F. Medeiros, Isabela F. Santos, Rodolfo M. Moraes, Jaspreet K. Kular, Marcus A. Johns, Ram Sharma, Amilton M. Santos

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Tissue engineering aims to develop alternatives to treat damaged tissues by promoting their regeneration. Its basic principle is to place cells on a scaffold capable of promoting cell functions, and for this purpose, polymeric nanoparticles have been successfully used due to the ability of some macro chains to mimic the extracellular matrix and influence cell functions. In general, nanoparticles require surface chemical modification to achieve cell adhesion, and recent advances in their synthesis include methods for modifying the ligand density and distribution onto nanoparticles surface. However, this work reports the development of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles capable of promoting cellular adhesion without any surface chemical modification by ligands. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles were small in size (85 and 125 nm) and colloidally stable against time in aqueous solution. Morphology evaluation showed their spherical shape with small polydispersity. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured in the presence of PHBHV nanoparticles, and growth kinetics were compared to those grown on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Cell attachment on non-tissue culture polystyrene (non-TCPS) pre-coated with nanoparticles was assessed and compared to attachment on TCPS. These findings reveal the potential of PHBHV nanoparticles for cell adhesion and growth, without requiring a matrix ligand to support cells, to be used as scaffolds, in tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: tissue engineering, PHBHV, stem cells, cellular attachment

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178 Calcium Complexing Properties of Isosaccharinate Ion in Highly Alkaline Environment

Authors: Csilla Dudás, Éva Böszörményi, Bence Kutus, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos

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In this study the behavior of alpha-D-isosaccharinate (2-hydroxymethyl-3-deoxy-D-erythro-pentonate, ISA−) in alkaline medium in the presence of calcium was studied. At first the Ca–ISA system was studied by Ca-ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) in neutral medium at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl to determine the formation constant of the CaISA+ monocomplex, which was found to be logK = 1.01 ± 0.01 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– = CaISA+. In alkaline medium pH potentiometric titrations were carried out to determine the composition and stability constant of the complex(es) formed. It was found that in these systems above pH = 12.5 the predominant species is the CaISAOH complex. Its formation constant was found to be logK = 3.04 ± 0.05 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– + H2O = CaISAOH + H+ at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl. Solubility measurements resulted in data consistent with those of the potentiometric titrations. Temperature dependent NMR spectra showed that the slow exchange range between the complex and the free ligand is below 5 °C. It was also showed that ISA– acts as a multidentate ligand forming macrochelate Ca-complexes. The structure of the complexes was determined by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations.

Keywords: Ca-ISE potentiometry, calcium complexes, isosaccharinate ion, NMR spectroscopy, pH potentiometry

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177 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin

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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

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